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concerned in any ordinations was very discouraging, and the more so, because upon the principles he laid down it appeared to be a thing not to be accounted for. Upon this he was pleased to enter into freedoms with me, at the same time obliging me to secrecy, which I have observed religiously; never discovering to any one what was communi. cated. I shall only say, that the doctor's hindrance was peculiar to himself. I cannot pretend, upon the whole, that he gave me all the satisfaction I could have desired, yet I thought he must answer for himself and his own proceedings, and so must I for mine. This I could not see that I could be able to do, should I wave being ordained, merely because a particular person, whose help upon that occasion was very desirable, refused to assist.” At length, however, Mr Calamy found ministers inclined to comply with his wishes ; and after a strict examination, and a Latin disputation, in which he had to contend with Mr Alsop, he was ordained, together with six others, in Dr Annesley's meetinghouse in Little St Helens, June 22d, 1694.
Soon after his ordination, Mr Calamy removed from Blackfriars to accept the office of assistant to Mr, afterwards Dr, Daniel Williams in Bishops-gate street. On the death of Mr Alsop, in 1703, he was unanimously chosen pastor of his congregation in Tothill-street, Westminster. His ministry being very acceptable, and his congregation increasing, a new place of worship was built for him upon a much larger scale, in a place called Long Ditch.
In the year 1696 Mr Sylvester published Baxter's “ Account of his Life and Times' from the author's manuscript. On this occasion, Mr Calainy was employed to make some corrections, to draw up the table of contents, and the index. This undertaking induced him to prepare an abridgment of the work, with some additions and improvements, which appeared in one vol. octavo, 1702. This continued the history of the ejected ministers down to the year 1691. The publication of this work gave great offence to some, but equal gratification to others. It was soon republished in an enlarged form. It drew him, however, into a long and important controversy. Mr Ollyffe published, in 1703, a defence of ministerial conformity, in reply to the tenth chapter of Calamy's work. The same year Mr Hoadly published his · Reasonableness of Conformity to the Church of England, represented to the Dissenting Ministers, in answer to Mr Calamy.' Shortly after, Hoadly published a second part of the same work. In reply to these treatises, Mr Calamy published, in the same year, “ A Defence of Moderate Nonconformity, &c. &c.; part I. with a postscript, containing Remarks on a Tract of Mr Dorrington, entitled, • The Dissenting Ministry in religion censured and condemned from the Holy Scriptures,'” 1703. An answer to part of this work was published by Solomon Pagis, rector of Farnborow in Somersetshire, 1704. Mr Hoadly also published • A Serious Admonition to Mr Calamy, occasioned by the first part of his Defence of Moderate Nonconformity,' 1703. The second part of Mr Calamy's defence appeared the next year, entitled, “ A Defence of Moderate Nonconformity, &c. with an introduction about the true state of the present controversy ween the church and the dissenters, and a postscript containing an answer to Mr Hoadly's Serious Admonition, and some remarks on a nameless author, said to be a congregational minister in the country,' 1704. The introduction to this work gained
the author great honour among his dissenting brethren, and was so much approved by the great Mr Locke, that ne sent the author a message to this effect,—" that he had read it, and thought it such a defence of nonconformity as could not be answered; and that in adhering to the principles there laid down, he had no occasion to be afraid of any antagonist.” The third part of Mr Calamy's Defence appeared in 1705. In the beginning of the year 1708, he published · A Caveat against the new Prophets, with a single sheet, in answer to Sir Richard Bulkley's Remarks on the same.'
In the year 1709 Mr Calamy took a journey into North Britain, and was received every where with marks of the highest respect. The three universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Aberdeen, conferred upon him the degree of Doctor in divinity. Being in Edinburgh during the sitting of the general assembly, and hearing the case of an appeal from a minister against the synod of Aberdeen, who had condemned the minister for insufficiency in his answers to many questions proposed to himthe general assembly appearing at a loss what to do with the accused person—the moderator stooped down, and whispering to Dr Calamy, asked him what he thought of the affair ; to which Dr C. replied, “ We in England should reckon this way of proceeding, the inquisition revived.” At this the moderator smiled. Lord Forbes, who sat on the bench above, asked the doctor what had passed between them, and on being told, he fell to laughing. The lord-president, who also sat above him, inquiring what had so diverted him, and being informed, he joined in the laugh also. Then the king's commissioner, observing all this pleasantry, stooped down and asked the lord-president the cause, and on hearing what it was, he himself broke forth into laughter. At length the whisper and the laugh went round the whole assembly. We are not told what became of the poor culprit, but it is to be hoped he was allowed to participate in the merriment by obtaining his acquittal.
In 1713 Dr Calamy published the second edition of his abridgment of · Baxter's Life and Times ;' and in the end of the first volume he inserted the “Reformed Liturgy,' drawn up by Mr Baxter, and presented to the bishops at the Savoy conference. Some years after, he completed two additional volumes of the same work, entitled, · A continuation of the account of the Ministers, &c. who were ejected and silenced after the year 1660, &c. to which is added, the Church and the Dissenters compared as to persecution, in some Remarks on Dr Walker's Attempt to recover the names and sufferings of the clergy that were sequestered, &c. between 1640 and 1660. Also, Free Remarks on the 28th chapter of Dr Bennett's Essay on the 39 Articles.' This work procured the author much reputation. Bishop Burnet thanked him for it, and said he had read it with pleasure. Dr Calamy published, in 1714, an anonymous pamphlet, entitled, “Queries concerning the Schism Bill. In 1717 he wrote A Letter to a Member of Parliament on the repeal of the Act against occasional conformity. The following year he published a vindication of his grandfather and of several other persons, in • A Letter to Mr Archdeacon Echard, upon occasion of his History of England,' &c. &c. He also published a volume of lectures on the Trinity, delivered at Salters' hall, Merchants' lecture, to which he appended a vindication of 1st John v. 7. This book was dedicated to George I., who gave the author, when he pre
sented it, a most gracious reception, and ordered him a gratuity of fifty pounds. He published many occasional sermons during the period of his forty years, ministry in London. Dr Calamy was twice married, and had six children. One of his sons, who bore the name of Edmund, was educated for the ministry among the dissenters, and officiated many years at Crosby-square as an assistant to Dr Grosvenor. Another son, Mr Adam Calamy, was bred to the law, and was one of the earliest writers in the Gentleman's Magazine, under the signature of “ A Consistent Protestant.” Dr Calamy died June 3d, 1732, at the age of sixty-two.
BORN A. D. 1657.-DIED A. D. 1737.
This eminent prelate was born in 1657 at Blandford in Dorsetshire. He received his university education at Christ-church, Oxford, where he took the degree of B. A. in 1676, and that of M. A. in 1679. His father wished him to enter into business as a clothier ; but, preferring the ministry, he was allowed to obtain ordination.
In 1682 he visited Paris, as chaplain to Viscount Preston, envoyextraordinary. Soon after his return to England, he was elected preacher to the society of Gray's-inn; contrary, as it appears, to the express desire of James II., to whom he had given offence by his spirited · Exposition of the Doctrine of the Church of England ;' in which he had closely initated the style, and exposed the sophisms of Bossuet, bishop of Meaux. After having published several other pieces against the Roman catholic faith, he proceeded to the degree of B. D. and D.D.; became one of the royal chaplains, and deputy-clerk of the closet to William and Mary; and obtained a canonry of Christ-church in room of Dr Aldrich. In 1693 he produced An English version of the genuine Epistles of the Apostolical Fathers;' which exposed him to an attack from Dr Middleton. In 1694 he was presented to the rectory of St James's, Westminster; and, three years afterwards, appeared his · Authority of Christian Princes over their Ecclesiastical Synods, asserted with particular respect to the convocations of the clergy of the Church of England. This work was speedily followed by his · Vindication of the King's Supremacy against both Popish and Fanatical opposers; as a reward for which, perhaps, he was promoted by the crown in 1701, to the deanery of Exeter. His doctrines had already been vehemently attacked by Atterbury and others; in opposition to whom, he published a work in 1703, entitled, · The State of the Church, and the Clergy of England considered ;' which, it is said, decided the contest in his favour.
In 1705 he was promoted to the bishopric of Lincoln; and, being a strenuous opponent to high-church principles, warmly concurred in the prosecution and punishment of Sacheverell, and advocated the proposal for a comprehension with the dissenters. A few months after the accession of George I. he was raised to the primacy on the death of Tenison. He now wrote and spoke against the proposed repeal of the schism act, which, previously, during its progress through the house of
lords, he had warmly opposed. His first speech from the episcopal bench had been in favour of a compromise with the dissenters; but he now resisted the repeal of the conformity bill; insisted on the necessity of continuing the test and corporation acts; and, in conjunction with Lord Nottingham, brought in a bill for imposing a new test against Arian opinions, although in the cases of Whiston and Clarke, in 1711 and 1712, he had spoken with moderation of their peculiar views.
In 1717 he formed a scheme for uniting the English and Gallican churches, and entered into a secret correspondence on the subject with Dupin, De Noailles, and others, through the medium of Beauvoir, chaplain to the British ambassador at Paris. The negotiation had proceeded so far, that a plan for the proposed union had been read and approved of in the Sorbonne: when the affair being made public, a clamour was raised against De Noailles and his friends, for attempting, as it was said, to bring about a coalition with heretics ; and the French government, which, from temporary political motives, had appeared to encourage the design, sent the whole of Archbishop Wake's letters to the pope, who is stated to have greatly admired the catholic spirit and ability displayed by the writer. The reader will find a detailed account of this scheme of the archbishop in the appendix to · Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History.' Soon after the failure of this, his favourite project, which exposed him to great vituperation, the primate corresponded relatively to a proposed union between the Roman catholics and the Lutherans, with Jablonski, the Pole, whom he earnestly exhorted not to enter into any arrangement with the church of Rome, except on a footing of perfect equality, and not to sacrifice truth for a temporal advantage, or even to a desire of peace.
On account of his infirmities during the latter years of his life, the duties of the primacy were, for the most part, performed by Gibson, bishop of London. He lingered in a most enfeebled state, until the 24th of January, 1737, when he expired at Lambeth palace. He bequeathed his valuable collection of books, manuscripts, and ancient coins, to the society of Christ-church, Oxford. Besides the works already mentioned, he was the author of several tracts against the doctrines of the Romish church, and two or three volumes of sermons.
BORN A. D. 1683.- DIED A. D. 1737.
This learned nonconforming divine was born at Taunton in Somersetshire, in January, 1683. He was descended from the Groves of Wiltshire, and the Rowes of Devonshire,-two families well-known in the annals of their country for their bold and uncompromising attachment to the great principles of religious and civil liberty. His tutors were Warren of Taunton, and Thomas Rowe of London. At the
age of twenty-two Mr Grove began to preach, and soon became very popular. In 1706 he succeeded Mr Warren in the tutorship of the academy at Taunton. Here he resided eighteen years, during which period he preached to two small congregations in the neighbourhood upon a salary of only £20 per annum. His first publication was an essay, which he had drawn up as an academical lecture, on • The Regulation of Diversions,' and which he gave to the public in 1708. Soon after this he engaged in a correspondence with Dr Clarke on some points of the discourse by the latter, “On the Being and Attributes of God.' In 1718 he published “ An Essay towards a Demonstration of the Soul's Immateriality.' In 1723 he published ' A Discourse on Secret Prayer, in several sermons, which has been valued for its argumentative and rhetorical style. In 1730 he gave to the public two works, one on · The Evidence of our Saviour's Resurrection, and the other entitled, Some Thoughts concerning the proof of a Future State. These were followed by several other volumes on religious subjects, the most important of which is one under the title of Wisdom the first spring of action in the Deity.'
Mr Grove died in his fifty-fifth year. His nephew, Mr Amory, published his . Posthumous Works,” in 1740, in four volumes, and his
System of Moral Philosophy,' as delivered in the Taunton academy, in two volumes, in 1749. His entire works form ten volumes, 8vo. Mr Grove contributed a few papers to Addison's Spectator, and we find the following anecdote with respect to one of them in Boswell's
Life of Johnson.' The Doctor mentioned, relates the biographer, "with an air of satisfaction, what Baretti had told him, that, meeting in the course of his studying English, with an excellent paper in the Spectator, one of four that were written by the respectable dissenting minister, Mr Grove of Taunton, and observing the genius and energy of mind that it exhibits, it greatly quickened his curiosity to visit our country; as he thought, if such were the lighter periodical essays of our authors, their productions, on more weighty occasions, must be wonderful indeed.” Dr Johnson himself has pronounced Mr Grove's paper, No. 626, 'On Novelty,' to be “one of the finest pieces in the English language." The concluding number of the Spectator is the composition of Mr Grove.
DIED A, D. 1740.
No particulars can now be collected respecting the early life of Francies Hare. The time and place of his birth are equally unknown. We first hear of him at Eton school, where he received the rudiments of education preparatory to the university. In due time he was entered at King's college, Cambridge, and became a fellow of that foundation. While in this capacity, he was entrusted with the tuition of the marquis of Blandford, the only son of the duke of Marlborough, and, by the duke was appointed chaplain-general to the army. In regular course he took the degree of doctor of divinity.
By reason of his connexion with the army, his thoughts were turned into the channel of politics ; and he first appeared, as an author, in defending the war and the measures of the whig administration. His writings on these subjects were chiefly published before the year
1712. He wrote “The Barrier Treaty vindicated,' and also a treatise in four parts, entitled “The Allies and the late Ministry, defended against