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£ured; while the other carefully avoids
all pressure, makes his application to
draw out the diseased substance only,
and permits, the cavity to heal to its
matural level,-his patient likewise re-
covers. It is not my intention, Mr.
Editor, at present, to offer any remarks
on either of these gentlemen's practice,
further than to repeat, that they are
unquestionably very opposite to each
JLondon; March 1, 1818. -

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.


HAVE at different times main

tained that the radical cause of misery in England is the engrossment •of farms and the monopoly of land, owing to far asoning on the subject, which conceives that social arrangements have ulterior objects more important than the happy subsistence of the people; and owing to the desire of the abettors of the late wicked wars to shift the cost from themselves, by getting higher rents from engrossers and monopolists than they are able to obtain from native cultivators, whose sole recommeudations are their industry, their #arge families, and their attachment to the soil.

In confirmation of my doctrines, I

now submit to your readers a statute of Henry VII, the wisest prince that ever sat on the English throne; and an opinion, on the same statute, of Lord Bacon, who, it will not be disputed, was the greatest statesman and philosopher which the animals of Britain can boast.

An Act passed in the Fourth Year of the
Reign of King Heinry VII. cap. 19.

The penalty for decaying of Houses of

{insbandry, or not laying of convenient Hand for the maintenance of the same.

Item, the king, our sovereign lord,

#aving a singular pleasure above all things to avaide such enormities and mischiefes as bee hurtfull and prejudiciall to the common weale of this his land and his subjects of the same, remembreth, that among all other things, great it conveniemces daily doe increase by desolation and pulling downe, and wilful waste of houses and villages within this realme, and laying to pasture lands, which customely have been used in tillage, whereby idlenesse, which is the ground and beginning of all mischiefes, daily doth encrease. For where, in some villages, two hundred persons were occupied and lived by their lawfull labours, now there are occupied two or three heardmen, and the residue fall into idlenesse; the husbandrie, which

The Causes of Misery developed. 33

is one of the greatest commodities of this realme is greatly decayed, churches destroyed, the service of God withdrawen, the bodies there buried not prayed for, the patrons and curates wronged, the defence of this land against our enemies outward, feebled, and impaired, to the great displeasure of God, to the subversion of the pollicie and good will of this land, if remedie be not provided. Wherefore the

king our soveraigne, our lord, by the

advice of the lords spirituall and temporall, and the Commons in this said Parliament assembled, and by authority of the same hath ordained, enacted and established, that no person, of what estate, degree, or condition that he be, that hath any house or houses, that at any time within three years passed, hath beene, or that now is, or that hereafter shall be lette for ferme, with twenty acres of land, at least, or more, lying in tillage and husbandrie, that the owner or owners of every such house, houses, and land, doe keepe, sustaine, and maintaine houses and buildings upon the said ground, and land convenient and necessarie for maintaining and upholding of the said tillage and husbandrie. And, if any such owner or owners, of amy such house or houses and land, take land and occupie any such house or houses, and keepe in his or their owne hands, that the said owner or owners, by the said authoritie, be bound in likewise to keepe and maintaine houses and buildings upon the said ground and and, convenient and necessaric for the maintaining and upholding of the said tiliage and husbaudrie. And, if any man do contrary to the premisses, or any of them, that then it be lawful to the king, if any such lands or houses be holden of him immediately, or, to the lords of the fees, if any such lands be holden of them immediately, to receive yearly halfe the value of the issues and profits of any such lands, whereof the houses be not so maintained and sustained. And the same halfe deale of the issues and profits to have, holde and keepe to his or their owne use, without any thing therefore to be payed or given, till such time as the same house or houses bee sufficiently builded or repaired againe. And that no manner of freehold be in the king, aor in any such lord or lords, by the taking of any such profits, of or in any such sands in no manner of forme; but omely the king and the said lord or lords have power to take, receive, and have the said issues and profits, as is above saide; and, therefore, the king, or the said lord or lords, to have power to distraine for the same issues and profits, to be had and received by them, in forme above sayde, by authoritie of this

present Acte.—Ruffhead, 9 cap. Harrington, and other political writers, consider this Act among the principai causes which concurred to throw power F 2 into

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into the hands of the people; and Lord Bacon, in speaking of it, says, “Another statute was made of singular policie for the population, apparantly, and (if it bee throughly considered,) for the souldiery, and military forces of the realme. Inclosures at that time began to be more frequent, whereby arable land (which could not be manured without people and families,) was turned into pasture, which was easily rid by a few heardsmen; and tenancies for yeares, lives, and at will, (whereupon much of the yeomanrie lived,) were turned into demesnes. This bred a decay of people, and (by consequence,) a decay of townes, churches, tithes, and the like. The king likewise knew full well, and o no wise forgot, that there ensued withals upon this a decay and diminution of subsidie and taxes; for, the more gen

tlemen, ever the lower bookes of sub

sidies. In remedying of this inconvenience, the King's wisdom was admirable, and the Parliament's at that time. Inclosures they would not forbid, for that had beene to forbid the improvement of the patrimonie of the kingdome; nor tillage they would not compell, for that was to strive with Nature and utilitie. But they took a course to take away depopulating inclosures and depopulating pasturage, and yet not by that name, or by any imperious expresse prohibition, but by consequence. The ordinance was, “That all houses of husbandry that were used with twentie acres of ground and upwards, should bee maintained and kept up for ever; together with a competent proportion of land, to be used and occupied with them :’ and in no wise to be severed from them as by another statute, made afterwards in his successor's time, was more fully declared. By this means, the houses being kept up, did of necessitie enforce a dweller; and the proportion of land for occupation being kept up, did, of neces. sitie, inforce that dweller, not to be a beggar or cottager, but a man of some substance that might keepe hiends and servants, and set the plough on going. This did wonderfully concerne the might and mannerhood of the kingdome, to have fermes, as it were of a standard sufficient to maintaine an able body out of penulie; and did, in effect, amortize a great part of the lands of the kingdome unto the hold and occupation of the yeomanrie, or middle people, of a condition between gentlemen and cottagers, or peasants.” Bacon's Historte of the Reigne of Kung Henry VII. p. 73. In confirmation of these doctrines, I ask the promoters of palliatives, and those who conceive that monopoly and general happiness are compatible, whether, if 50,000 small farms, of from fifteen to thirty acres, were created within the next twelve months, 50,000 £amilies would not thereby be placed in

Autobiographic Particulars of the Son of Sirach.

[Aug. l; a state of comfort, who are at present iu a state of wretchedness and destitution; and whether, if 50,000 families were so relieved, a new, prosperous, and happy face, would not be given to the whole nation? If it be flippantly remarked that small farms cannot maintain teams of horses, I reply, that it is not necessary they should. Let the insolent fiscal regulation be removed which compels a man who lends a horse to take out a licence, and pay a dayduty; and, on the contrary, let public parish-stables be encouraged, where horses may be hired by small farmers for a trifling sum, and this created difficulty would vanish. So, also, let it be in regard to all kinds of machinery. Let us see what the unmanageable" minority of patriots in legislature, men who so long have professed so much, will propose or effect on this subject. CoMMON SENse.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, SIR, N your forty-fourth volume, at pages 35, 313, and 505, are collected various autobiographic particulars of Jesus, a son of Sirach; who is there shown to have been the Jesus of the Evangelists. These particulars include indeed his crucifixion and resurrection; but some further notices remain to be detailed relative to the time passed by him on earth after these events. As before, I confine myself to his own account, which may be reduced to the following propositions. 12thly. He passed his latter days in some collegiate establishment, where he gave lectures. Draw near unto me, ye unlearned, and dwell in the house of learning. Ecclesiasticus, li. 23. This college, as will presently appear, was situate at Lydda. 13thly. He advances mysterious pretensions to an eventual retributive jurisdiction; as if he meditated a second coming to Jerusalem, in his royal capacity of son of God. He pleased God, and was beloved of him; so that, living among sinners, he was translated. Wisdom, iv. 10. Thus the righteous that is dead shall condemn the ungodly which are living; and youth that is soon perfected, the many years and old age of the unrighteous. For they shall see the end of the wise, and shall not understand what God in his counsel hath decreed of him, and to what end the Lord hath set him in safety. They shall see him and despise him, but God shall laugh them to scorn; and they shall hereafter be a vile carcass, and a - reproach

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reproach among the dead for everinore: for he shall rend them, and cast them down headlong. Wisdom, iv. 16-19.

Thou hast chosen me to be a king of thy people, and a judge of thy sons and daughters. Wisdom, ix. 7.

So far Jesus has been pleased to reveal his own intentions. According to the Babylonian Talmud, his return was intercepted by an act of violence. The Shammaeans, or Herodians, -who, on the part of Agrippa's family, watched over the retreat of Jesus, had penetrated his intentions; and, after carrying him to the house of judgment, “they *stoned the son of Satda in Lydda, and hanged him up on the evening of the passover: now, this son of Satda was the son of Pandira.”

This even nected, and

ems to have been cons therefore cotemporary,

6riginal Papers in the British Museum.

* Lightfoot thus translates the passage in a note on Matthew, xxvii. 56.

37 with the *execution of James, the brother of Christ, who undertook to announce and harbinger his return at Jerusalem : it is consequently to be placed about the forty-fourth year of the Christian era, and in the sixty-sixth year of the age of Jesus Christ. * Eusebius, in the second book of his Ecclesiastical History, speaks of oue James (c. ix.), who was slain with the sword in the reign of Claudius, by Herod Agrippa; he also speaks (c. xxiii.) of one James, the Lord's brother, who was slain with a fuller's beetle, after being pushed over the balustrade of the temple, and stoned. In this recapitulation, Eusebius makes a double employment of the same anecdote : for, in his twenty third chapter, Eusebius professes to be relating the anecdote given by Josephus Archaeo, xx. 9, 1,); and, in his ninth chapter, protesses to be relating the anecdote 3iven in the Acts of the Apostles (xii. 2). Now, the fact alluded to in Josephus, and in Acts, are unquestionably one and the same.

THE BRITISH MUSEUM, Consisting of Copies of Original Papers in that National Depository. -os

Letters of Oliver Cromwell to Colonel Norton, from the originals, in the hands of Robert Symmer, esq. Deare Norton, HAVE sent my sonn over to thee, beinge willinge to answere Providence; and, although I confesse I have had an offer of a ery greate proposition from a father of his daughter, yett truly I rather incline to this in my thoughts, because, though the other bee very farr greater, yet I see difficulties, and not that assurance of godlynesse, yet indeed fairnesse. I confesse that which is told me concerning the estate of Mr. M.” is more than I look for as things now stand. If God please to bring itt about, the consideration of a piety in the parents, and such hopes of the gentlewoman in that respect, make the busimesse to me a great mercy ; concerning which I design to waite upon God. I am confident of thy love, and desier all thinges may be carried with prevacie. The Lord doe his will, that's best; to which submitting I rest, Your humble servant, Feb. 25, 1647. O. Cito MWELL. For my noble Friend, Col. Richard Norton, these. *TRichard Major, esq. of Hursley, in Hampshire, whose daughter, Dorothy, was afterwards married to Richard Cromwell, eldest son of the Protector.

The same to the same.

Deare Dick,

| st had heen a favour indeed to have met you heare at Turnham ; but I heare you are a man of greate business. Therefore I say, if it is a favour for the House of Commons to enjoy you, what is itt to mee: but, in good earliest, when will you and your brother Russell be a little honest, and attend your charge 2 surely some expect itt, especially the good fellows who chose you.

I have mett with Mr. Major: wee. spent two or three howers together last night. I perceive the gentleman is very wise and honest, and indeed tnuch to be valewed: some things of cominon fame did a little sticke; I gladly heard his doubts, and gave such answers as was next at hand; I believe to some satissaction. Neverthelesse, I exceedinglie liked the gentleman's plai, tiesse, and free dealing with mee I know God has beene above all ill reports; and will, in his own tyme, vindicate mee: I have no cause to complay tie.

I see nothinge but that this particular businesse between him and mce may

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38 Original Papers in the British Museum,

yett; Mr. Marshall is returned, who says soe, and soe doe many of our letters. Their great committee of dangers have two malis for one right. It is sayd they have voted an army of 40,000 in Parliament; soc some of yesterday's letters: but I account my news ill bestowed, because upon an idle person. I shall take speedy course in the %indinesse concerninge my tenants; for which, thankes. My service to your lady. I am really Your assectionate servant, March 28, 1648. O. CROMWELL. For my noble Friend, Col. Richard Norton, these.

The same to the same.

Deare Norton, I could not in my last give you a perfect account of what passed between me and Mr. M. because wee were to have a conclusion of our speech that morning after I wrote my letter to you, which wee had, and having had a full enterview of one another's minds wee parted with this, that both would consider with our relations, and according to satisfactions given there, acquaint each other with our minds. I cannot tell how better to doe itt to receave or give satisfaction, than by you, whoe (as I remember.) in your last sayd, that if things did stick between us you would use your endeavour towards a close. The things insisted upon were theise, (as I take itt,) Mr. Major desired 400l. p. ann. of inheritance, lyinge in Cambridgeshire and Norfolke, to bee presently settled, and to be for maintenance, wherein I desired to bee advised by my wife. I offered the land in Hampshire for present maintenance, which, I dare say, with copses, and ordinary fells, will be communibus annis, 600l. p. annum ; and beside 500l. per annum, in tenants' hands, houldinge but for one life; and about 300l. p. annum, some for two lives, some for three lives. But as to this, if the latter bee not Hiked off, I shal be willing a further conference bee had in the first. In point of jounture I shall give satisfaction, and as to the settlement of landes given mce by the par" satisfaction to bee given in like manner, accordinge as Wee discoursed. In what else was demanded of mee, I am willinge, soe farr as I remember any demand, was to gicve satisfaction.

[Aug. 1,

Only, I having been informed by Mr. Rollinson, that Mr. Major did, upon a former match, offer to scttle the mannor wherein hee lived, and to give 2000l. in monie; I did insist upon that, and doe

desier itt may not bee with difficulty. .

The monie I shall need for my two little wenches, and thereby I shall free my sonn from beinge charged with them. Mr. Major parts with nothinge at present but that monie, savinge their board; which I should not be unwillinge to give them to enjoy the comfort of their society, which itts reason hee smarte for, if hee will robb me altogether of them. Truly, the land to bee settled, both what the Parliament gives mee and my owne, is very little less than 3000l. p. ann. all thinges considered, if I be rightly informed; and a yer of Lincolns' Inn having searched all the marquess of writings which were taken att Ragland and sent for by the Parliament, this gentleman, appointed by the committee to search the said writinges, assures mee, there is no s ruple concerninge the title; and itt soe fell out, that this gentleman who searched was my owne lawyer, a very

godly able man, and my deere friend,

which I reckon no small mercye. Hee is also possesst of the writings for mee. I thought fitt to give you this account, desiringe you to make such use of itt as God shall direct you, and I doubt not but that you will doe the part of a friend betweene two friendes. I account myself one, and I have heard you say Mr. Major was entirely soc to you. What the good pleasure of God is, I shall waite. Present my service to your lady, to Mr. Major, &c. I rest your assectionate servant, O. CROMWELL. April the 3d, 1648. I dosire you to carric this businesse with all privacic, and beseech you to do soc as you love mec. Lett mee intreat you not to loose a day herein, that I may know Mr. Major's minde, for I thinke I may be at leisure for a weeke to attend this businesse, to give and take satisfaction; from which, perhaps, I may bee shutt up afterwards by imployment. I know thou art an idle fellowe, but prethee neglect mee not now, delay may bee very inconvenient to mee, I much rely upon you. Lett me heare from you in two or three dayes. I confesse, the principal consideration as to mee is, the absolute settlement of


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the mannor wherein he lives, which hee would do but conditionally, in case hee prove to have noe sonn, and but 8000l. in case hee have a sonn. But as to this, I hope further reason may work him to more. Bibl. Birch. 4162. Roger L'Estrange's Declaration of his not being a Catholic. . Whereas Miles Prance and Lawrance Mowbray made oath, in October, 1680, that they had seen Roger L'Estrange severall times at mass in the Queen's chapel. And whereas Richard Fletcher made oath likewise, in the same month and yeare, that L’Estrange had declared himselfe to be a Catholique of Rome, and a member of that church, whereof the Pope is the head. I do here declare, in the presence of Almighty God, that I never was in a popish chappell in England from the yeare 1660 to this day; that I neither am, nor ever was, nor ever pretended to be, of the communion of the church of Rome. I deliver this in awe and dread of a Divine vengeance: and, if it be not true in every syllable, according to the best of my knowledge, recollection, and beliefe; or if I have any other meaning than what the words barely and nakedly import, may that blessed sacrament of the body and blood of our Saviour, (ws" I hope by God's grace to receive upon Sunday next, being Easter-day, to my eternal comfort,) be unto me the eating and drinking of my own damnation. Roger L'ESTRANGE. Attested by Stephen Lammas, curate. Thos. Harris, church-warden. April 12th, 1682, in the parish of St. Giles in the Fields. Bibl. Birch, 4170. An Act that every Alderman's Wife shall have a Scarlet Gown. Md. 7 Oct. 24. Eliz. It was ordained that every alderman who has been mayde before Christmas next shall buy for his wife a gown of scarlet; and that every mayor, before the Michaelmas next, after his election, buy for his wife a scarlet gown, upon forfeiture of 10l. five pounds to the nse of the town, 50s. to the poor man's box, and 50s, to the use of the mayor. And that their wises shall wear their gowns at the feasts following Christmas day, Easter day, Ascension day, Whit-Sunday, &c. &c. To forfeit 20s. for every default; 5s. to the poor's box, 5s. to the mayor, and 10s. to the use of the town. Ordinance for the town of Cambridge. Cole, vol. 20.

Original Papers in the British Museum. 39

The Gule of August.

The Gule of August, a term frequently used in old decds, means no more than the 1st of August, from the Latin word gula, a throat; from a person at Rome being cured of a disorder in that part by kissing the chains of St. Peter, with which he was bound in the persecution under Nero. The same is also called Lammas-day, softened by us from Loaf-mass; a mass of thanksgiving for the fruits of the earth, or of the corn, being anciently celebrated in England on this day, and not from any lambs being offered on that day by tenants to their landlords, as some have supposed; for in all ancient Saxon books it is called hlaf-mass; that is, loaf-mass.

Cole, xxiii. 12. Ducking Stools.

“Trumbellum is an engine of punishment which ought to be in everie libertie that hath view of frank pledge, for the coercion of scoldes and unquiett women, vulgarlie called ducking stooles; but these tumbrills, as you may read in an auncient statute, were also ordayned for the punishment of bruers breaking the assize.”

When I was a boy, I remember to have seen a woman ducked for scolding: the chair hung by a pulley fastened to a beam about the middle of the bridge, in which the woman was confined and let down under the water three times, and then taken out. The bridge was then of timber, before the present stonebridge was built. The ducking stool was constantly hanging in its place, and on the back pannel of it was engraved, “ devils laying hold of scolds,” &c. Some time after a new chair was erected in the place of the old one, having the same devices carved on it, and well painted and ornamented. When the new bridge of stone was erected in 1754, this was taken away, and I lately saw the carved and gilt back of it nailed up by the shop of one Mr. Jackson, a siiversmith, in the Butcher-row, behind the town, who offered it me, but I did not know what to do with it. In Octob. 1776, I saw in the Town-hall the old one ; I mean behind, or rather partly on the southerest corner of the modern one, a 3d, ducking stool, of plain oak, with an iron bar before it to confine the person in the seat, but made no enquiries about it. I mention these things, as the practice seems now to be laid aside.

- Cole 48, 172. * Statute 51, Henry ill. statute of


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