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Ogilvie, esq. commissioner on the part of Great Britain. They met at St. Regis, and established by accurate astronomical observation the point of the 45° north latitude, and afterwards, by careful admeasurement and surveys, described the boundary towards the lake Ontario. It is understood that no material alteration has been made in the line heretofore considered as the true boundary. The latitude line described in the treaty of 1783, to be run from the Connecticut river to the St. Lawrence, is to be protracted by the commissioners under the fourth article; who have not yet commenced that duty. This line was supposed to have been settled soon after the peace, and divides the actual settlements of the two countries. It was formerly run with great attention and care, but, as is recently said, without the aid of good instruments; and that, of course, it is incorrect, being a waving, and not a straight, line. If there be an error, it will now be corrected. Nor ought any party, who may, on the final admeasurement of it, lose any part of its present possessions, to be in the least dissatisfied. The true boundary is described in the treaty of peace. The location of that boundary is a work of science, diligence, and labour; and the governments of both countries will be careful that a common mistake and public misapprehension shall not produce individual injury. -osTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, HE dissertation on African Discoveries in the last number of the Quarterly Review, page 335, being calculated to raise expectations that the interior of Africa will be laid open, through the exertions of Mr. Richie, under the auspices of the Bey of Tripoli; permit me to offer to the public, through the medium of your intelligent and interesting Magazine, a few observations on this interesting subject. I apprehend that it cannot be presumed, by men of sound understanding and intelligence, that any great national advantage can be derived from a desultory plan, such as that of Mr. Richie; a plan which does not appear to have any great national result in view 1 a plan to reach an emporium of commerce which can only (according to this system,) be reached through the territories of princes oftentimes hostile to one another, and, consequently, unfavourable to the progress of the traveller.
Mr. Jackson on the Interior of Africa. §
The plan adopted by the French government, on the other hand, is founded in wisdom, for it hath a national object in view; viz. the opening a commercial communication between Timbucta and Gallam; and I do not hesitate, at this early period, to predict a favorable result to Bahdia's, or Aly Bey's, attempt, provided Providence spares his life. But, let us put the most favorable construction possible upon the result of this expedition of Mr. Richie; let us suppose that the Bey of Tripoli, the Shereefs of Hezzan and of Murzook, as well as the Shieks of the Arabs of the Sahara, are all at peace with each other; that they will respectively unite their efforts to promote the views of the travellers; and that the regions of the interior of Africa, south of the desert, shall be brought to have a commercial intercourse with Great Britain: what are the advantages to be expected from such an enterprise 2 will the Bey of Tunis, the Shereefs of Hezzan and of Murzook, and the Shieks of Sahara, give up the advantages to be derived from such an intercourse, to travellers and strangers in their country? Certainly not; but they will, in the event of the expedition being crowned with success, each respectively claim a remuneration, which can be levied only on the merchandize eventually in transit through their respective territories; and, thus, that merchandize will be subject to three or four separate imposts, which will enhance its value and lessen the profit of the original adventurers, as much as if they had passed through the hands of three parties, and, consequently, have been subject to three profits, in their passage to the hands of the conSurner. Every one acquainted with the African character, under the influence of the Mooselmen principles of government, must know, that the exactions to be made by these potentates would be exorbitant and oppressive. How much more effectual, therefore, would have been the discovery of the regions of the interior of that continent, if his Majesty's ministers had condescended to listen to the proposition which I had the honour of making to them; a proposition and a plan for the discovery of Africa, and for laying it open to British commerce, in a simple, direct, and unexceptionable manner, without being exposed to the various obstacles and impediments of passing - through through regions governed by independent princes;–such a plan as every rational man would on investigation pronounce to be the best that could possibly be suggested, and calculated, withal, to insure ultimate success. This plan I offered, a short time ago, to lay before my Lord Bathurst and my Lord Castlereagh: to the first, by a Ietter officially; and to the latter, by a letter to his secretary, Mr. Planta. Since this offer was made, a proposition has been made to me by a foreign power to undertake the direction of a plan for propagating the knowledge of the African Arabic language, on the Madras system; and for laying open to IEurope the interior regious of North Africa. I have not yet, however, acceded to the proposition made to me; and, although I am solicited, on this business, with liberal promises, I am at present disposed to decline the undertaking, being unwilling to engage in a negociation negatively prejudicial to the interests of my own native country, until I shall have ascertained that it will not engage me to facilitate this important discovery. J. G. JACKSON. Circus, America-square ; June 20, 1818.
6 on Parochial Lending-Libraries.
-oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, S you have requested some further communications on the subject of Parochial Lending-Libraries, I shall be happy to furnish you with such information as I have collected on the subject. The importance and utility of such institutions are almost too apparent to need any argument. If we cducate the poor, and teach them to read at school, we are bound to supply them with the means of gratifying that curiosity which we have excited. If we lay the foundations of the building, we should not refuse to lend our assistance towards its superstructure. Either the system of instructing the lower orders should be entirely given up, or it should be carried on by their moral culture in after-life. Another argument for these parochial collections of books, arises out of the cheapness and economy on which they may be conducted. At present, there are several thousands spent every year by our public societies, in the dissemination of religious books and tracts; which books and tracts are nearly all destroyed within the year. The number of tracts issued by the Religious Tract
[Aug. 1, Society alone, in the yed 1816, exceeded three millions and a half! During the same period, upwards of a million were issued by the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge ; whilst 275,000 were disseminated through the Church-of-England Tract Society l— Now, as there is the same demand every year on the funds of these societies, it may be reasonably supposed that most of the tracts are destroyed within the year. But to what purpose is this waste? Ought not our public charities to be conducted on the most economical footing ! And if, by the simple machinery of a circulating collection, the same tracts may be made to last through several years, ought not this machinery to be universally adopted ? Another argument in favour of this plan arises from its superior force and efficacy. At present, when a tract is given to an individual, it seldom goes out of his own hands, or, at most, beyond his own domestic circle: whereas, if the same tract were lodged in such a depository, it might be read by a whole village. We all know how much more the books of a circulating library are read than those which remain upon private shelves. The very same difference would follow from adopting this plan of cheap parochial lending-libraries. But, to estimate the full value of this project, you should consider, that, at no greater expense than the poor are uow supplied with these tracts, which are exclusively religious, might be added a most valuable collection of plain and useful books, on all other subjects. It is full time that the public should know, that the minds of the poor are becoming every day more expanded, by means of popular education; and that they consequently require superior, materials to those which satisfied their forefathers. Together with sound religious and moral instruction, they now require the elements of useful knowledge, and the means of innocent amusement. For this purpose, it is earnestly to be wished that our Religious Tract Societies would extend their catalogues also to other subjects; or that, if they should deem it foreign to their characters to undertake this duty, that then some new society should be formed, for the express purpose of supplying the lower orders with plain and useful books, and tracts upou all subjects which are not theological. Fully convinced of the propriety of
this plan, I have drawn up a catalogue,
of books of this kind,-which I here submit
I. HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. Goldsmith's History of England 6 s. d. abridged e • . () 3 6 History of Rome ... O 3 6 History of Greece . O 3 6 Grammar of Geography 0 3 6 — Popular Geography . 0 15 0 British Geography . 0 5 0 Robinson's Ancient History . 0 6 0 — Modern ditto . . 0 6 6 - Grammar ditto ... O 4 () Burmett's History of the Reformation abridged . . 0 9 6 Mavor's Scotland and Ireland . () 4 6 Portugal and Spain . 0 4 6 —— France e , () 4, 6 —— Russia and Poland . 0 4 6 —— America o ... O 4 6 —— Germany and Holland 0 9 0 Stretch's Beauties of History ... O 4 0 Trimmer's History of England, 2 vols. e e ... O 9 0 II. NATURAL HISTORY. Goldsmith's Natural History abridged e e . 0 6 () History of Quadrupeds, 2 vols. O 5 o of Insects e . () 3 6 of Singing Birds ... O 2 6 Mavor's Natural History ... O 5 6 Bingley's Animated Nature • 0 6 6 Anecdotes of Birds - • 0 4 () Huber on Bees e . 0 6 6 Description of 300 Animals ... O 5 0. Wakefield's Instinct displayed 0 5 6 Buffon's Natural History abridged 0 4 0 III. Bi O GR A PHI Y. British Plutarch, 3 vols. 12mo. 1 0 () Burmet's Life of Rochester . () 2 6 , Sir Matthew Hale . O 2 6 Mavor's Plutarch abridged . O 5 0 Pugh's Life of Hamway abridged 0 2 6 Aikin's Life of Howard . () 4, 6 Walton’s Lives, 2 vols. . , () 1 () () Watkins's Biographical Dictionary - e ... O 18 0 Fox's lives of the Martyrs ... O 15 O Gilpin's Lives of the Reformers 0 18 0 Johnson's Lives of the Poets abridged e e ... O 4 0 Campbell's Lives of the Admirals 1 0 0 Juvenile Plutarch • . () 5 () Mayor's British Nepos , () 5 ()
List of Books for Parochial Lending. Libraries.
, Vaillant's Travels in Africa . ()
Anecdotes of British Seamen .
Bannantine's Key to the Almanack Clarke's the World e e Watkins's Portable Cyclopedia 0 Squire's Grammar of Astronomy 0 Blair's Grammar of Philosophy, &c. o - e The Grammar of Medicine and Surgery o o * Dodsley's Economy of Human Life - e Gregory's Legacy to his Daughters e e ... O Female Speaker . . . 0 Melmoth's Beauties of English Prose - e . 0 Paley's Hints to Youth, —-- Duty of Contentment.
Hundred wonders of
Evenings at Home © . 0 10 Picture of London • • Q Ambulator round London 0 Curiosities of London ... O Mavor's Circle of the Sciences o Audley's Companion to the Almanack • e ... O Guthrie's Geography abridged 0 Walker's Gazetteer - O 1
Wakefield's Mental Improvement 0 Leisure Hours ... O Cheap Repository Tracts, 3 vols. each 4. - - 0 Progress of Pilgrim Good-Intent 0 Friendly Instructor . 0 Friendly Monitor on Ghosts . 0 Advice on Trades e . 0 Lessons for those in Humble Life 0 Gift to Servants and Apprentices o Wakefield's Anecdotes 0. Walks in London . 0 Domestic Recreations 0. Trimmer's Introduction to Nature O Reports of the Society for Bettering the Condition of the Poor • - . 0 10 0 N.B. It is not intended that all these books should be assembled in any village parochial library; but that out of these should be selected such as are suited to the wants of each place. A town would, of course, require a higher cast of books than country parishes. -oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, To: last expedition from Sierra Leone, in addition to many others sent out for the purpose of exploring the interior of Africa, having failed; and the enterprising and persevering Mr. Burkhardt having frustrated the wellgrounded hopes of the African Association, by his having paid the debt of nature, it is not improbable that his Majesty's government will now direct their attention with energy to the only plan that can possibly make that interesting and extraordinary country a jewel in the British crown. This important discovery, which would immortalize the prince who should cherish it to its maturity, can be effected through the medium of commerce only. But it should be attempted not only with energy and decision, but with dispatch, before the enterprising and commercial spirit of a foreign power, (seeing how abortive our efforts have been,) shall snatch from us the glorious opportunity now offered of laying open the interior regions of that interesting and undiscovered continent, to the commercial enterprise of Great Britain. JEton; June 30, VASCO DE GAMA.
For the Monthly Magazine.
Recent Journey from Riga to the Crimea. Q
the apron at night, and thrown back in the day. At the bottom of the carriage is then packed as much luggage as it will conveniently hold, and over that is laid your bed or mattress, with pillows, blankets, &c. The ascending and getting fixed in this machine is really of itself a great undertaking; but I must acknowledge that in no other carriage I have seen could I have passed such a journey with so little of fatigue. A kibitka is very similar in form, but not so large within, or so good-looking without, as a brichka. The letting of posthorses is under the direction of the government. Before we left Riga, our passports, given by the Russian ambassador in England, were exchanged for what they call here a podorodgmee; in which is expressed the name of the person to whom it is given, the place it is given at, the one he is going to, and the number of horses for which he has paid a share of the progone; for, on the giving this passport, Mr. G. paid for 1,898 versts, at two kopecks a verst (456 rubles). The ruble is now in value about 10}d.; but, unlike our Etiglish most y, it varies according to the credit of paper money Here, which is now extremely low : the ruble at par is 2s. 6d. Our passport being sett to the post station, they are then obliged to furnish us with horses, as soon as they have the number required at home, and ready. The occupiers of post stations are generally officers of about the rank of lieutenant, and sometimes higher in the Russian service. They are stationed at from twelve to twenty, and sometimes thirty, versts astonder; and, under their inspection and care, a certain number of horses are kept by government, proportioned to the common demand for them on that part of the road. The large number of horses we required together, was one of the principal causes of detention to us on the road: we were always obliged to have more than twelve, —as the roads were extremely bad when we left Riga, and our carriages all very heavily laden. The first half-hour's ride through the streets of Riga made me look forward with the utmost consternation to the prospect of so long a journey; for I believed the first night's travelling would have shaken every bone out of joint, and have produced a most violent headache for the first two days: but, when we got off the paved road, the shaking C Was