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cations which occasioned a kind of schism among the Irish catholics. The year following he put out other two pieces against the papists; in one of which he argues against the assumed infallibility of the church of Rome, and in the other discusses various controversial questions betwixt the two churches of England and Rome. Both these discourses were published in one small 12mo. volume, but were reprinted in 1088, in 4to. with a preface, 'relating to the bishop of Meaux, and other modern complainers of misrepresentation.' In 1679, he published a treatise on 'Separation of Churches from Episcopal Government, as practised by the present Non-conformists,' in which he labours to prove that all such separation is schismatical and anti-scriptural; that separation from episcopal communion renders persons unsecure of their eternal salvation; that salvation is ordinarily to be expected from participation in the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper, which God has appointed as the ordinary means of obtaining the gospel benefits, not to be obtained merely by hearing the word, and prayer; that the validity of the sacraments depends on the authority of the persons administering them, these being such whom God has commissioned to act as his ministers, whose acts he will ratify in heaven; that God is not obliged to bestow spiritual benefits on any who receive the sacraments from persons not thus authorised, besides their administering them being an usurpation on God's authority. In this book he also discourses on the ' Sin unto Death;' and the ' Sin against the Holy Ghost.' Richard Baxter answered Dodwell in his 'True and only way of Concord ;' and Dodwell replied.
In 1682, he published his very learned 'Dissertations on St Cyprian,' composed at the request of Bishop Fell, as an accompaniment to the bishop's edition of that father. They are chiefly explanatory of obscure passages. Dodwell published also 'Dissertations on lrenseus.' In 1688, he was elected Camden professor of history in the university of Oxford, but he lost this chair in 1691, by refusing to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary. His Camden lectures were printed at Oxford, in 1692. After his deprivation he removed to Shottesbrooke, where he chiefly spent the remainder of his days in devotion to study and incessant publication.
It would swell the present article greatly beyond due limits, were we to give merely the titles of all Dodwell's published treatises. The most elaborate of them is his account of the Greek and Roman cycles, printed at Oxford in 1701. All his writings are characterized by prodigious learning, and considerable logical powers; but some of his notions were singularly absurd, and involved him in much and painful controversy with some of the best men of his age. Dodwell was, as we have seen, a strict episcopalian, and a staunch non-juror besides. In order to exalt the powers and dignity of the priesthood, in that ■ One Communion,' which he fondly imagined to be the Peculium of God, and to which he had joined himself, he endeavoured to prove, with his usual perplexity of learning, that the doctrine of the soul's natural mortality was the true and original scripture doctrine ; and that immortality was only at baptism conferred upon the soul, by the gift of God, through the hands of one set of regularly-ordained clergy. In support of this opinion, he wrote 'An Epistolary Discourse, proving, from the Scriptures aud the first Fathers, that the Soul is a Principle naturally mortal, but immortalized actually by the pleasure of God, to Punishment, or to Reward, by its Union with the Divine Baptismal Spirit. Wherein is proved, that none have the Power of giving this Divine Immortalizing Spirit, since the Apostles, but only the Bishops.' London, 1706, 8vo. At the end of the preface to the reader is a dissertation, to prove 'That Sacerdotal Absolution is necessary for the Remission of Sins, even of those who are truly penitent.' This discourse being attacked by Chishull, Clarke, Norris, and other persons, our author endeavoured to vindicate himself in the three following pieces: namely, 1. 'A Preliminary Defence of the Epistolary Discourse, concerning the Distinction between Soul and Spirit: in two parts. 1st, Against the Charge of favouring Impiety. 2d, Against the Charge of favouring Heresy.' In the former is inserted a digression, proving, that the 'Collection of the Code of the Four Gospels in Trajan's time is no way derogatory to the sufficient Attestation of them.' London, 1707, 8vo. 2. 'The Scripture Account of the Eternal Rewards or Punishments of all that hear of the Gospel, without an Immortality necessarily resulting from the Nature of the Souls themselves that are concerned in those Rewards or Punishments. Showing particularly, 1st, How much of this account was discovered by the best philosophers. 2d, How far the accounts of those philosophers were corrected and improved by the Hellenistical Jews, assisted by the Revelations of the Old Testament. 3d, How far the discoveries forementioned were improved by the Revelations of the gospel. Wherein the testimonies also of S. Irenaeus and Tertullian, are occasionally considered.' London, 1703, Svo. Ami, 3. 'An Explication of a famous Passage in the Dialogue of S. Justin Martyr with Tryphon, concerning the immortality of Human Souls. Being a letter to the learned author of a book, intituled '"h x*jif hSturx, &c.' With an appendix, consisting of a letter to the Rev. Mr John Norris, of Bemerton; and an Expostulation relating to the late Insults of Mr Clarke and Mr Chishull.' London, 1708, 8vo. It is scarcely necessary to add that in all those treatises Dodwell evinced greater ingenuity and learning than sound scriptural views. Dr Clarke handled him very severely; and Bishop Burnet thus addresses him in one of his letters: "You are a learned man; and your life has been not only without blemish, but exemplary; but you do not seem to remember, or enough to consider, the woe our Saviour has denounced against those by whom scandals come; and, according to the true notion of scandal, I know no man, that has laid more in the way of the little ones, or weaker Christians, than you have done. I do assure you, I would rather wish that I could neither read nor write, than to have read or writ to such purposes as you have been pursuing now above thirty years. You seem to love novelties and paradoxes, and to employ your learning to support them. I do assure you, I have a just value for many valuable things that I know to be in you; and do heartily lament every thing that is otherwise."
BoRN A. D. 1648. DIED A. D. 1708.
This eminent musical composer was a Nottinghamshire man. He was trained by Hingeston and Christopher Gibbons. In 1685 he was nominated composer to the court,—which, however, was only an honorary office. In 1687, on the death of Michael Wise, he was appointed master of St Paul's choristers; and upon the death of Purcell, he became organist in Westminster-abbey.
After the Revolution, Dr Tillotson, then dean of St Paul's, obtained an annual salary of £40 for both Blow and Purcell, on condition that they should alternately present their majesties with a new anthem on the first Sunday of every month. It appears that Blow had been in the practice of composing anthems while yet a chapel-boy, and that many of his pieces had been honoured with the special approbation of Charles II. Every one knows the fine song, 'Go perjured man.' The origin of this piece is said to have been as follows: Charles greatly admired Carissimi's duet, 'Dite, O cieli,' and turning to young Blow on one occasion, while it was performing, asked him if he could imitate it. Blow modestly answered he would try, and soon after produced that song which instantly became so popular. He afterwards composed another air to the words ' Go perjured maid,' which is printed in the ' Amphion Anglicus,' but it is inferior to the former. The work we have just mentioned was an imitation of the 'Orpheus Britannicus,' published by Purcell's widow.
Dr Blow died in 1708. His finest compositions, perhaps, are the Gloria Patri canon, printed in the first volume of Dr Boyce's collection of cathedral music, and the anthems, 'O God, wherefore art thou absent?' and ' I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude.'
BoRN A. D. 1668.—DIED A. D. 1712.
This writer was the descendant of an ancient and respectable family in Shropshire, in which county he was born in 1668. He received the rudiments of his education at the grammar-school of Shrewsbury, where he remained four or five years. At the age of seventeen he was sent to Oxford, where he was placed under the tuition of George Smalridge, afterwards bishop of Bristol. He spent several years at Christ-church college, and then went to his uncle's, Mr Cholmondeley, at Vale-Royal in Cheshire. Mr Cholmondeley was a warm adherent of James the Second's party; and young Maynwaring, imbibing his uncle's sentiments and feelings, drew his pen against the new government in a satire, entitled, 'Tarquin and Tullia,'1 which was mainly levelled at William and Mary. He also wrote a piece entitled, ' The King of Hearts,'
1 State Poems, vol. iii. p. 319.
in which he ridiculed Lord Delamere's entry into London, on his first coming to town after the Revolution. Tonson supposing this piece to have been written by Dryden, ascribed it to the latter in public; but Dryden immediately disclaimed the authorship.
Having come up to town, he was introduced to the acquaintance of the duke of Somerset, the earl of Dorset, and some of the leading whigs, whose company soon effected a change in the young wit's political sentiments. It was his intention to have devoted himself to the study of law, but the death of his father put him in possession of a pretty good yearly income, and enabled him to follow pursuits more congenial to his tastes. After the peace of Ryswick, he went to Paris, and spent some time amongst the scholars of that country. He was fortunate enough to make the acquaintance of Boileau and La Fontaine during this visit.
After his return from France, he was appointed a commissioner of customs, in which office he conducted himself with great integrity; so much so, that in the beginning of Anne's reign, Godolphin conferred on him the auditorship of imposts, a situation worth £2000 per annum. In the parliament of 1705 Mr Maynwaring was returned for the town of Preston in Lancashire. He died in 1712. He was the author of numerous political pamphlets, and of several pieces in the 'Tatler.' His life and posthumous works were published in 1715 by Oldmixon, with a dedication to Sir Robert Walpole, of whose party Maynwaring had been a firm adherent in the latter years of his life.
BoRN A. D. 1654.—DIED A. D. 1712.
This celebrated Grecian was born in London, and educated at Christ's hospital and Cambridge. He was chosen a fellow of Emanuel college in 1678, and in 1686 took the degree of B. D. His life was entirely that of a scholar, and marked by few incidents except the successive appearance of his numerous works. His first publication consisted of some Latin and English poems, which he gave to the world at the early age of fifteen. His edition of Euripides was published in 1694, and the next year he was chosen Greek professor at Cambridge. He died in 1712.
Barnes was an enthusiastic but not an accomplished scholar. His learning was accurate and extensive, but of a vastly inferior order to that of his contemporary Bentley, who used to say that Joshua Barnes understood as much Greek as a Greek cobbler. On the publication of his edition of Homer, Dr Bentley took offence at some remarks in Barnes's preface, and in a letter to Dr Davies, wrote as follows:— "After you left me this morning, I borrowed of Dr Sike Mr Barnes's new edition of Homer, where I was told that I should find myself abused. I read over his dedications and prefaces, and there I find very opprobrious words against enemies in general, and one homo hiimicus in particular, which I cannot apply to myself, not being concerned in the accusation. But if Mr Barnes has, or does declare in company, that he means me by those expressions, I assure him I shall not put up such an affront, and an injury too, since I was one of bis first subscribers, and an useful director to him, if he had followed good advice. He struts and swaggers like a Suffenus, and challenges that same enemy to come aperte, and show him any fault. If he mean me, I have but dipped yet into his notes, and yet I find every where just occasion of censure." The Doctor then points out some glaring mistakes of Barnes's, and of one of them says: "A piece of ignorance for which he deserves to be turned out of the chair, and for which, and many others like it, si magis me irritaverit, I, as his principal elector and governor, may call him to account." He adds, at the close of the letter: "If it be true that he gives out that he means me by those villainous characters, I shall teach him better manners towards his elector. For though I shall not honour him so much as to enter the lists against him myself, yet in one week's time, I can send a hundred such remarks as these to his good friend Will Baxter, (whom I have known these twenty years,) who, before the parliament sits, shall pay him home for his Anacreon. But if it be otherwise, that he did not describe me under those general reproaches, a small satisfaction shall content me; which I leave you to be judge of; for I would not, without the utmost provocation, hurt the sale of his book, upon which he professes to have laid out his whole fortunes." Barnes's edition of Homer involved him in considerable difficulties; and his circumstances, in consequence of it, appear to have been so greatly embarrassed, that he wrote a supplicatory letter to Robert Harley, earl of Oxford, stating his distresses, and requesting that he might have a little prebend, or some sufficient anchor to lay hold on.
There is subjoined to the first edition of his Anacreon (Cambridge, 1705,) a complete catalogue of Dr Barnes's works, actual or projected.
BoRN A. D. 1637.— DIED A. D. 1713.
This learned and laborious writer was son of the rector of Pickwell in Leicestershire, a man of considerable erudition. Young Cave was educated at St John's college, Cambridge, where he took the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1656, and proceeded M. A. in 1660. In 1662 he was presented to the vicarage of Islington in Middlesex; and not long after he obtained the dignity of chaplain in ordinary to Charles II. In 1672 he took the degree of D. D., to which he was also admitted at Oxford. In September, 1679, he was collated by the archbishop of Canterbury, to the rectory of All-Hallows the Great, in Thames-street, London; and, in 1681, his merits as a man of letters obtained for him a canonry at Windsor. Wood says that at this time he was likewise presented with the rectorship of Haseley in Oxfordshire; but this must be a mistake, for that rectory is attached to the deanery of Windsor. On the 19th of November, 1690, we find him admitted to the vicarage of Isleworth in Middlesex, after having resigned most of his other preferments. Perhaps this latter place afforded him more leisure and retirement, and allowed him to devote himself to his favourite studies. His death took place on the 4th of August, 1713.