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species by W. P. Hay, who named it C. bartoni, var. tenebrosus. It is a good species, however, of different general conformation from the species named, with which it does not intergrade. In fact, the surface-water species does not occur in some localities in which this small-eyed species is found. As a valid species it is believed to be entitled to the name Cambarus tenebrosus.

A new phyllopod crustacean from Kentucky: H. GARMAN, Kentucky Experiment Station. Temporary pools in Bluegrass Kentucky sometimes yield in early spring a species of Eubranchipus differing from the common species (E. vernalis) of eastern states and also from those found in Illinois and other middle states. The name Eubranchipus neglectus is assigned to it. During the thirty years it has been known to the author it has diminished in numbers, owing to changing conditions, and seems likely to become extinct; it has, in fact, disappeared in certain pools where thousands could have been secured twenty-five years ago.

Studies in the etiology of infectious abortion in live stock: E. S. GOOD, Kentucky Experiment Station. Bacillus abortus Bang is the organism causing the disease in the cow, in the United States, the same as in foreign countries. In 1911, a bacillus was isolated at the Kentucky Station from an aborted foal which we placed in Sub-group 2 of the Colon-typhoid group, which was found to be the cause of the disease in mares and jennets in Kentucky. Since that time, this germ has been found to be the causative agent of the disease in different states of this country, also in Canada, Holland and Sweden. Our results in immunizing mares against the disease are encouraging. Our investigations, so far, show that the Bacillus abortus Bang is the causative agent of the disease in sows.

Mineral constituents of the paired seeds of cocklebur: J. S. MOHARGUE, Kentucky Experiment Station. The impression is general that one of the two seeds of a cocklebur (Xanthium) will germinate the first spring after maturity and the second will remain dormant until the second spring thereafter. Previous investigators have attributed this apparent dormancy to inherent differences in the embryos and the seed coats. The writer finds that both seeds, if well developed, will germinate at approximately the same time, if they are removed from the burs and planted in moist sand. If allowed to remain in the burs, only one seed germinates until the bur disintegrates and decays, when the second seed will germinate. The mineral

constituents contained in the two seeds were found to be practically the same. The large seeds average about 65. mgs. and the small seeds about 45. mgs. The large seeds produce larger seedlings. This is accounted for by the fact that a large seed contains much more plant food than a small


Hydrogen ion concentration and biological reactions: D. J. HEALY, Kentucky Experiment Station. The fundamental importance of hydrogen ion concentration in the study of colloids, gels, enzymes and microbes was pointed out and illustrated by exhibits. An organic colloidal liquid at pH7.8 could not be past through a Pasteur-Chamberland F. bougie, but on adjusting the value to pH2, it passed easily. A 10 per cent. bacto-gelatin at pH5 formed a perfect gel, but with acidity equal to N/2 HCl or alkalinity of pH10, there was no gel. The oxidase of raw potato or apple was quite active at pH1.7, as shown by change in color of slices exposed to the air, but when fresh slices were soaked 15 minutes in water adjusted to pH1 and pH1.4, respectively, they dried in the air, without material change of color. A bacillus isolated from the afterbirth from a mare grew readily on agar slants of pH6.8 but failed to grow on similar slants at pH6.4.

A study of inheritance of coat colors in Jersey cattle: J. J. HOOPER, University of Kentucky. Studies of inheritance of Jersey cattle coat colors by the author show that white spots are recessive to dominant solid color, and a white tongue and tail-switch also are recessive. Colors of 1,145 calves were tabulated and compared with those of their 2,290 sires and dams. Some bulls studied seemed to be pure dominants, as their calves were all solid in color, although as many as a hundred were sired by each bull. It was found that 66 per cent. of Jersey cattle are solid in color and have black tongue and switch, while 12 per cent. are broken and have white tongue and switch; 3.6 per cent. are solid and have white tongue and black switch, etc.

Animal versus vegetable proteins in the ration of laying hens: J. HOLMES MARTIN, Kentucky Experiment Station. An experiment, now in its third year is described, in which 4 pens of 25 S. C. White Leghorn pullets, each, are being fed a basic ration of shipstuff and ground oats, supplemented by animal and vegetable protein carriers. The total egg production per pullet for the pen receiving buttermilk was 338 eggs; for that receiving tankage, 268; for that receiving tankage and cotton-seed

meal, 208; and for that receiving cotton-seed meal, 55. On reversing the rations in the cottonseedtankage and cotton-seed pens, the egg production was reversed, showing that the difference in production depended on the ration. All pens received oyster shell, grit and charcoal.

The seed corn situation in Kentucky: W. D. VALLEAU, Kentucky Experiment Station. Investigations carried on at the Kentucky Experiment Station indicate that practically all seed corn in the corn belt is infected with Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, and that this organism is capable of causing a root and stalk rot of corn. Infection on an ear appears not to be localized. Slightly infected seed may show no signs of infection, if grown only for a period of seven or eight days. Reddish discolorations developing in the seed coats during germination are an indication of infection. Seed studied was obtained from Kentucky, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kansas, Arkansas, Missouri and Minnesota.

Veterinary science: W. W. DIMOCK, Kentucky Experiment Station. The author stressed the pressing necessity for research upon the nature and causes of diseases in live stock. He showed that the future of animal industry depended upon the control of animal diseases and that control can be secured only after the cause is known. He cited as an example the need for exact knowledge of the life histories of the internal parasites known as nematodes and showed how extensive are their ravages in horses. He believes that here, in their life history and in their effect on the host, is a field holding great promise to the investigator.

Notes on the rapid analysis of magnesian limestone: S. D. AVERITT, Kentucky Experiment Station. A differential method for the analysis of relatively pure magnesian limestone, without an actual determination of either Ca or Mg, which is quite rapid and sufficiently accurate for agricultural and most other purposes, is described. Determinations to be made are, A, neutralizing power of the limestone against N/2HCl, expressed as CaCO3; B, weight of insoluble matter + NH,OH precipitate, from the same portion. Then


100-B % CaCO3 + MgCO3,

5.35 (A — (100 — B)) = % MgCO ̧. Notes on light and light pressure: C. C. KIPLINGER, Mt. Union College, Alliance, Ohio. Some evidence is presented indicating that mass is not a universal property of light and certain photo

chemical absorption experiments are described which show no measurable increase in weight of the reagents, following the action of light.

Experiments with lime, acid phosphate and soil fungicides on land infested with root-rot disease of tobacco: G. C. ROUTT, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Experiments are described looking to the possible control of the root-rot disease by applications of lime, acid phosphate, mixtures of lime and sulfur, dilute sulfuric acid, land plaster, copper sulfate, potassium polysulfid, gas lime, ferrous sulfate and formaldehyde. Acid phosphate seemed to be very beneficial in some instances, as did sulfuric acid, but the majority of the experiments gave negative results. The author concludes that the disease can not be controlled in this way.

Plant growth: G. D. BUCKNER, Kentucky Experiment Station. Comparative study was made of the translocation of the ash, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium from the cotyledons of germinating garden beans, Phaseolus vulgaris, when grown in distilled water culture and in garden soil. In the distilled water culture 55 per cent. of the original ash, 57 per cent. of the phosphorus, 25 per cent. of the calcium and 59 per cent. of the magnsium was translocated to the seedling, while, in the seedlings grown in garden soil, 91 per cent. of the ash, 92 per cent. of the phosphorus, 78 per cent. of the calcium and 83 per cent. of the magnesium was utilized by the seedling. The abnormal condition caused by the distilled water culture is shown and that less calcium than any of the other elements studied was removed from the cotyledons by the growing seedling is suggestive of its insoluble form in the cotyledons and its structural function.

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Ir is a part of the function of every pro-

gressive institution of learning, not only to

impart knowledge to students, but to do its

share in accumulating knowledge for the

benefit of mankind. To this end, scientific

research in some form is indispensable to the

best attainment of a college.

It is far from my thought to place the im-

portance of research on as high a plane as

that of training character, but it is hoped

that there may appear some elements in

common to the two, and no lack of consist-

ency between them.

It can hardly be doubted that there is such

a thing as a research instinct. A small boy

exhibits it when he picks to pieces a dead

fly, or tries to make ink out of mud, or puts

a firecracker in a glass bottle to see what

will happen. Curiosity is an inseparable in-

gredient of the human make-up, and research

is curiosity directed by a noble purpose and

put to a noble service. There is something

about the acquiring of first-hand knowledge

that stimulates individuality and gives a

sense of personal achievement. And with a

person whose life and activities are chiefly

intellectual, the exercise of this instinct is

as essential to his progress as eating is to his

physical welfare.

One of the sad privations in the life of a

foreign missionary is said to lie in the fact

that he is constantly giving out to those about

him, without having the spiritual refresh-

ment that would be afforded by association

with kindred minds. He is constantly teach-

ing religion to ignorant, undeveloped people,

and longs for someone who will understand

and sympathize with his point of view. Too

often, the teacher of science in the small

1 Address given before the physics luncheon at
the Iowa Academy of Science, April 23, 1920.

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