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sistance to render the approach inaccessible. The entrance is on the western side, and is strongly protected. A good view of the work may be obtained from the old road at a short distance in its rear. Near the base of the hill stands a small farm, now called the Bit-fal, which is evidently a corruption of the old Welsh word Bud-wal, which, according to Dr. O. Pugh, signifies an encampment. The beacon stations upon Rhydd-Howel and Plinlim mon can be seen from here.
A carn formerly existed on Bryn-tail hill, about halfa-mile to the west of the entrenchment, but no traces of it now exist.
Pen-y-Gaer.-On the summit of a high hill, called Pen-y-Gaer, situated behind the farmstead of Crywlwm, rather more than a mile to the south-west of Penclun, is an elliptical rampart of loose stones, connected by local tradition with Druidic rites. This wall or rampart is in some places several yards broad, and from two to three feet high. The stones which compose it are not large, few of them weighing more than two or three hundredweight. The enclosed space measures 75 yards in its longer diameter, and 55 in its shorter. An inner circle is said to have existed, but no traces of it are now to be seen. Immense quantities of the stones are being continually removed for the construction of “dry walls, which form the fences of these exposed hill tops. Stones are plentiful in the neighbourhood, so that there is no necessity for this wanton destruction of these hoary old records of the past. To this same cause we doubtless owe the disappearance of the Bryntail Carn.
In a plantation on the adjoining farm of Bryntail are large masses of detached rocks which lie in such fan. tastic forms, that it is not surprising that the country people of the vicinity ascribe their origin to those industrious manufacturers of antiquities—the Druids.
The Dinas. On the left-hand side of the mountain roadway from Llanidloes to Machynlleth (a road conjectured to be identical with an old British trackway), near the fifth mile stone, stands the massy isolated
hill known as the Dinas. It rises precipitously to a great height on its southern and eastern sides where its base is washed by the river Clywedog, while it slopes more gently towards the turnpike-road. This side of the mountain is defended by two strong lines of works, which originally extended some 800 yards round the north-western slope of the mountain, being distant from each other from 100 to 150 yards, varying according to the nature of the ground. Nearly the whole of the two aggers of this extensive camp remain, their construction being precisely the same as those on Penclun-hill. The entrance was from the north-east, which is the most accessible part of the mountain. The space enclosed is between 800 and 900 yards long, and about 250 yards broad, covering an extent of more than 40 acres. Reference to the ordnance map will show the advantageous position occupied by this the largest camp in the county, which defended the approaches to the fastnesses of Plinlimmon, whither the Britons retired when driven from their positions in the low country. From the summit of the hill the spectator may enjoy one of the most extensive and varied panoramic views in the neighbourhood—where fine views are the rule, not the exception.
At the south-eastern foot of the Dinas on a small farm, called the Merllyn, there is a tumulus of circular form, with a radius of 50 feet, and an elevation of from 8 to 10 feet. It is composed of loose stones mixed with earth. Large quantities of stone have been removed and used for building a barn on the opposite bank of the Clywedog. This partial demolition did not bring any relics to light.
Group of Tumuli.—On a plateau washed by the upper waters of the Clywedog and its right-hand tributary the Afon Llwyd, about two miles to the north-west of the Dinas, there is a group of five tumuli. The first of these is situated between the farms of Dolydd-Llwydion and Nant-yr-hafod. In form it is similar to that on the Merllyn field, but its dimensions are smaller, its radius
being 36 feet, its height 10 feet. Upon making a small hole in its top it appeared to be composed of earth and stones mixed together.
The second tumulus, known as Clap-Maur, lies about half-a-mile to the north-east, and occupies the summit of a gentle elevation. The rising ground which was chosen for its site has probably given it its name, for the artificial portion, both in form and dimensions, is similar to that near Nant-yr-hafod. This mound, to judge from its prominent position, was probably used as a beacon station. Traces of excavations are to be seen in this barrow. A passage, 16 or 18 feet long, and some 8 or 10 feet wide, has been made, with what results could not be learned. The writer heard that human bones, weapons, etc., had been discovered, but failed to trace the report to any reliable source, nor could he ascertain by whom, or at what time, the passage alluded to was made.
About 500 yards to the north-west of Clap-Mawr, on a field belonging to Llwyn-y-góg farm, is another tumulus which appears originally to have been a counterpart of the others, but having been cultivated like the rest of the field in which it stands, for a number of years, its elevation has become inconsiderable. When visited it was covered with a crop of oats.
On the grounds of Dol-Gwyddyl, the Dol-Gwyddel (or 1 In speaking with a gentleman of the neighbourhood about the derivation of this name and the probable history of which it is a memento (vide Vestiges of the Gael in Gwynedd), the writer received another explanation of the word which perhaps would not be out of place if inserted here in the form of a note. If pronounced as Mr. Jones spells it, Dôl-gwyddel, the people of the neighbourhood would scarcely recognise it, their pronunciation being Dôl-gweidd-il or gwaudd-il, which, in my informant's opinion, is a corruption of Dolgwaedd-mil, which might be rendered literally "mead of the shout of the thousand." This conjectural meaning would appear rather too far-fetched to be the true one were it not supported by evidence derived from the names of places in its immediate vicinity, such as Cefn-lle'r-gwydd, a corruption of Cefn-lle'r gwaedd, literally, “ridge of the place of the shout." Maes-maen-trishol, a corruption of Maesmaen-tri-schol, Anglice, the “field of the stone of three skulls.” Upon the other side of the valley are two small farmsteads, called re