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Oceanography and Sea Fisheries, W. A. HERDMAN, 209

Oersted's Discovery, 288

Office of Development Work, 219

Ohio, Academy of Science, E. L. RICE, 136; State
University, Department of Chemistry, 438
Oil, Origin of, C. W. WASHBURNE, 60
Opalinidae, Classification of, M. M. METCALF, 135
Oriental Institute, Acquisitions, 402
Orientals and Occidentals, Meeting, 103
Ornithologists' Union, Amer., 78, 437, 555
Orthogenesis among Fishes, D. S. JORDAN, 13
Orton Memorial Library, 439

Ostrich, Mutations in, J. E. DUERDEN, 165

Paleontology and Pragmatism, E. W. BERRY, 529 PALMER, C. S., Reversal of Sodium Line, 176 Pantel, Joseph, J. H. FOULQUIER, S. J., 266 PAPPENHEIMER, A. M., Winternitz on Pathology of War and War Gas Poisoning, 367

PARSONS, C. L., Amer. Chem. Soc., 158, 183, 206, 230, 254, 276, 297, 319, 345, 369, 390, 414, 564, 588, 612, 642

PARTRIDGE, E. A., Galileo's Experiment, 272 Pasteur, History of a Mind, L. R. JONES, 15; Institute of Paris, 484

PATTERSON, J. T., Roof Rat, 249

PEARSON, K., Institutes of Anthropology, 371
Pennsylvania, University of, Lectures, 460

PETER, A. M., Kentucky Academy of Science, 41
Philadelphia Acad. of Nat. Sci., 633

Philosophy and Ethics of Research and Publication, F. PLACE, JR., 583 Phosphates in Morocco, 484

Physical, Constants of the Ocean, G. F. McEWEN, 62; Soc., Amer., 577 Physiological Reviews, 459

PIKE, F. H., Efferent Path of Nervous System, 111

Pillsbury on Psychology of Nationality and Internationalism, H. L. HOLLINGWORTH, 511

PLACE, F., JR., Philosophy and Ethics of Research and Publication, 583

Plant, Disease Organisms, R. B. HARVEY, 84; Pa-
thology at the Brooklyn Botanical Garden, 576
Plants, Uses of by Indians, O. A. STEVENS, 99
Mirages, 290; Road Reflections, 467
Pleistocene Clays, H. L. FAIRCHILD, 284
Positive Ray Analysis of Magnesia, A. J. DEMP-
STER, 559

Postglacial Time, H. A. GLEASON, 340

Potential Difference in Electric Cell, N. A. KENT,


POWERS, E. B., Naples Zoological Station, 323
Pricer, John Lossen, H. J. VAN CLEAVE, 242
Proteins and Colloid Chemistry, J. LOEB, 449
Protozoa in Sawdust, C. W. STILES, 315
Psychology, Physical Measurements in, A. P.

Quotations, 15, 37, 109, 273, 292, 341, 387

Radicalism and Research, N. E. STEVENS, 25; W. H. HOBBS, 177

Radium Emanation, S. C. LIND, 640

Rat, Roof, J. T. PATTERSON, 249

Rational System of Units, E. Q. ADAMS, 527
REED, H. S., Plight of Scientific Periodicals, 466
Registrar General, Report of, 54

Relation between Mechanical, Chemical and Elec-
trical Quantities, C. HERING, 509
REMSEN, I., Harmon Northrup Morse, 497
Reprints from Scientific Institutions, P. M. MONT-

Research, and Radicalism, N. E. STEVENS, 25; W. H. HOBBS, 177; Biochemical, 37; and the College Teacher, L. D. WELD, 45; Cotton, 76; Council, National, 77, 379, 402; Medical, T. C. ALLBUTT, 115; Chemical, France and England, 148; in Colleges and Carnegie Foundation, L. A. ROGERS, 176; Chemical, in India, 217; North American Forest, 218; Aviation, 267; and Agriculture, W. P. THOMPSON, 301; Tropical, F. S. EARLE, 363; Spirit of Average Man, J. C. MERRIAM, 473; Problems, C. T. BRUES, 492; Forest, Survey of, 532; in France, Italy, Belgium and Japan, 400

RICE, E. L., Ohio Acad. of Sci., 136
RICH, A. R., Blood Coagulation, 38

RICKETT, H. W., Flora of Lake Mendota, 641
Righi, Augusto, A. TROWBRIDGE, 122

Road, Building with Federal Aid, 31; Reflections,
H. S. PLATT, 467

ROBB, E. F., Calcium Metabolism, 510

ROBERTSON, J. K., Spectrum of Mercury Vapor, 386

Rockefeller Institute, 56

ROGERS, L. A., Carnegie Foundation and Research in Colleges, 176

Royal Society, Medals of, 632

Rumania, Men of Science, S. J. MELTZER, 292
Russia, Scientific Men in, S. MORGULIS, 108

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SAUNDERS, F. A., Visible Sound Waves, 442 SCHUCHERT, C., Pan-Pacific Scientific Congress and Bishop Museum, 74; Second Norwegian Arctic Expedition, 131; Silurian and Devonian in Shropshire and France, 339 Science, and the Public, 292; Scientific Teaching of, C. G. MACARTHUR, 347; and the Nation, 585 Scientific, Notes and News, 10, 32, 57, 78, 104, 125, 151, 171, 195, 219, 245, 269, 290, 311, 335, 358, 382, 404, 439, 461, 487, 506, 535, 558, 578, 634; Books, 15, 37, 61, 110, 131, 155, 178, 201, 226, 251, 340, 367, 410, 443, 511, 586, 609; Events, 18, 30, 54, 76, 101, 123, 148, 168, 192, 217, 243, 267, 287, 310, 332, 356, 379, 401, 437, 458, 484, 504, 531, 554, 581, 600, 632; Congress, Pan-Pacific, and Bishop Museum, C. SCHUCHERT, 74; Conference, Pan-Pacific, 286, Resolutions, 325, 352; Matters of Interest in Congress, 102; Men in Russia, S. MORGulis, 108; Reprints, R. M. MACDONALD, 131; Books

in France, 217; Periodicals, Plight of, H. S. REED, 466; Societies meeting at Chicago, 505 Scientists and Upbuilding of Peace, G. W. HERRICK, 93

SCOTT, C. E., Germination of Urophlyctes alfalfa,


Second Norwegian Arctic Expedition, C. SCHUCHERT, 131

SETCHELL, W. A., Geographical Distribution of Marine Algae, 187

Sheldon, Samuel, E. HAUSMANN, 355

SHARP, L. W., Request for Separates, 637
SHELFORD, V. E., Preservation of Wild Life, 464
Shull, A. F., Principles of Animal Biology, H. J.

SHULL, C. A., Sulphur as Fertilizer, 376
Sidewalk Mirage, F. W. MCNAIR, 201

Silurian and Devonian in Shropshire and France,

Singer, C., Greek Science and Modern Science, F. H. GARRISON, 178; Scientific and Medical Manuscripts, F. H. GARRISON, 226

SLONAKER, J. R., Ages of Animals, 134
SLOSSON, E. E., Jonathan Edwards as a Freudian,


SMITH, J. E., Agricultural Geology, 139
Sodium Line, Reversal, C. S. PALMER, 176

Soil, Fertility, R. STEWART, 21; Alkali, F. S. HAR-
RIS, 198

Sound Waves, Visible, F. A. SAUNDERS, 442; Compression of, C. BARUS, 586

Sounds of Splashes, A. T. JONES, 295

South African Association, Bulawayo Meeting of, 555

Spawning, Grounds of the Eel, 192; Season for Mullet, C. H. EDMONDSON, 490

Special Articles, 18, 38, 62, 85, 111, 134, 156, 179, 202, 227, 252, 274, 295, 318, 342, 368, 388, 413, 446, 469, 494, 517, 540, 562, 586, 611 Spectrum of Mercury Vapor, J. K. ROBERTSON,


Spiral Nebulae, C. BARUS, 112

Staining of Plant Pathogen, B. T. DICKSON, 63 Stars, Internal Constitution of, A. S. EDDINGTON,


Static Rejuvenation, C. A. MALOTT, 182

Calcium Metabolism, 318

STEVENS, N. E., Radicalism and Research, 25;
Obligation of Investigator to Library, 223
STEVENS, O. A., Uses of Plants by Indians, 99
STEWART, R., Illinois System of Soil Fertility, 21
STILES, C. W., Protozoa in Sawdust, 315
Sulphur as Fertilizer, C. A. SHULL, 376
Surveying from the Air, E. L. JONES, 574

TANQUARY, M. C., Is Honey a Luxury, 538
Temperature Prediction, G. L. WEST, 61
Teutonic Scientists, Relations with, W. W. CAMP-
BELL, 109

Texas, Explorations in Panhandle, W. K. MOOREHEAD, 339

Thermal Calculations, A. W. FORBES and A. G. WEBSTER, 175

THOMAS, H. E., and R. S. KIRBY, Disease of Wheat, 368

THOMPSON, W. P., Research and Agriculture, 301 THONE, F., and B. E. LIVINGSTON, Atmometers, 85


TIMBIE, W. H., Course in Electrical Engineering at Mass. Inst. Tech., 163

TITCHENER, E. B., Wilhelm Wundt, 500 Titrating Electrometrically, P. E. KLOPSTEG, 18 Tornadoes, C. L. MEISINGER, 293

Toronto, University of, Conference on Recent Advances in Physics, 554

Transverse Vibrations of Rods, A. G. WEBSTER, 154 TROWBRIDGE, A., Augusto Righi, 122

United States, Dimensions and Area, 287; Population of, 382

Universe, Structure of, W. D. MACMILLAN, 67 University and Educational News, 13, 34, 59, 81, 107, 128, 153, 174, 195, 223, 247, 271, 290, 313, 337, 362, 385, 407, 441, 463, 490, 509, 537, 558, 581, 635

Van Beneden, Prof., 55

VAN CLEAVE, H. J., John Lossen Pricer, 242;
Shull, A. F., Principles of Animal Biology, 342
Venereal Diseases, Conference on, 193
Venezuela, Exploration, E. B. WILLIAMSON, 154
Vitamine Requirements of Rat, C. FUNK and H. E.
DUBIN, 447

WARD, H. B., Atlantic and Pacific Salmon, 264
WASHBURNE, C. W., Origin of Oil, 60
WEBSTER, A. G., Transverse Vibrations of Rods,
154; and A. W. FORBES, Thermal Calculations,

WEISS, A. P., Physical Measurements in Psychology, 51

Welch, William Henry, S. FLEXNER, 417

WELD, L. D., College Teacher and Research, 45 WEST, F. L., Long-time Temperature Prediction, 61 WILLEY, A., A Question of Bibliography, 608 WELLS, W. F., Conservation of Quality of Water,


Whale Shark on Florida Coast, E. W. GUDGER, 191 Wheat, Varieties, 268; Disease of, R. S. KIRBY

and H. E. THOMAS, 368; Protein Content of, W. F. GERICKE, 446

WHEELER, W. M., La Vie Psychique des Insectes, C. L. BOUVIER, 443

White Pine Blister Rust, E. G. CHEYNEY, 342 WIELAND, J. R., Recent Lane Shores of the Cretaceous, 537

Wild Life, Preservation of, V. E. SHELFORD, 464 WILLAMAN, J. J., Levulose Sirup, 351

WILLIAMS, S. R., H. H. PLATT and F. F. BURR, Mirages, 290

WILLIAMSON, E. B., Exploration of Venezuela, 154 WILSON, H. V., Anatomical Literature, 178 Wilson, James, 267

Winternitz on Pathology of War and War Gas Poisoning, A. M. PAPPENHEIMER, 367

Wisconsin Academy of Science, T. C. CHAMBERLIN, 1

WOODS, C. D., Directorship of Maine Agricultural Station, 584

Wundt, Wilhelm, E. B. TITCHENER, 500

X-ray Energy acting upon Frogs' Ova, W. M. BALDWIN, 229

Yale University, Honorary Degrees, 10

ZETEK, J., Anopheles Larvæ, 15

Zoology, Medical, in Europe, R. W. HEGNER, 591

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THE event we are met to commemorate
was a quiet one in itself. It took place with-
out noise or pageantry. But none the less,
in the intellectual history of the people of
this commonwealth, it was a signal event.
The founding of the Wisconsin Academy of
Sciences, Arts and Letters, though quite
without the paraphernalia of a great event,
was yet a most distinctive step in the pas-
sage from the first stage in the intellectual
evolution of our people into this, the second


The first stage, it is needless to say, was

that of pioneer development. It began with

the coming of our forefathers into this

goodly land between the Great Lake and

the Great River. The territory was then in

its virgin state, tenanted by the wild life
that had taken possession of it on the re-
treat of the Great Ice Invasion. This first

stage was a period of pioneer struggle and

this struggle almost necessarily delayed

certain forms of scientific and cultural de-

velopment. This pioneer stage continued
not only until the virgin prairies, the wild
meadows, the park-like groves, and the
trackless forests of Wisconsin had been re-

placed by cultivated fields, comfortable

dwellings and prosperous towns, but until

all these had been bound together by a net-
work of roadways and railways that united
the whole into an intercommunicating co-
operative community ready to enter upon a
common organized career in pursuit of its
higher interests.

The second stage could really begin only

when the conditions were thus ripe for unified efforts to develop the higher intellectual, ethical and esthetic interests of the community. I think you will agree with me that no step toward this higher evolution could be more fundamental than the beginning of a concerted endeavor to search out rigorously, to test and to make known the basal truths that conditioned the lives of the Wisconsin people: our habitat, the native life of the land, our material inheritances, our climatic and other physical surroundings, our social and moral conditions, our political institutions, as well as the arts and the literatures that made it possible to use these most effectually. I do not think that the partiality of the occasion leads us beyond the realities, when we regard the founding of the academy as at least the most representative step in this new development. It was of course by no means the only step, nor was it the pioneer step in the transition from primitive conditions to the more mature civilization to which the state has since attained; for, in addition to the effective work of the schools and the churches, which had taken on broader aspects and become more efficient as the passing of primitive conditions permitted, the State Historical Society, the State Agricultural Society, the State Teachers' Association, and other organizations had already taken up their special tasks and had become effective agencies of progress; but, none the less, the founding of the academy was the most representative event in the turn to the new order of things, for, better than any other single event, it typified the coming of a higher order of endeavor, in that its distinctive feature was cooperative research for the common good, and this, I think you will agree, is the most basal and truest index of real progress.

The movement furthermore was a comprehensive one, and altruistic; it was unrelated to special interests. It was entered upon spontaneously in full realization of the sacrificial labors that would be necessary to make the enterprise a real success. And so, in its high purpose and in its sacrificial spirit, this coming together, fifty years ago, of good men from all parts of the state to found an academy whose chief purpose was to facilitate a concerted search for truth for the common good, stands forth as an altogether signal event in the intellectual development of our people.


But before we pass on to review with gratitude and appreciation the work of the founders of the academy, let us pay a passing word of respect to the pioneers who paved the way for the later era. Let us also not altogether pass in silence the native conditions which became our inheritance and which contributed more than perhaps we realize to what Wisconsin now is and is likely to be.

To one who saw the primitive wildness of this region as it was vanishing and who played his little part in the early struggle to replace the unbroken sod with cultivated land, it is a pleasure to recall this early epoch and all that it meant to the founders of the state. The primitive wildness had a charm which no one who saw it can easily forget, and the struggle with this wildness, strenuous as it was, had in it such an imperative call for personal resourcefulness and such a toughening of physical and mental fiber as one would not wish to have escaped. It brought its hard lessons of self-dependence, of adaptation, of courage and of tenacity. It would be a pleasure to dwell at length upon the primitive aspects. of Wisconsin clothed in the charm of its

untouched nativity, but I must confine myself to that one phase which stimulated some of the special intellectual activities which led up to the event we celebrate.

Virgin Wisconsin was a Paradise for the naturalist. Its situation gave it rare advantages. Its latitude placed it in the midBone of the teeming life that migrated annually between the high north and the genial south, while its longitude placed it in a peculiarly rich tract of that zone. The great lake on its eastern border served as a broad blunt wedge which parted the migrating host into two great divisions: on the one hand, the forest lovers who sought the wooded regions of the northeast in summer and the like regions of the southeast in winter; on the other hand, the prairie lovers who preferred the great open plains. Between these there was a middle zone and a middle host formed in part of the overlap of the two other hosts, but in part also of those species which distinctly preferred the border tract of "openings," the parks of interspersed prairie, meadow and woodland, lying between the great forests and the great plains. The southern and western part of Wisconsin was one of the most charming sections of this great border tract of natural parks. Through this parkway there swept northward each spring and southward each fall a mixed multitude of winged life that now, in its depleted state, seems really incredible. The great woods of the north and northeast, with Lake Superior in their rear, tended to shunt this host to the northwest and caused congestion on their front. If I were to try to tell you in specific terms of the richness and variety of life in springtime, as I remember it, I fear you would feel impelled to call into service the famous mot of Von Buch: "I am glad you saw that; for if I had seen it, I would not have believed it."

Out of the irresistible attractions of the native life of the air, the woodlands, the grove-encircled prairies, the meadows, the marshes, the limpid streams, and the charming lakes of Wisconsin, there grew the first notable stage of spontaneous scientific activity, the stage of the enthusiastic naturalist. It was quite in the natural order of things that where personal conditions favored, as among surveyors like Lapham and among doctors of wide country practise like Hoy, there should arise enthusiastic students of the rich fauna and the flora of the region, as also of the land that lay beneath and of the sky that hung overhead. This stage of naturalistic enthusiasm reached its climax somewhat before the general conditions in the state were ripe for the founding of the academy; and so the pioneer naturalists of Wisconsin, particularly Lapham and Hoy, may be regarded as the forefathers of the academy quite as truly as its founders. Though the naturalist stage had already somewhat declined when the time for the inauguration of the academy had come, it was a very essential preliminary to the founding of the acad



The thirties, the forties and the early fifties of the last century were eminently pioneer days. With the 'sixties came the Civil War, and with the mid-sixties, its close. It left the natural aftermath of war, diverse currents and counter currents of thought and feeling setting in devious directions on the one hand, a desire for peace and rest, for cessation of serious thought, for physical, mental and even moral relaxation; on the other hand, when these first desires were in some measure satisfied, a resumption of the tension that had become habitual in the war, a new impulse to tenacious pursuit, a new will to

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