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wise in the preparation of food, that was found, as Mr. Stanley informs me, a few years since in Holyhead Island, at no great distance from the vestiges of ancient habitations that he has brought under our notice. This object, now unfortunately lost, was a club-shaped stone pestle (fig. 7), measuring in length about 11 in., and ap

Fig. 7. Stone Pounder or Muller found in Holyhead Island.

parently suited for crushing grain or the like, by a process somewhat different to that for which the rubbers and cylindrical stones that have been described were suited. A few other examples of this comparatively rare type of implement are known to me. In the Edinburgh Museum there is a cylindrical-shaped implement of porphyritic stone; the ends are rounded off to blunt points; it measures 11 in. in length, and 21 in. in diameter; it was found with celts of serpentine in a cairn at Daviot, Inverness-shire, where, according to tradition, one of Fingal's battles occurred. This seems to have been one of the stone pestles under consideration, that may have served for grinding grain, or possibly as mauls or rude clubs in close conflict, There is also one in the Museum of the Chichester Philosophical Society, found in digging gravel on Nutbourne Common in the parish of Pulborough, Sussex, near barrows and sites of primitive habitations. It lay in the mould about 18 in. deep, above and distinct from the gravel. Length 11} in., diam. 2 in.? Another, of greenstone, found near Carlisle, length 16 in., was in possession of the late Mr. C. Hodgson, of that place. A specimen of this comparatively uncommon implement is also in the Museum formed at Audley End by the late Lord BrayIt is said that these implements resemble some obtained in shellmounds, at Keiss Bay in Caithness.

1 Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol, vi, p. 179.

2 Catal. of the Museum formed at the meeting of the Archæological Institute, Chichester, 1853, p. 63.

brooke. I lately saw, in the Museum at Zürich, three similar mullers from North America.

It has been stated by Mr. Stanley that a considerable deposit, chiefly consisting of weapons and implements of bronze, was brought to light in 1830, under some large stones near the cyttiau at Ty Mawr. The discovery was brought under the notice of the Society of Antiquaries in 1835, by the late Lord Stanley of Alderley.3 The spot is marked in the Ordnance Map. A portion of the south-west flank of Holyhead Mountain, which had been left in waste, was brought under the plough; in removing one of the hut-circles, the relics here figured were exposed to view. It has been suggested that they appear for the most part to bear resemblance to objects of similar description found in Ireland; this circumstance has been regarded with interest, in connection with the name and the traditions that would ascribe this fortified village of ancient dwellings to Irish occupants. Whilst recognising certain peculiarities that would lead us to regard some of these relics as of Irish types, it must be admitted that they may have been part of the spoils of Hibernian rovers, by whom doubtless the coasts of Anglesey and North Wales were constantly infested; the evidence of such a casual deposit will scarcely justify any inference that might bear on the supposed Irish origin of the cyttiau on Holyhead Mountain, or on the probability of any permanent Irish occupation of the strong position at Ty Mawr. It may seem more reasonable to suppose that the group of dwellings explored by Mr. Stanley may have been in its original intention an outpost to the great British fortress of Caer Gybi, that crowns the summit of the mountain, and have presented an important defence of the approach on that side, as also in a certain degree of the landing-place and small roadstead below. Here many a deadly conflict must have occurred between the occupants of the island

1 Archeologia, vol. xxvi, p. 483. Arch. Journ., vol. vi, p. 236. The “ find” is there said to have occurred about 1831. In the Ordnance Map, 1830 is given as the date of the discovery.

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Scale, two-thirds orig. size.)


Vol. XV.

and the rapacious rover, whether Irish, Dane, or Norwegian.

The relics, shown in the accompanying woodcuts, are as follows:

1. A bronze spear-head, of the leaf-shaped type, beautifully formed, but somewhat decayed, as are also the other bronze objects, by oxidation. Its length is nearly 9 inches, the socket is perforated for a rivet; the blade has feather-edges perfectly worked and symmetrical; the rounded central rib or prolongation of the socket is hollow almost to the point, as shown by a narrow aperture caused by decay of the metal. This weapon closely resembles a specimen in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, figured in Sir W. R. Wilde's Catalogue; spears of the same type, however, rarely so skilfully fabricated, have repeatedly occurred in England.2

11. A plain, leaf-shaped spear-head, of simpler fashion, the point broken. In its present state, its length is nearly 5 inches; the socket is perforated for a rivet. It may deserve notice, that, in deposits where several bronze weapons have occurred together, two or three spears of various sizes have been noticed, as if forming together the customary equipment. On the moiety of a stone mould for casting weapons of bronze, found between Bodwrdin and Tre Ddafydd, in Anglesey, two of the dimidiated matrices were for casting spear-heads, dissimilar however in fashion to those found at Ty Mawr, and in each instance furnished with two side-loops.3

11. A looped and socketed celt, of Irish type, and of

A short distance to the east of Ty Mawr, on or near the boundary of the ancient village of circular huts, a large stone may deserve notice, being kuown as “Maen Bras,” Great Stone, or possibly “Maen Bres,' or Pres,-Stone of the Copper, -on account of certain deposits of bronze or other relics having been there brought to light at some former period.

2 Wilde, Catal. Mus. R. I. A., p. 496, No. 6. Compare an example, somewhat differing in proportions, the socket being very short. It was found in the Thames. Hore Ferales, pl. vi, fig. 29; see also a spear-head found at Nettleham, near Lincoln, figured, Archæol. Journal, vol. xviii, p. 160.

3 This mould is figured, Arch. Journ., vol. iii, p. 257. A similar


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