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1818.] Mr. Squire on the Disappearance of Saturn's Ring.
believed to be so excellently constructed, and so admirably adapted to the circumstances and situatious of the inhabitants, that it left us no room to boast that our own was the sole admiration of the world. The objection, however, was only apparent; they had not a coustitution to build up from the foundation, they had ours to work upon and adapt to their own wants and purposes. This was what the present motion (Mr. Grey's) -recommended to the House, not to pull down, but to work upon our constitution; to examine it with care and reverence, to repair it where decayed, to amend it where defective, to prop it where it wanted support, to adapt it to the purposes of the present time, as our ancestors had done from generation to generation; and always transmitted it, not only unimpaired, but improved, to their posterity.
-oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, N the 8th of Sept. Saturn will be in opposition to the sun, and
therefore, during that and the following
month, many opportunities will occur for observing this planet, and the position of its amazing ring, which is now rapidly closing from our view. The plane of the ring produced will first touch the earth's orbit on the 20th of Sept. in the twenty-first degree of Sagittarius; the earth, at the same time, being in the twenty-seventh degree of Pisces. Hence, while the plane of the ring is passing over the southern semicircle of the earth's orbit, the earth will
describe the northern ; and I find, by
calculation, that it will meet the plane of the ring on the 14th of March, 1819, (about two days after the planet will have passed its conjunction with the sun,) when the edge of the ring will be directly towards the earth, or its plane will then pass through the earth's centre; the earth, at the same time, changing from the northern or illuminated side of the ring to its southern or dark side. On the 22d of the same month, the plane of the ring will pass through the sun, when its northern side, which had enjoyed the vivifying rays of that luminary for nearly fifteen years, will now be in darkness; and the southern side begin to be enlightened by his beams. And, as the sun becomes more and more elevated above the level of the ring, it will begin to open, or become less and less eccentric; till the minor axis is equal to MoMTHLY MAG, No. 315,
half the major. After which time, it will increase in eccentricity, till it reaches the ascending node, when the plane of the ring passes through the sun or earth, and the ring will again disappear. The last time Saturn was at the descending node of its ring (which was in the year 1789), the plane of the ring passed throug: the earth three times, viz. in Mayo August, and January following. t, unfortunately for the curious, at the same node this time, when the plane of the ring first touches the earth's orbit, the position of the earth is such, that the said plane will pass through the earth only once, and then at a time when the planet is too near the sun to be visible. The following particulars relating to Saturn's ring are computed from the best observations, and corrected for precession, &c. to mean noon of the 22d of March, 1819:—
Longitude of the de- scending node of Saturn - - - - - - - - - - - - - Longitude of the descending mode of Saturn's ring on the ecliptic. . . . . . • - - - - - 11 Inclination of the ring to the plane of the planet's orbit. . . . . . Inclination of Saturn's orbit to the plane of the ecliptic . . . . . . . The distance of the ecliptic node of the ring from the mode of the planet . . . . . . . . Inclination of the ring to the plane of the ecliptic Distance of the ecliptic node of the ring from its orbicular mode.. Latitude of the orbicular mode of the ring Longitude of the orbicular node of the ring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 21 14 53
Trom very careful calculations, I find the time of the conjunction of the Sun and Saturn (d. G) P2) in 1819, to take place March 11d. 19.h. 38m, ; that the plane of the ring will pass through the earth, March 14d. 10h. 7m.; and through the Sun, March 21d. 13h. 30m. Hence, from the 14th of March, at 10h. 7m. P.M. to the 22d, at 30m. after one in the morning, the dark side of the ring will be turned towards the earth; and, during
31 20 45
* - - - - - - - - -
4 7. 16
26 - The German Student.
during that interval, the planet will appear divested of its ring, for it will then be invisible. Epping; July 10. -o
For the Monthly Magazine.
THE GERMAN STUDENT. No. III.
THE SWABIAN PERIOD.
HE romances of chivalry, which were translated into German rime, during the Swabian period, are so mumerous, that, in order to facilitate a rememberable survey, it has been found necessary to divide them into classes, according to their topics, and cach class is denominated, by the German critics,
a cyclus, or cycle, of romance. The first and earliest cycle respects Arthur, and the knights of the round table. These romances have an AngloNorman origin, and are probably derived from Welsh chronicles, extant in Britain and Britainy, before the French poets, on both sides the channel, began to rime in the langue d'oui. Of all these round-table romances, none became so popular in Germany, or produced, so great an effect there, as that of Chrétien Menessier, of Troyes, entitled, the Sang-réal. By the sang-réal (the royal blood) was understood a dish, or charger, supposed to have served at the last supper, and to have been employed in receiving the precious blood of Christ from the side-wound given on the cross. This relic is stated to have been brought, by Joseph of Arimathca, into northern Europe; to have become the property of King Arthur, and to have been intrusted by him to the custody of Sir Percival. A part of the legend, that which describes under the allegory of a knight the duty of a priest, is of Provenzal origin, and originates with Guiot; and the combination of it, with heroes of the Round Table, is an addition of the north-country French romancer. In this mixed form it was adopted by Wolfram of Eschenbach, and given in two successive poems, called Parcival and Timorel, the latter of which displays much of invention peculiar to the translator. Both have been modernized in Bodmer's Calliope. To the cycle of round-table romance also belong the Iwain of Hartman von Aue, the Lamcelot of Ulrich of Zezam, the Gamuret of Albert of Halberstadt, the Trystan of Godfrey of Strasburg, and the Lohengrin of an unknown author, which remains in manuscript at the Vatican.
Wigamore, Bliomberis, Flordibel, and Wigolais, have also been sung. A second cycle of romance respects Charlemayne and his twelve peers. From patriotic sympathies one might have expected in Germany a predilection of attention to this monarch; but the number of epopeas which celebrate his exploits is comparatively small. This seems to have resulted from the circumstance, that the Provenzal poets, who chiefly undertook this set of stories, were less addicted to epic-writing than the Norman poets; and that the Germans were mostly content to translate what they found extant in the literature of France concerning French heroes. The Margrave of Narbonne, William of Orange, Renwart the strong, which are ascribed to Ulrich of Thurheim, belong to this class. Pleur and Blanchefleur, and also Pastenopex, both Provenzal tales, were successfully germanized by Rupert, of Orbent. A third cycle of romance relates to the heroes of classical antiquity. The story of Alexander the Great occurs, in which the heroes are exhibited in the costume of chivalry, and surrounded by Arabian wizardry. Stories from Ovid were versified by Albrecht of Halberstadt; and an AEneid was composed by Henry, of Veldeg; but the names of Jason, Hector, Achiiles, Hercules, and the other heroes of Guido of Colonna, never acquired in Germany so vernacular a celebrity as among ourselves. A fourth cycle of romance, which may aptly be called the patriotic, is truly native, original, unimported, and conscerated exclusively to the celebra
tion of German heroes: this class cor
responds with our King Horn, Guy of Southampton, and Richard Lion-heart.
The most distinguished of these epopeas.
deserve separate mention. 1. The book of heroes, by Wolfram, of Eschenbach; it narrates the adventures of Otnit, and of Hugh-and-Wolf-Diederich; and passes on to the history of Lausin, king of the dwarves; which last part is a continuation by Henry, of Osterdingen. 2. The court of Etzel, or Attila, of which the manuscript preserved at Dresden is still unedited. 3 and 4. Diederich and Sigenot, which has been printed; and Diederich and his Champions, and the Flight of Diederich to the Huns, which are still manuscript at the Vatican. 5. The Expedition of the Ecken, which has been repeatedly printed. 6. Horny Siegfried, who, from being apprenticed to a blacksmith, becomes a kind of
salatmander, and marries a princess. 7. The Duke of Aquitain, of which a Latin version exists, entitled, De primá expeditione Attila, regis Hunnorum, in Gallias. This poem was edited by Molter, in 1798, and is by him referred to the sixth century. It opens with the praise of Attila, and his expedition from Pannonia. Gibicho, king of the Franks, sends the youth Hacon with treasures to deprecate his wrath. Henry, king of Burgundy, sends his daughter Hildegonda as a hostage to Attila; and
Alfier, king of Aquitain, sends his son
Walter for the same purpose. Hildegonda, Hacon, and Walter, are thus educated together at the Hunnish court. Meanwhile Gibicho dies, his soil refuses homage to the Huns, and Hacon, apprehensive of danger, determines on secret flight to his own home, which he reaches. Walter and Hildegouda also escape together, and come into the territory of Gunthar, the new king of the Franks. He determines to arrest and plunder them, as they have brought with them stolen jewels; but Walter defends himself so bravely, that the king and Hacon are obliged to interfere; Walter and Hacon now recognize one another as old companions, and a reconciliation is effected. Many adventures, related in this poem, have been transplanted into other early metrical romances of the Germans. 8. The song of Hildebrand, of which the following version may give some idea: Hildebrand and Hadubrand, with one mind, agreed to go on a warlike expedition. These kinsmen made ready their horses, prepared their war-shirts, and girded on their chain-hilted swords. As they rode to the meeting of heroes, Hildebrand, Herilrant's son, said to his companion—“If thou wilt tell me who was thy father, and of what people thou art sprung, I will give thee three garments.” “I am a child of the Huns,” answered Hadubrand, “ and our old people have told me that my father's name was Hildebrand. In former times he came eastwards, flying the enmity of Otto-asa. He left behind in the land a bride in child-bed, and a child without inheritauce. Then he went to dwell with Theoderic and his blades, where fresh contentions happened to my father; he was the people's friend, but I wedin that he is dead.” “My good God Irmin,” quoth Hildebrand, “let me not fight with so near a kinsman.” Then he untwisted
The German Student. 27
golden bracelets from his arm; “these (said he to Hadubrand,) I give thee with hearty good-will. I am thy father Hildebr; tıd.” But Hadabi and answered, “Craftily thou seekest to deceive me, being aflaid to meet me spear against spear. Thou art more aged than my father can have been ; and ship-wrecked men told me that he died by the Wendel-sea.” Then Hildebrand said, “I well see thou hast no Lord God, and art willing to win the spoils of the dead from a man thou should'st venerate. Sixty summers have I wandered out of my country, and sometimes I have joined archers; but in no borough did they ever fasten my legs; and how my heatest kinsman would aim his battle-axe at my neck. But, if thou so greatly desirest the battle, let the people be judges who best deserves our two coats of mail.” Then they let fly their ashen spears with such force that they stuck in the shields, and they thrust resounding axes of flint against each other, and uplified their white shields furiously. But the lady Utta, rushed in between them; “I know the cross of gold (said she,) which I gave him for iis shield; this is my jiiidebrand. You, Hadubrand, sheathe your sword, this is your father.” Then she led both champions into her hall, and gave them meat and wine and many embraces. 9. The song of the Nibelungs, by an author of the name of Conrad. Probably this is Conrad, of Wurzburg, who flourished about the year 1280, and who might still possess, in a more ancient form, the matrials whence this epopea is derived. It contains adventures alluded to in the Wilkina-saga, which is attributed to the year 1250; but the same stories were common to the whole Gothic north. This song relates about forty distinct adventures, which are detailed, with all the interest which fidelity could bestow, in Weber's learned Illustrations of Northern Antiquities. 10 King Rother. This romance forms an intermediate link betweep the German cycle of romance and that of Charlemayne; the hero being the grandfather of that emperor, and the father of Pepin. 11. The Sword Tyrfing, of which an English improved version has been inserted in the first volume of the Tales of Yore. 12. Duke Ernest, by Henry of Veldeg, which is little else than a rimed chronicle, having true history for its basis. E 2 Mueh
28 Account of the Roman Villa at
Much might be said concerning the didactic and erotic poetry produced during the Swabian period; but, as these poems are ill suited to furnish themes or models for modern art, it may suffice to mention the dialogue entitled King Tyro, of Scotland, in which this imaginary monarch lectures his son Friedebrand on the virtues of chivalry; and the dialogue entitled Winsbeck and his Wife, in which the feminine virtues are similarly taught. Fables of AEsop were versified by Boner, under the title of The Jewel, and edited by Bodmer, at Zurich, in 1757. On the whole, this period of German literature is singularly rich in productions, which rival those of the Provenzal poets, whence they were principally imitated. -oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, N the last number of your Magazine, Mr. I. O. Lanfrar favours us with some remarks on the extortion and improper conduct of hackncy coachmen, which he attributes chiefly to “the want of facility in obtaining the numbers of their coaches.” He recommends two modes of remedying this inconvenience; but his own observations prove, that, at least, one of his remedies will not materially tend to promote the public good by protecting us from the impertinence of gentlemen of the whip; for, if they now insult persons who wish to ascertain the number of their coach, is it not probable that, should the slip of paper recommended by your correspondent be demanded, they would be equally insolent? The law now punishes those who refuse to tell their number, and what more can it do to those who refuse to deliver up the paper containing it ! When I was in Paris, a short time since, I was much pleased with the manner in which the numbers of the fiacres are placed before the eyes of passengers. They are always permainently fixed in the inside of the coach, in the centre of the roof, in large conspicuous characters. Were this plan adopted in England, I am of opinion that the evils complained of by Mr. Lanfrar would cease, as every persoll riding in a hackney-coach would then have leisure and convenience for entering the number in his memorandumbook, or enfixing it in his memory. The French coaches have the numbers on the outside also. If you are of opinion that a similar plan would be of utility in the metro3
polis, I hope that you will make it
y Northleigh, near Woodstock.
1818.] for its protection. In one of the rooms a considerable quantity of wheat was found, which has been charred or scorched, perhaps with a view to prevent it from vegetating. Many coins have been picked up: I ~ was told, by the man who has charge of the place, that they are principally those of Constantine, Allectus, and Carausius: I should, however, be glad of more accurate information on this particular. Vast quantities of fragments of pottery are scattered about in all directions, broken, no doubt, by the careless stupidity of the labourers .* employed. Part of the handle of an amphora is shewn to visitors as the arm of a statue. It is probable that this place was the
29 residence of some person of consequence, from the number and size of the rooms, baths, &c. The search appears to be carried on with very little energy, nothing having been done for upwards of six weeks past. I shall conclude, by requesting that some of your readers, residing near the spot, will supply your valuable Magazine with a more minute account of the villa; and send, from time to time, notices of the success which may attend the researches made around this most perfect and interesting specimen of the taste and grandeur of the Romans. - CHARLEs Severn. Harlow; June 29.
References to the preceding Cut. 1. (33 feet by 20) A tessellated pavement, with an hypocaust under it. A. The Praefurnium. 2. (30 feet by 10) Paved with coarse red tesserae. 3. (9 feet by 14.6) Has a terras or plaster floor. 4. Not perfectly examined. 5. A passage, with tessellated floor. 6, Ditto.
7. Not perfectly examined.
8. (19 feet by ig.6) A tessellated pavement, much broken.
9. (19 feet by 16) Ditto.
10. (87 feet by 12,6) Part of the cryptoporticus ; the pavement tessellated.
11. (93 feet by 12.6) Continuation of ditto, not examined.
12. Not examined.
14, Ditto. 15. Not