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60 Literary and Philosophical Intelligence.

A Second Journey through Persia to Constantinople, between the Years 1810 and 1816: with a Journal of the Voyage by the Brazils and Bombay to the Persian Gulph; together with an account of the proceedings of his Majesty's Embassy under his excellency Sir Gore Ousley, bart. K.S.L. 4to. with maps, coloured costumes, and other engravings from the designs of the author; by Jas. Morier, esq. Sl. 13s.6d.

A Journey from India to England, through Persia, Georgia, Russia, Poland, and Prussia, in the Year 1817; by Lieut. Col. Johnson, C.B. 4to. 21. 2s.

A Journey round the Coast of Kent; containing remarks on the principal objects worthy of notice throughout the whole of that interesting border and the contiguous district; by L. Fussell, esq. 8vo. 9s.

[Aug. 1, FRENCH BOOKS, Just Imported by J. Souter, 73, St. Paul's. Church-yard. Les Petits Bearnais, ou Leçons de Morale Convenable à la jeunesse; par Madme. Julie Delafaye (Brehier), auteur. de six nouvelles de l'Enfance, &c. 4 vols. 180, avec seize jolies gravures. 8s. Les Soupers de Famille, ou Nouveaux Contes, moraux, instructifs, et amusans pour les Enfans: avec seize jolies gravures; par Mme. Delafaye. 4 vols. 18mo. 8s. Fables de la Fontaine; par C. Nodier, ormées d'un portrait. 2 vols. 12mo 8s. Dictionnaire des Gens du Monde, a l'usage de la Cour et de la Ville. 12mo. 4s. Fables de Florian, précédées d'une notice sur savie ; par J. C. Turnel, et ornées de dix gravures en taille-douce. 18mo. 2s. 6d.

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VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL,

Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.
--

T has been our rare fortune, in the

progress of this miscellany, to be the harbingers of the various important discoveries which, during the last twenty-five years, have done honour to the genius of man. Notwithstanding the lofty pretensions of learned bodies and societies, we have, with few exceptions, been the first to draw these discoveries from obscurity, and exhibit to the world their claims in a clear and popular manner; and it is our glory, in regard to several of them, that, in recommending them, we have often stood alone, and have generally been opposed by contemporary journalists, and not unfrequently by professors of science. We have now to announce another application of philosophy to the arts of life, so pregnant with advantages, and so extensive in its purposes, as to threaten an entire revolution in the cconomy and formation of our domestic establishments. In the Number for April last, we introduced the details of a system of warming houses, by means of the Steam generated in a small boiler, worked in any out-building, and conveyed by pipes to hollow-sided cylinders placed in the rooms of a house; and we stated in such clear terms the advantages of this clogant mode of propagating heat, that the work-shops en; gaged in the manufactories have had more orders than they can execute.

The experiments made in the course of .

these erections have, however, determined a fact which cannot fail to lead to a great extension of the system. . It appears that steam, conveyed in pipes nearly half a mile in length, has suffered at

the extremity no sensible diminution of its heat; consequently, hot steam may be diffused for purposes of heating houses, in a radius from the boiler of at least half a mile ; and perhaps even of two, three, or more miles. Here then is a principle by which heat may be conveyed from a public boiler or magazine, where it is generated, to any desirable distance; and thence may be conveyed into houses for the purpose of keeping the rooms at any temperature, just as gas for light, or water for culinary purposes, is now conveyed into them. We thus divest ourselves at once of coal or wood fires, of all their smoke, filth, and dangers; and also of chimneys, grates, and their accessories. In cost, the ratio is very high in favour of the heat of steam, as ten to one, and twenty to one, according to circumstances. In effective heat, in wholesomeness, in enjoyment, and in luxury, there can be no comparison. Thus a bushel of refuse coal and cinders, costing eight-pence or a shilling, will boil a copper for fifteen hours, and generate steam enough to keep ten or twelve rooms at a uniform and equally-diffused temperature of sixty or seventy degrees. Of course it is the same whether these rooms are in one house, six houses, or twelve houses;” and hence the incalculable advantages of this application of steam. Houses, * It is proved, by experiment, that every superficial foot of a metallic hollow

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A cylinder, four feet high, and sixteen inches

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Houses, manufactories, schools, churches, hamlets, villages, cities, and cven the great metropolis itself, may thus be heated from one or many boilers, or from one or many stations, as may be most convenicut. Smoke, the nuisance of towns, will thus at once be exterminated; because that which is generated at the public boilers may easily be consumed, or condensed. We thus also clear society of the stigma and the crimes of chimney-sweeping; and diminish the hazards and the horrors of those conflagrations which are as dangerous to our property as our lives. In fine, we expect that these observations will, in due time, have the effect of rendering steamHEATING societies as general, as popular, and as lucrative, as GAS-LIGHTING soci ET1 Es; and we hope, in consequence, to witness, in the universal success of both, a greater triumph of philosophy than philosophers themselves have ever contemplated. *...* Being anxious to render the Monthly Magazine a focus of intelligence relative to the so new and important applications of aqueous and inflammable gas for heating and lighting, we shall give every encouragement to communications on those subjects till their advantages are understood, and their introduction has become general. We regard them as the greatest practical improvements of this age; and, therefore, shall devote a column or two every month to the subject. Dr. CLARKE Abel will soon publish, Personal Observations made during the Progress of the British Embassy through China, and on its Voyage to and from that Country, in a quarto volume, illustrated by engravings. Dr. A. B. GRANville has in the press, Memoirs on the Present State of Science and Scientific Institutions in France; interspersed with anecdotes, and illustrated by plates and tables. An Account of the Small-Pox, as it appeared after Vaccination, will shortly appear, by Alex ANDER Monro, M.D. professor of Anatomy in the University of Edinburgh; including, among many cases, three which occurred in the author's own family.

inches diameter, that is, having sixteen feet on the outside, and sixteen feet on the inside, will therefore heat 8000 cubic feet of air, or a room thirty feet square and nine feet high. It appears, also, that one small boiler will keep four such cylinders at 70° of heat; and, therefore, will heat twelve rooms, that are eighteen feet square and eight feet high,

Literary and Philosophical Intelligence. 61

A Geographical and Statistical Description of Scotland is in the press; by JAMES PLAYFAiR, D.D. F.R.S. and F.A.S.E. principal of the United College of St. Andrew, and Historiographer to the Prince Regent. John GALt, esq. is preparing the second part of the Life of Benjamin West, esq. Captain KATER has undertaken a journey to the North, with a view of ascertaining the length of the seconds pendulum at the principal stations of Colonel Mudge's Trigonometrical Survey, and the government has afforded liberal assistance towards this important investigation. At the last meeting of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, a report was read from Messrs. HAY, MAcDoNALD, and Neill, who, at the desire of the society, had paid a horticultural visit to some parts of the continent. They stated, that grafts of nearly fifty new pears, and

about forty new apples, of the most ap

proved kinds, raised by M. Van Mons at Brussels, had been received last spring; that they had been grafted on suitable stocks. It also mentioned that a collection of cones of some of the new species of pine-tree, originally brought from South America, had been received, and were now under trial. The Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, by Thomas HARtwell HoRNE, A.M. illustrated with maps and sac-similes of biblical manuscripts, in three volumes, octavo, is nearly ready for publication. The statue of Memnon, sent from Egypt by Mr. SALTE as a present to the British Museum, now lies in the Museum yard, and consists of one solid block of granite, weighing about nine tons. The face is in high prescrvation, and remarkably expressive. The same ship also brought presents of antiquity from the Bey of Tripoli to the Prince Regent, consisting of columns, cornices, chapiters, &c. found at Lebida. The columns are mostly of one solid piece, one weighing near fifteen tons, and being twenty-two feet in length. They were selected by Capt. W. H. Smyth, of the royal navy, in which he was assisted by the British consul at Tripoli. SiR HUMPHRY DAvy's experiment of the glowing platinum wire can thus be made when the combustible used is camphor:-if a piece of camphor, or a few small fragments in a heap, be placed in any convenient situation, as on a shilling, the bottom of a glass, &c, and a piece of platinum

62 Literary and Philosophical Intelligence.

platinum wire, either coiled or pressed up together, be heated and laid upon it, the platina will glow brilliantly as long as any camphor remains, and will frequently light it up into a flame. Mr.TrioMAs Scott, paymaster of the 70th regiment, stationed at Kingston, in Upper Canada, is reported in the United States to be the author of Waverley, the Antiquary, &c. &c. An acknowHedgment of the fact was made (says the Port-Folio,) by one of the family of Mr. Scott to an American gentleman during the last autumn. In addition to this, an individual of Philadelphia has seen the manuscript of one of these works. Mrs. Scott, the lady of Mr. Thomas Scott, lately passed through New York, on her way to Great Britain, and the time of her arrival was distinguished by an advertisement of a new tale in three volumes, entitled “Rob Roy,” as having been put to press in England, by the author of Waverley and other novels. The intimate connexion which Mr. Walter Scott is known to have had with these publications is fully accounted for upon the supposition that the author is his brother, and lives in Upper Canada. A river of the first magnitude has been found in the interior of New Holland, running through a most beautiful country, rich in soil, limestone, slate, and good timber, by Mr. Oxley, the surveyorgeneral. Its course was northerly, in latitude 32 deg. 45 min. S. and 148 deg. 58 min. E. longitude. To ascertain the course and direction of this river is to be the object of an early oxpedition. There has long been a great and increasing population in India—the descendants of Europeans from Indian mothers and their progeny. Many of them are well educated, and people of considerable property; and, latterly, they have been studiously investigating their civil rights as free-born British subjects. They have commenced a newspaper to facilitate the objects of their inquiries, and all public measures in India will now be openly canvassed, and Europe will no longer be abused respecting the condition of the Eastern hemisphere. An Historical Account of Discoveries and Travels in Asia, by HUGH MURRAY, F.R.S.E. will speedily be published. Mr. John NiCHols is preparing for publication, in three octavo volumes, the Miscellaneous Works of the late George Hardinge, esq. Dr. SpikeR's Travels through England have been published at Berlin, and

[Aug. 1, an English Translation is preparing for the press. Capt. Golow NIN, the Narrative of whose Captivity has been recently published, is printing Recollections of Japan, comprising an account of the

people and of the country.

Mr. J. W. WHITAKER, of St. John's College, Cambridge, has in the press, a Critical Examination of Mr. Bellamy's Translation of Genesis. Dr. ANDREw DUNCAN will soon publish an Account of the Life, Writings, and Character, of the late Dr. Alex. Monro, delivered at the Harveian Oration at Edinburgh for 1818. e In a few days will be published, Family Worship considered, nond some hints suggested for its more effectual performance, with prayers. On the 17th of June the Russian brig Rurick, under the command of Lieut. Kotzebue, reachcd Portsmouth, last from the Cape of Good Hope, having

been out two years and eleven months.

on a voyage of discovery. The honour of the British nation is so deeply compromised by the base conduct of the ministry, which abuse its name, in the person of the Emperor Napoleon, that we feel it our duty to mention with applause some very eloquent Essays on this subject, which, within the month, have appeared in the Sunday paper called the Luminary. These Essays, if widely circulated, may tend to counteract the malignant and black-hearted doctrines maintained by the conductors of certain unprincipled Newspapers and Journals, whose hypocritical canting on other subjects obtains them credit with many worthy readers. Carthage, at the return of Regulus, was doubtless misled by wretches like these to commit a crime which brought on it the resentment of the whole world, and has since rendered that city and its fate a proverb to all posterity. Truth will finally prevail over the cffrontery of falsehood, and all experience proves that similar causes never fail to produce similar effects. Mr. CHALM ERs has in the press, an abridgment of Todd's edition of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary. Professors Wood, PLAYFAIR, and Pict ET, have certified that Dr. BREwsTER is the original discoverer of the kaleidoscope as at present made and used. It seems, however, that in Kircher's Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae, published at Rome in 1646, there is an account of the kaleidoscope. At p. so o

1818.] Literary and Philosophical Intelligence. 63

of that work is a description of the appearance of the circle divided into its aliquot parts by means of two plane mirrors, which are set at the angles of 120°, 90°, 729, &c. &c. with one another. JHe afterwards goes on to describe the multiplication of images by reflections from mirrors, set in different situations with one another, and expressly mentions the variety of combinations which may be produced by changes in the objects which are reflected. Speedily will appear, Sermons, by the Rev. C. R. MATURIN, Curate of St. Peter's, Dublin, in octavo. The Rev. R. B.Rook is preparing for publication, the State and Progress of Religious Liberty, from the first propagation of Christianity in Britain to the present time. Mr. W.M. CAREY has in the press, a Biographical Sketch of B. R. Haydon, esq. with critical observations on his paintings, and some notice of his essays in the public journals. We have often maintained the opinion, that the increase of the population in 1811, compared with 1801, arose from the greater accuracy of the last census; but a periodical writer maintains, that the baptisms and burials of Hampstead, Hendon, and Edgeware, afford evidence of a proportionate increase between 1811 and 1818. Dr. JAcob, demonstrator of anatomy in the University of Dublin, has discovered and demonstrated in his lectures on the diseases of the eye, this spring, a membrane covering the cxternal surface of the retina in man and other animals. . Mr. W. A Ust, of Gray’s-Inn Road, has invented an instrument for freeing the shaft horse when salien with a loaded cart. The instrument consists of the simple addition to the common props of the cart, of an iron bar and hook, about half their length, attached to the top of each prop, and a bent iron prong at the bottom, to prevent their slipping; the props are strengthened with an iron ferule at each end. Dr. HALLARAN has in the press a second cdition, wish considerable additions, of his Practical Observations on the Causes and Cure of Insanity. No. VI. of Vir. DYER's Lives of Illustrious Men is nearly ready. The following letters throw some sight on the late expedition to the Niger. They were sent from Senegal to Wm. S. Shaw, esq. of Boston, by whose po

liteness they have been published in the
North-American Review.
Senegal, Sept. 5, 1817.
Dear sir,
Finding nothing here now worthy of
your acceptance, and thinking an account
of the English expedition intended for the
Interiour would be interesting, I re-
quested a French friend of mine, who was
some time with Capt. Campbell about the
coast last year, before the expedition
started, and was at Sierra Leone when it
returned, to give me an account of par-
ticulars. I am not certain that entire con-
fidence can be placed in his account,
though he had every means of being
rightly informed. It seems the expedition
started from the banks of the Rio Nunez
in February, that they proceeded about
a hundred and fifty miles, when the chief
of the country prevented their proceeding
farther, under some feigned pretext.
After stopping there about four menths,
and almost all the animals having died,
and seeing no prospect of being allowed
to proceed, Capt. Campbell determined
on endeavouring to regain the Rio Nunez,
that he might save front pillage and total
loss such articles of value as remained.
He died in two days after arriving at the
point he started from, and was buried by
the side of his friend, Major Peddie. The
circumstances attending the loss of offi-
cers were somewhat singular. Major
Peddie and Capt. MoRea died before they
began their march; Capt. Campbell and a
Mons. Comer, a French naturalist, who
was with them, died after their return,
and they were all buried near each other.
Though the loss was great in officers, it
was very smali on the part of the men—
two only were lost on the journey, one of
whom was drowned. Of over two hun-
dred animals which they took with them,
three only, I think, arrived again on the
bank of time Rio Nunez. The persons
composing the expedition are now at
Sierra Leone, and meditate another at-
tempt. Lieut. Stoko, of the navy, is now
the senior officer. He was on the lakes
attached to Sir James Yeo, but was made
prisoner, and was since then in our back
country. He is gone with three men to
visit a powerful chief at Peembo, to en-
deavour to secure his protection. If he
succeeds, another attempt will be made,
but under the most unfavourable circum-
stances, as most of the men are dis-
couraged.
The following is a translation of a
letter containing the French account
above mentioned.
Senegal, Sept. 4, 1817.
Dear sir,
I will endeavour to gratify you with a
statement of the facts which I have been
able to collect during my stay at Sierra

Leone,

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64 Literary and Philosophical Intelligence.

Leone, concerning the 'unfortunate expe-
dition to the Niger. On the death of
Major Peddie, Capt. Campbell succeeded
to the command. He felt the desire, he
had always cherished, of tracing in his
route the course of the Gambia, and of
determining the geographical position of
various points. He resolved to take a
more easterly direction, which obliged
him to pass through a rugged and dam.
gerous tract of country, a circumstance
very unfavourable to the success of the
undertaking. The company left Kakundy
on the first of February. The baggage
was so great an incumbrance, at that time,
that the fine Arabian horses, which were
designed for the use of the officers, were
necessarily employed in transporting it.
The whole company began their march on
foot. This measure was the more unfor-
tunate, as the health of the officers suf.
fered from it severely, and it proved fatal
to the horses, which, little accustomed to
support so great burdens, sunk under the
fatigue. In the mean time, the company
arrived, after a painful march of about
twelve days, at the village of Panietta, at
the distance of a little more than one hun-
dred and fifty miles from Kakundy.
During this march, so many of the beasts
of burden died, that Capt. Campbell was
obliged to employ the natives to carry his
baggage. This mode of transportation
was the cause of many robberies, and of
much disquietude to the travellers.
At the commencement of his journey,
Capt. Campbell had made the chief of the
country acquainted with the object of his
voyage, and received many protestations
of friendship. But, on his arrival at
Pamietta, it was easy to discover that the
natives were alarmed at seeing so great a
number of Europeans coming among
them. He was, therefore, detained under
various pretexts for the space of four
months, expecting, each moment, a fa-
vourable determination on the part of the
King of Fouti, to enable him to pursue his
route towards the Niger. During this
long and unexpected delay, the expedition
had to struggle against the unhealthiness
of the climate, famine, and a disease still
more terrible than either. In spite of all
the means which were used to procure
necessary provisions, the scarcity became
so great, that the company were reduced
to a very small allowance. After having
Hong waited in vain, and employed every
means to obtain permission to continue
their march towards the east, Capt. Camp-
bell was forced to return in his first track.
Having a vast quantity of baggage, but
very few animals of burden remaining, he
was obliged to employ the same mode of
transportation as before, and this was fol-
lowed by the same consequences. Many
of his effects were pillaged, others were
destroyed. Finally, after a very painful

****

[Aug. 1,

march, the expedition arrived at Kakundy,

the point from which it started. Capt.

Campbell's health had already begun te

decline by reason of fatigue, and the

chagrin he felt at the ill success of his

undertaking; these, together with the

unhealthiness of the climate, had worn

down his strength and exhausted his

spirits, and he died in two days after his arrival at the Rio Nunez.

The Oolite, or freestone, found at Bath,

is very soft and porous, is easily pene

trated by, and absorbs a considerable

quantity of, water. It has of late been

formed into wine-coolers and butter

jars in place of the common biscuit ware,

and, from the facility with which the

water passes through it, so as to admit

of evaporation at the surface, it succeeds

very well. But the most ingenious ap

plication of this stone is in the for:ation

of circular pyramids, having a number

of grooves cut one above the other on

its surface; these pyramids are soaked in

water, and a small hole made in the

centre filled; salad seed is then sprinkled

in the grooves, and, being supplied with

water from the stone, vegetates; and, in

the course of some days, produces a crop

of salad ready to be placed on the table,

The hole should be filled with water

daily, and, when one crop is plucked,

the seeds are brushed out and another gown.

Number of Persons executed for Forgery in

England yearly, from 1790 to 1818.

1790

1791

1792

1793

*1794

1795

1796

1797

1798

1799

1800

1801

1802

1803

1804

1805

1806

1807

1808

1809

1810

1811

1812

1813 .

1814

1815 -----------

1816 - - - - - - - - - - -

1817 -----------

10

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