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its summit, the ridge might be taken for an entrenchment. It is styled a Cist-faen on the ordnance map.

Carn-y-Groes is situated a little more than a mile to the south-east of the Cist-faen on one of the hills which overlook the picturesque little vale of the Dernol. The greater part of the carn is low and covered with grass, but the stones in the centre are piled up in a heap 7 feet high and about 6 yards in circumference. All the before mentioned carns, Plinlimmon and Cader Idris, can be seen from here.

Remains near the line of road on the Llandinam Hills.This line of road leads from Llandrindod by AbbeyCwm-Hir, through Bwlch-y-Sarnau (Pass of the Cause. ways), over the mountains by Polin-Groes-Du and the Giant's grave to Caersws. The route is almost identical with that of an old British trackway. Within the limits of the parish of St. Harmon are several tumuli which have been noticed in Williams's History of Radnorshire. Three quarters of a mile to the north-west of the carn known as Crugyn-Terfyn (situated on the boundary line between Montgomeryshire and Radnorshire) is a tumulus known as Pegwns-Fach. The mound is covered with grass and moss, nearly circular in form, being about 70 yards in circumference and 7 feet in elevation. The carns on Esgair-Ychion are visible from here.

Rather more than half a mile to the north-east by north, on the highest peak of Rhydd-Howel, at an elevation of 1919 feet, is a tumulus known as Pegwns-Fawr. It consists of a low mound some 56 yards in circumference and 3 feet in elevation, upon which was erected some twenty-five or thirty years ago, for the purposes of triangulation, a second mound of conical shape, upon a stone foundation. This has, within the past years, been reduced from its original height of 16 feet to an elevation of 9 feet. In its centre is a pole some 6 yards long, which has been used for signalling purposes ; this beacon station commands a most extensive view.

About a mile to the north, is another circular mound about 52 yards in circumference and five feet in height, known as Domen Du. It is overgrown with grass.

Near the finger post marked on the ordnance map as Polin-grocs-Du, which is only a few yards from the road, is a morind of small stones and earth, 36 yards in circumference and 4 feet in elevation.

A mile to the west of Polin-groes-Du, on the summit of a high hill called the Foel, is a strongly fortified British post. It adapts its form to the shape of the hill, which is exceedingly precipitous on all its sides, little artificial aid being necessary to make the camp inaccessible. Near it is a farm called Cae-Lluest (field of encampment).

A short distance to the north of Polin-groes-Du the roadway bifurcates; one branch leading in the direction of Llandinam village by an oblong mound measuring 13 yards by 5, and about 3 feet in elevation, marked on the ordnance map as a carn ; the other branch leads by a curious work called the Giant's grave and the Moat to Caersws. The Giant's grave consists of two elongated mounds or entrenchments, which cross each other at right angles in the form of a star. It is composed



B A to B, 21 yards. C to D, 21 yards. B to D, 15 yards. of soft earth and is about five feet high at the centre, gradually declining towards each point (see cut).

E. H.




(Continued from p. 334, vol. xiii.)


I.--Carta Willielmi Comitis de Dono S. Palmiferi.

[Mus. Brit. Cart. Harl., 75, A. 8.] Willielmus Comes Gloecestrie vicecomiti suo omnibusque baronibus suis et probis hominibus salutem. Sciatis me dedisse monachis Sancte Marie de Margan Siwardum palmiferum cum domo suo et curtillagio ad hospicium per manum Roberti filii mei liberum et quietum ab omni seculari servicio. Testibus H. Comitissa Gloecestrie. Hamone filio Geuffridi, Constabulario. Huberto Dapifero. Roberto de Almeri, Dapisero. Adam de Eli. Alano de Warnesteda. Elia Clerico. Apud Bristou. [A.D. 1166-1173.]

William, Earl of Gloucester, son of Robert the Consul, founder of the abbey, succeeded in 1147 and died s. p. m. in 1173. He married Hawisia, daughter of Robert Bossu, Earl of Leicester, who is the countess witnessing this charter, and 75 A 9. This is probably the earliest extant charter relating to Margam, the foundation deed being lost.

Robert, through whom Siward was presented, was Earl William's only son, at whose death-bed request the earl founded the Priory of Keynsham, where Robert was buried. The date of the foundation is uncertain, but the charter mentions the Countess Hawisia, Robert's mother, and among the witnesses occur, C., abbot of Margan ; R., abbot of Neath ; Richard de Cardiff, then dapifer; Hamo de Valoniis, constable; William de Caril and Simon his brother. The date of the Margam

charter lies between Robert's death in 1166, and the earl's death in 1173.

II.- Comes Glocestrie de concessione terre Rogeri Sturmi petitione G.

fratris sui. [M.B. Cart. Harl., 75, A. 9.] [Circa 1170.] Willielmus Comes Gloecestrie Vicecomiti suo de Glamorgan et baronibus suis et omnibus hominibus suis Francis et Anglis et Walensibus salutem. Sciatis me concessisse monachis Sancte Marie de Margan donacionem terre quam Galfridus Sturmi et Rogerus filius suus et heres dederunt eis sicut carte eorum testantur. Preterea concedo conventionem factam inter predictos monachos et Rogerum Sturmi de toto residuo terre ipsius Rogeri quam tenet de feudo meo in Margan. Scilicet quod ipsi monachi teneant totam terram illam de Rogero ad perpetuam firmam pro dimidia marca argenti annuatim reddenda pro omni servicio Rogero Sturmi et post decessum Rogeri heredibus suis ita quod Rogerus Sturmi faciat mihi servicium quod facere debet ipse et ante ipsum pater ejus de terra illa. Hanc conventionem concessi et attestatione sigilli mei confirmavi assensu et peticione Galfridi fratris Rogeri cui Abbas dedit marcam argenti et unum pullum pro assensu illius Galfridi et si Rogerus defecerit de servicio quod debet mihi de terra facere in nullo alio me capiam ad monachos nisi de illa dimidia marca quam ipsi monachi debent dare annuatim Rogero pro firma. Testibus, Hawisia Comitissa. Hamone de Valoniis tunc Constabulario. Odone de Tichesia. Symone de Cardif. Roberto filio Gregorii. Gileberto Almari. Roberto Bibois. Widone de Rupe." Gileberto Capellano. Willielmo de Ludwic. Eglin de prb (?)

Sturmi and Esturmi were forms of a name widely spread over England in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and especially known in Wilts, Hants, and the Honour of Gloucester. We here have Galfrid Sturmi and Roger his son contemporary with William, Earl of Gloucester, and his tenants in the earl's fee of Margam, no doubt for what is now called “Stormy. Galfrid, the brother of Roger, is also assenting to his brother's donation. Countess Hawisia occurs as first witness as in 75, A. 8.

Hamo de Valoniis is mentioned by Meyric as Vicecomes in 1188. The title of constable refers of course to Cardiff Castle, which was for centuries governed by such an officer. He is the Hamo who witnessed the

Keynsham foundation charter, and probably the “Hamo filius Geuffredi, constabularius" of 75, A. 8. “ Gilbertus Almar” may be brother of the dapifer “Robertus de Almar."

The above Roger Sturmi also tests a Margam charter 75, B. 27, of about 1200. The transaction recorded here seems to point to the retirement of the family from the country, where they are again but once heard of. “Ecclesia de terra Sturmi occurs in a Margam charter 75, A. 34 of about 1220. III.— Testimonium N. Landavensis episcopi de controversia canonice

terminata inter nos et Ricardum de Kuerdif super terra de Blackescerre.

[Harl. Chart. 75, A. 15.] N. dei gratia Landavensis Episcopus presentibus et futuris salutem.

De his que in nostra facta sunt diocesi verum ut decet testimonium perhibemus. Mota erat aliquando controversia inter Abbatem de Margan et Ricardum de Kardif super terra quadam de Blackescerre que in nostre diocesis canonice determinata capitulo litteris et cartis domini Regis et Comitis et insuper apostolice sedis privilegiis Abbatie de Margan adjudicata ut pura elemosina et ecclesiastici juris possessio : conprobavit preterea idem Abbas in eodem capitulo qui terram illam in elemo. sinam possedeat x annis et eo amplius antequam Ricardus terram in illa provincia accessisset: Quia ergo hec omnia veridicorum testium inductione, presbiterorum, clericorum, militum, discussa et probata sunt; ea et nostre humilitatis et testimonio quieti posteritatis et paci utile duximus vestre intimare universitati. Valete.

It does not appear what was the precise nature of the claim made by Richard de Kardif upon the lands of Blackescerre, and canonically decided against him. Bishop N. was Nicholas ap Gwrgant, who presided over Llandaff from 1153 to 1183.

Blacksker, now called “Sker,” is a farm on Kenfig parish, on its southern boundary, a few yards from the sea, and so called from an adjacent “sker,” or reef of rocks on the shore. The house, a view of which is given in the Arch. Camb. for 1863, p. 273, was a grange attached to Neath at the dissolution, and is now the pro

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