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paratory courses unless they are taken before the doctorate is completed. Every psychologist recognizes his own limitations in applied physical measurements and a course as outlined by Dr. Klopsteg would do much toward extending the limits for the younger men.

In the writer's opinion the best time for taking such a course is before the student has begun experimental work on the problem which is to be the basis for his dissertation. At this time the question of method is uppermost and the problem has already been outlined. If the student is working on apparatus this is the time that the advice of the professor of applied physical measurements is of greatest benefit. These conditions arise in the first year of graduate work, or in a few cases, during the senior year. The course itself, however, should be under the supervision of the graduate school.

Of the seventeen types of physical measurements suggested by Dr. Klopsteg2 the following would form an excellent background for the experimental psychologist: (1) The accurate measurement of long and short time intervals. (2) Measurement of temperatures by methods other than that of the mercury thermometer. (3) Temperature regulation and control. (4) Precision calorimetry. (5) The microscope and reading telescope. (6) Spectroscopic analysis. (7) Colorimetry and photometry. (8) The galvanometer. (9) Electrical measurements, both alternating and direct. (10) Graphic and smoke records.

With a practical knowledge of the use of these methods the student is qualified to undertake almost any problem in experimental psychology with the assurance that he is using the most approved methods of measuring his conditions and results.



GENERAL WILLIAM C. GORGAS WILLIAM CRAWFORD GORGAS, Surgeon General, U. S. Army, during the four years of the European War, 1914-18, and well-known for

2 SCIENCE, April 29, 1919, N. S., 50, 199-202.

his work as chief sanitary officer of the Panama Canal, died in London on the early morning of July 4, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. He had sustained a stroke of apoplexy on May 29, lingering for more than a month in hospital with some hope of recovery, but renal complications intervened and he passed away in unconsciousness.

General Gorgas was born at Mobile, Alabama, on October 3, 1854. He was the son of General Josiah Gorgas, Chief of Ordnance of the Confederate Army, and received his earlier education in the South, graduating from the University of the South in 1875. He then went to New York to study medicine, and received his medical degree from Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1879. He was intern at Bellevue Hospital during 187880, and in the last year of his residence in hospital, took an examination for admission to the Medical Corps of the U. S. Army, receiving his commission as surgeon on June 16, 1880. He was promoted captain in 1885 and during the Spanish-American War, served as a major and brigade surgeon of volunteers, receiving his majority in the Regular Army on July 6, 1898. At the close of the SpanishAmerican War, he was appointed Chief Sanitary Officer of Havana, holding this position from 1896 until 1902. In connection with this important detail, it fell to his lot to apply to the sanitation of Havana the discovery of the late Major Walter Reed, that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes, which was accomplished by Reed, as the head of an Army. Board sent to Cuba to investigate yellow fever in 1900-1901. In February, 1901, shortly after Reed's discovery was established, Gorgas began to screen yellow fever patients and to destroy fever-bearing mosquitoes by oiling the surface of all pools or collections of water where they were likely to breed. In three months time, Havana was freed from yellow fever for the first time in nearly two centuries. For this work in eliminating the disease from Havana, Gorgas was made a colonel and assistant surgeon general by special act of Congress on March 9, 1903. On March 1, 1904, he was appointed chief sanitary officer

of the Panama Canal, where he carried out the same line of work in the cleaning up the Isthmus. When the French, under de Lesseps, began to work on the Panama Canal in 1880, the Isthmus was one of the plague-spots of the world and during their nine years of occupation, they lost 22,189 laborers from disease. When the United States government took charge of the Canal in 1904, the death rate was high and a yellow fever epidemic was going on. In less than a year yellow fever was wiped out and there has not been a single case since May, 1906. Gorgas was made a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission in 1907, and remained in charge of sanitation until the winter of 1913, when he went to South Africa, at the invitation of the Chamber of Mines of Johannesburg, to investigate the high death rate from pneumonia among the natives working in the mines of the Rand. By applying the army methods of increasing the air space of sleeping quarters the death rate was materially lowered. He was appointed surgeon general of the U. S. Army on January 16, 1914, and was given the rank of major general in 1915. In 1916, he spent several month in South America in making a preliminary survey of localities still infested with yellow fever the "endemic foci" of the disease, for the Rockefeller Foundation. Upon his retirement from active duty in the Army in the fall of 1918, he resumed this work and had just started upon an investigation of the African foci at the time of his death. If completed, this work may result in the eradication of yellow fever from the globe. General Gorgas conducted the administration of the Surgeon General's Office in Washington during the war period, and shortly before his retirement, accompanied the secretary of war to France. He was a member of many medical societies and received many honors during his life. He was awarded gold medals by the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine in 1907, by the American Museum of Safety in 1914, and shortly before his death was decorated by King Albert of Belgium and knighted by King George IV. In March, 1914, he received the degree of doctor of

science from the University of Oxford. General Gorgas was a man of attractive character, and highly popular with the medical profession. In 1885, he married Miss Marie C. Doughty, of Cincinnati, Ohio, who survives him with a daughter. He was the author of many articles on the subject of yellow fever. M. W. IRELAND,

Surgeon General, U. S. Army



THE eighty-first annual report of the Registrar General which deals with the births, deaths and marriages in England and Wales for the year 1918, has been issued.

According to an abstract in the London Times the report shows that the marriage rate was 15.3 per 1,000, being 1.5 above the low rate in the preceding year (13.8), and 0.1 below the average in the last 10 years, 1905-1914, which were unaffected by war conditions (15.4). The provisional figures for 1919 indicate a further rise to 19.7 per 1,000, the highest rate on record.

The birth-rate in 1918 was 17.7 per 1,000, being the lowest on record. This rate was 0.1 per 1,000 below that recorded for 1917, and 6.1 below that for 1914, which, particularly so far as the birth-rate was concerned, might be regarded as the last year unaffected by war conditions. Even this large reduction, however, amounting in all to nearly 26 per cent. in 1918 as compared with 1914, was believed to compare very favorably with the experience of other belligerent countries. The provisional figures for 1919 indicate a recovery, showing an increase of 0.8 per 1,000.

The civilian death-rate in 1918 was 17.6 per 1,000, being 3.2 above the rate in the preceding year. The increased mortality was due to the epidemic of influenza. Apart from this, the year was one of extraordinary healthiness. The provisional figures for 1919 indicate a fall of about 3.8 per 1,000, notwithstanding the continuance of the epidemic into the early part of the year.

Infantile mortality was 97 per thousand

births, being one per thousand above the rate in the preceding year, but 10 per thousand below the average of the 10 years 1908-17. It is one of the four lowest rates hitherto recorded. The provisional figures for 1919 show a rate of 89 per thousand births, or two per thousand births below that of 1916, which at 91 per thousand was the lowest hitherto returned.

The estimate of the total civilian population for the whole of England and Wales is given as 13,777,100 civilian males and 19,697,600 females, making a total of 33,474,700 persons. The marriages during the year numbered 287,163, and the marriage rates of 51.9 for males and 41.0 for females represented a considerable advance on the low records of the previous year.

The births registered during 1918 numbered 662,661, or 5,685 fewer than in the previous year, during which 210,750 fewer births had been registered than in 1914, while the deaths of 611,861 were registered during the same period. Of the deaths, 314,704 were of males and 297,157 of females. The males included 24,033 non-civilians.

THE WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF GOLD THE Geological Survey has given out some preliminary figures showing the promotion of gold throughout the world in 1919. The production in the United States was $58,285,196; Canada is reported to have produced $14,687,000; India $10,028,000; Australia (not including New Zealand or the Islands), $29,268,000; the Transvaal, $171,640,123; Rhodesia and West Africa, $18,631,070. There was a probably large decrease in the production of gold in Russia and Siberia in 1919. Some increase was probably made in the output of Central America and South America, which however, was doubtless offset by decreases in the output of other countries. The incomplete returns now available indicate that the world's production of gold in 1919 was be tween $345,000,000 and $350,000,000. The world's production in 1918 amounted to $380,924,500.

The survey further states that information

received during the first six months of 1920 indicated a still further decrease in the production of gold in the United States and that the output for the year will probably be less than $50,000,000. The production in Alaska, Colorado, California, Oregon and Montana will be much less in 1920 than it was in 1919, because water is very short for placer mining and many stamp mills are closed. Canada as a whole may increase its output, although the production of the Yukon districts will be smaller than last year. The output of Russia can not be estimated. That of Australia will show a decrease. That of South Africa and South America will probably show no radical decrease. According to the survey the indications are that the decrease in the world's production of gold in 1920 will not be so great as it was in 1919.

PROFESSOR VAN BENEDEN of Liége A LIFE-SIZED bronze statue of Van Beneden, professor of zoology in the University of Liége, who died four years ago, was unveiled on May 24. The statue stands at the entrance to the Zoological Institute where Van Beneden worked and taught for over thirty years. We learn from the British Medical Journal that the ceremony was attended by a large number of his old colleagues, by representatives of other Belgian universities and scientific societies, and by delegates from British universities. Both King Albert and the Belgian Parliament were represented. The representatives of the British universities were Professor Sarolea (Edinburgh), Sir Leslie Mackenzie, of the Local Government Board of Scotland (Aberdeen), and Professor Sir Thomas Oliver (Durham). Professor R. W. Hegner, represented the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. When fully mustered the company marched in procession to the class-room where Van Beneden had taught and in which was gathered a large number of old and present students and his widow and relatives. The Rector was in the chair. Dr. Nolf, professor of pathology in the university, delivered a memorial address, during which a beautifully executed bronze mural tablet, pronounced to

be an excellent likeness, was unveiled. Professor Gravis (botany), M. Lameere (president of the Belgian Royal Academy of Science), Professor Van der Stricht (Ghent), Professor Sarolea (Edinburgh), and Professor Ditmas, successor to the late professor, delivered addresses containing references to the epoch-making researches of the great embryologist and his work upon fecundation and cell reproduction. The speaker who drew the greatest applause was Van der Stricht, who, while pleading for the University of Ghent, insisted upon it retaining its French character as opposed to a purely Flemish institution. When he had finished his address the Rector, rising amidst the applause of the audience, kissed the distinguished Fleming upon both cheeks. Afterwards the audience proceeded to the front entrance, where the full-sized statue in bronze was unveiled. A luncheon, attended by several of the delegates and the rector of the university, followed.


THE board of scientific directors of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research announces the election of Dr. Winthrop J. V. Osterhout as a member of the board of scientific directors to succeed Dr. Theodore C. Janeway, deceased.

The following promotions and appointments are announced:

Dr. Alfred E. Cohn, hitherto an associate member in medicine, has been made a member. Dr. Peyton Rous, hitherto an associate member in pathology and bacteriology, has been made a member.

Dr. Donald D. Van Slyke, hitherto an associate member in chemistry, has been made a member. Dr. Francis G. Blake, hitherto an associate in medicine, has been made an associate member. Dr. John H. Northrop, hitherto an associate in experimental biology, has been made an associate member.

Dr. James H. Austin, hitherto an assistant in medicine, has been made an associate.

Dr. Harry W. Graybill, hitherto an assistant in the department of animal pathology, has been made an associate.

Dr. William C. Stadie, hitherto an assistant in medicine, has been made an associate.

The following have been made assistants: Miss Helen L. Fales (chemistry).

Dr. Philip D. McMaster (pathology and bacteriology).

Miss Marion L. Orcutt (animal pathology).

The following appointments are announced: Dr. Harry Clark, associate member in pathology and bacteriology.

Dr. Pierre L. du Nouy, associate member in experimental surgery.

Dr. Paul H. de Kruif, associate in pathology and bacteriology.

Dr. Lloyd D. Felton, associate in pathology and bacteriology.

Dr. Rudolf W. Glaser, associate in the department of animal pathology.

Dr. Carl A. L. Binger, assistant in medicine.
Dr. Ralph H. Boots, assistant in medicine.
Dr. Louis A. Mikeska, assistant in chemistry.
Dr. Charles P. Miller, Jr., assistant in medicine.
Dr. Eugene V. Powell, assistant in X-ray.
Dr. Leslie T. Webster, assistant in pathology and

Dr. Goronwy O. Broun, fellow in pathology and bacteriology.

Miss Katharine M. Dougherty, fellow in pathology and bacteriology.

Mr. Thomas J. Le Blanc, fellow in pathology and bacteriology.

Dr. Giovanni Martinaglia, fellow in the department of animal pathology.

Mr. Henry S. Simms, fellow in chemistry.

Dr. Marshall A. Barber, hitherto an associate in pathology and bacteriology, has accepted a position with the U. S. Public Health Service to do field work in the Malaria Research Laboratory, Memphis, Tennessee.

Miss Angelia M. Courtney, hitherto an associate in chemistry, has accepted an appointment to do chemical work in the Medical School of the University of Toronto.

Dr. Carl Ten Broeck, hitherto an associate in the Department of Animal Pathology, has accepted an appointment as associate professor of bacteriology with the Peking Union Medical College.

Mr. Earl P. Clark, hitherto an assistant in

chemistry, has accepted a position with the Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C.

Dr. Ferdinand H. Haessler, hitherto an assistant in pathology and bacteriology, has accepted an appointment as resident pathologist in the Department for Nervous and Mental Diseases in the Pennsylvania Hospital at Philadelphia.

Dr. Arthur B. Lyon, hitherto an assistant in medicine, has resigned to enter private practise.

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS THE University of Wisconsin has conferred the degree of doctor of laws on Dr. Alonzo E. Taylor, professor of physiological chemistry, at the University of Pennsylvania, and the degree of doctor of science on Dr. Joel Stebbins, professor of astronomy at the University of Illinois.

THE degree of doctor of science was conferred on Dr. C. C. Adams, director of the Roosevelt Wild Life Forest Experiment Station at the college of forestry of Syracuse University by Illinois Wesleyan University, on the twenty-fifth anniversary of its founding.

PROFESSOR JOHN W. TOWNEY, dean of the Yale Forest School received the degree of LL.D., at the commencement exercises of the New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University.

THE University of Vermont has conferred the degree of LL.D., on Dr. Edward G. Spaulding, professor of philosophy in Princeton University.

THE University of St. Andrews has conferred the degree of LL.D., on Dr. Leon Frederica, for nearly forty years professor of pathology in the University of Liége, Belgium; on Mr. W. J. Matheson, president of the biological laboratory of the Brooklyn Institute, and scientific adviser in chemistry to the Board of Health for the city of New York, and on Dr. Norman Walker, inspector of anatomy for Scotland and direct representative of the profession in Scotland on the General Medical Council, and on Dr. Norman

Kemp, Smith professor of logic and metaphysics at the University of Edinburgh.

THE Association of American Physicians has elected as honorary members: Sir Clifford Allbutt, University of Cambridge, M. Roux, until recently director of the Pasteur Institute, Paris, Professor Heger of Brussels, and Professor Marchiafava of Rome.

Ar the meeting of the Linnean Society on May 27 the gold medal of the society was handed by the president to Sir Ray Lankester, to whom it had been awarded by the presiIdent and council.

DR. J. G. ADAMI, vice-chancellor of the University of Liverpool, and lately Strathcona professor of pathology and bacteriology in McGill University, has been elected to an honorary fellowship at Christ's College, Cambridge, of which he was formerly a scholar.

DR. E. F. LADD, president of the North Dakota Agricultural College, and previously professor of chemistry, has been nominated by the Republican party for the senate in place of Senator Gronna. Dr. Ladd was the candidate of the Non-Partisan League.

DR. HENRY KRAEMER, dean of the school of pharmacy of the University of Michigan, has resigned. He will continue his investigations on the cultivation of medicinal plants and the nature and distribution of color in plants.

DR. E. F. NORTHRUP has resigned from Princeton University as assistant professor of physics, having been elected vice-president and technical adviser of the recently organized Ajax Electrothermic Corporation, of Trenton, N. J., which manufacturers the high frequency induction furnace which he developed in the Palmer Physical Laboratory.

DR. E. W. GUDGER, after fourteen years service as professor of biology in the North Carolina College for Women, Greensboro, N. C., has resigned. During the coming year he will be at the American Museum of Natural History, associated with Dr. Bashford Dean as editor of Volume III. of the Bibliography of Fishes, Volumes I. and II. of which have already appeared.

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