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neither the new crater nor its shadow. Again, on the 4th January 1792, he perceived in the eastern crater of Helicon a central mountain, of a clear grey colour, 3" in diameter, of which, during many years' observations, he had perceived no trace. “This appearance,” he adds, “is remarkable, as probably, from the time of Hevelius, the western part of Helicon has been forming into its present shape; and Nature seems, in that district, to be particularly active.” In making such minute observations as those to which I now allude, it would be proper, along with an inspection of the moon's luminous disk, to mark the appearances of different portions of her dark hemisphere, when it is partially enlightened by the reflected light from the carth, soon after the appearance of new-moon. These researches, however, would require a long-continued series of the most minute observations, by numerous observers in different regions of the globe, which could only be effected in consequence of a general attention excited among the bulk of mankind to such investigations. But, were this object accomplished, and were numerous observations made from the tops of mountains and in the serene sky of southern climes, where the powers of the telescope are not counteracted by dense vapours, there can be little doubt but direct proofs of the habitability of the moon would be obtained, or, at least, that this question, in reference to this point, might be completely set at rest. Perth; 1818. T. DICK. P.S. Should be glad to know if any of your readers can inform me of the present positions of the four new planets, Ceres, Tallas, Juno, and Vesta; and whether their motion be yet so accurately determined as to be registered in an astronomical Ephemeris. Neither White's, nor the Nantical Almanack, nor auy other ephemeris with which I am acquainted, has hitherto inserted their motions and aspects. -oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, CARCELY any mode of disturbing authors in the enjoyment of their reputation is more common, or, generally speaking, more unjust, than the charge of Plagiarism. It is hardly possible to peruse a volume of poetry without meeting with lines that recall to the mind parallel passages in other works; and yet, perhaps, nothing was farther from the intention of the writer than

Erroneous Charges of Plagiarism.

{Aug. 1, imitation. In Dryden's celebrated Ode we have the following line,— “And tears began to-flow;” it occurs, too, without any variation, in Goldsmith's Hermitage: surely Goldsmith might have written this line,— aithough he had never read a couplet in Dryden. It appears, therefore, that, to substantiate a charge of plagiarism, there must be a similarity of thought, as well as of expression; and even then the analogy must be very striking, the ideas must be such as were not likely to occur to many writers, although their subject was the same. Perhaps, indeed, camdour should prevent our considering an author convicted of plagiarism, till we find him employing the thoughts of another on a subject to which they have no relation, and which could not excite them. The poems of Lord Byron,--which their admirers (and who does not admire them ) have classed with the noblest productions of native genius, having triumphantly passed the critical ordeal imposed by Scotch and English Teviewers, seem likely to encounter the insidious attacks of those ingenious gentlemen,--who, finding similar expressions in different authors, immediately conclude that they have discovered most palpable plagiarism; and proceed, without remorse, to impale their victim in the columns of a review, a magazine, or a newspaper. A variety of passages in Lord Byron's poems have been pronounced imitations: one in Lara is said to be pilscred from the Mysteries of Udolpho:-

“Lara's brow upon the instant grew Almost to blackness, with its demon hue.”

If the idea proposed to the imagination in these lines be really borrowed, the obligation is not great: but common justice may induce us to believe that the thought sprung from the subject; and, as far as regards Lord Byron, is original. An idea, howevcr, is to be found in Miss Radcliffe's novel, which may fairly lead us to question the originality of the noblest passage in one of the noblest productions of our patrician bard. In “the Giaour,” (pp. 5, 6, 7, small edition,) the following exquisitely beautiful simile occurs, “He who hath bent him o'er the dead, Ere the first day of death is fled; The first dark day of nothingness,

The last of danger and distress; Before

1818.] Mr. Luckcock on the Cultivation of the Rhubarb Plant. 21

(Before Decay's effacing fingers,
Have swept the lines where beauty lingers,)
And mark'd the mild angelic air,
The rapture of repose that’s there;
The fix’d, yet tender, traits that streak
The languor of the placid cheek;
And—but for that sad shrouded eye,
That fires not, wins not, weeps not, now ;
And, but for that chill changeless brow,
Where cold Obstruction's apathy
Appals the gazing mourner's heart;
As if to him it could impart
The doom he dreads, yet dwells upon :
Yes,—but for these, and these alone,
Some moments—aye—one treacherous hour,
He still might doubt the tyrants’ power;
So fair, so calm, so softly seal’d,
The first, last look, by death reveal’d
Such is the aspect of this shore—
'Tis Greece I but living Greece no more :
So coldly sweet, so deadly fair,
We start—for soul is wanting there.
Hers is the loveliness in death,
That parts not quite with parting breath:
But beauty, with that fearful bloom,
That hue which haunts it to the tomb;
Expression's last receding ray,
A gilded halo hovering round decay,+
The farewell beam of Feeling past away!
Spark of that flame,—perchance of heavenly
birth,<-
Which gleams, but warms no more its che-
rish’d earth.”

In “the Mysteries of Udolpho,” (vol. ii. page 29,) we have the subjoined remark:—“Beyond Milan, the country wore the aspect of a ruder devastation; and, though every thing seemed now quiet, the repose was like that of death, spread over features, which retain the impression of the last convulsions.”

Now, under all the circumstances, it is hardly possible to withstand the conclusion, that this served flord Byron as a text to the lines quoted above. When it is considered that the idea intended to be conveyed, both in the poem and in the novel, is a most extraordinary one,—the delicacy and beauty of which can only be appreciated by a very excursive imagination, an idea hot hattirally suggested by the subject, and unlikely to occur to more than one mind,--it wiłł appear that the poet is, to a certain extent, a copyist. The thought is wonderfully improved; but still it is borrowed. The daring of the bard's imagination is truly sublime: but the wings with which he soared, in this instance, are not his own. He has tinctured thern with the hues of heaven, and gilt them with its sun-beams: but the fancy of another first expanded them.

Pentonville; W. C. H. June 8, 1818,

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

ONSIDERING myself indirectly pledged (Sept. 1817,) to give some farther information on the cultivation and properties of the rhubarb plant, if any thing worth communicating should occur, I now sit down to fulfil the

intention. The lateness of the season, with its chiiling damps, kept me from paying any attention to my plants till the beginning of April, when I unexpectedly found that they had begun to germinate and make their appearance above ground; so that I supposed it was now too late to disturb them without injury, at least for the present season. I, however, dug up four of them, and found the roots so bulky as to admit of six pounds being detached from each, without at all encroaching upon the heart and crown of the plant: these were again deposited in their former places, with the addition of a little stable manure; and I have since found them nearly as luxuriant as those roots which were not disturbed. From this quantity of twentyfour pounds, I cut off-sets for twentyfour new plants; not one of which has failed; but the greater number will yield considerable produce the present summer, and bid fair the next season to rival their parent stocks in quantity. To prove their hardiness, I exposed a quantity of the youngest shoots, about the thickness of my finger, and from four to eight inches long, for nine or ten days, to the full operation of the cold, during which time we had several severe frosts; yet they are now in a thriving state, with the exception of a few, which, I apprehend, were so small as to have no germs upon them. The remainder of the bulk, consisting of seven pounds, was then well washed, and, without any other preparation, or the rejection of any part, divided into two portions; one of them was put into an oven of a temperature not to bake, but to dry it gradually, which i found was completed in about twenty-four hours; the other half I tied in small bunches, and hung them within airing of the kitchen fire, which produced, in two or three weeks, the same effect as the oven. I do not know that either of these modes has the preference; the only precaution which appears necessary is, that, the sooner the process of drying is begun, the more the virtues of the plant will be secured by its not being suffered to become vapid, or 22 or in any degree approaching to decay. The produce, when thoroughly dry, was a pound and a quarter, or say one-sixth part of the original weight: and, taking the whole, rough and smooth, I passed it through the family coffee-mill, and was pleased to see it come out of a regular and beautiful orange-colour; and which, by being closely bottled, will, no doubt, continue unimpaired in its qualities as long as may be required.

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I had supposed that the most solid parts of the root, or perhaps its roughest and gnarled covering, would possess the strongest medicinal properties: to put this out of doubt, I kept the parts distinct, for experiment; and can now with confidence decide, that every part of it, if not equally efficacious, is good to mix promiscuously; and that the total, whether of the Turkey or English sort, whether young or old, bark, pith, or fibres, will be found as good as any which the shops can produce. I have tried it upon myself and various other subjects, some of whom the faculty might pronounce rather obstinate; and have found that from twenty to twentyfour grains, with the addition of about the same quantity of calcined magnesia, was uniformly sufficient for a dose; thus proving its complete efficacy as one of the most useful articles in the whole materia medica.

I shall just observe, that the plant, which I mentioned last autumn as being suffered to grow too long in the seedpod, has been a valuable example in the inquiry; it is now suffering for the neglect, growing small and huddled,

Mr. Luckcock on the Cultivation of the Rhubarb Plant. [Aug. 1,

and not likely, I think, to recover its former vigour: whence I inser, that it will be better on all occasions to cut off the seed as soon as it makes its appearance, taking care to cover the opening or cup to keep out the rain. How long it may be prudent to depend upon off-sets for new plants, or whether an occasional new supply should not be raised from seed, I have yet no experience for my guide; nor have I any means of ascertaining how many years a root will give full produce before it begins to decline. One property, not mentioned before, is that of its carly produce,—coming in before apples, and even before gooseberries: though the spriug season was so remarkably late, the article was ready for use the beginning of May, and may be reckoned to begin, on an average, as early as the middle of April, and to continue in full supply till the end of August. To enable observers to ascertain how far comparative excellence is attainable, I cut one stem, last summer, which weighed nineteen ounces, every pennyweight of which was eatable. The sketch of the three leaves annexed is sufficiently accurate for the information intended. No. 3 is by far the most productive for the table. No. 2 has been very scanty in this respect, but has produced much more in the roots than either of the others; and of course No. 1 has the balance of mediocrity. These qualities, however, on the finited scale on which the

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duce; in marketable value; and in medicinal virtues, it is equal to any plants which our climate can exhibit; and, in the combination of all these good qualities, and without a single defect, it certainly stands pre-eminently unrivalled. I am desirous of obtaining such information as should enable ine, or any other person, to make a comparative estimate or table of the produce per acre, or per yard, of the principal articles in cultivation, both in our fields and gardens;* together with expenses; time required in the growth; succession which the soil would allow, either by repeating the same article or following with others, so as to fill the annual round to the best advantage; the average market prices; the certainty of demand; the district; soil and situation most favourable; in short, without farther enumeration, such an estimate as should encourage the production of those articles most profitabie to the grower, and most beneficial to society. I have long remarked the little attention to the subject, in this point of view, in our gardening books; none of them, that I have seen, attempt

ing to explain which articles are most

productive in value or quantity, but merely stating a general description and the best methods of cultivation. Conmected with this subject, would be the estimate between tillage and pasture, not only as it respects the agriculturist himself, his comparative trouble and gains, but, in a more extended view, as involving the important questions of a greater or less supply of human food and human employment. Will some of your friendly correspondents say from what books the intelligence may be procured, or whether such an attempt has been made and reduced to a practical and intelligible scale? 'i'o search at random the aimost countless books on husbandry and horticulture for the detail wanted, would be something “Like speed toiling in infinity.”

Or perhaps a conclusion more attainable would be, for any of your readers who have had opportunities of noticing the produce of some favorite articles, to transmit their remarks upon them, unconnected with others to which they may not have turned their attention; similar (if it may be allowable to quote orieself,) to mine, on rhubarb. There

* An attempt of this kind is made in Blair's Universal Preceptor, and there is other information in Middleton's Middlesex—EDITOR.

Foriana. 23

are few professional men capable of reflection, whose experience may not enable them to add something to the stock of public knowledge; and I reckon it an invaluable privilege attached to such periodical works as your Magazine, that a writer may, without expense or risque, and with little trouble to himself, be gratified with the certainty that his communications will have almost unlimited circulation; so that no useful hint, or experimental observation, however fugitive or detached, need be lost to the world for want of an effective vehicle. May utility still be the leading characteristic of your miscellany, and a liberal and judicious encouragement of correspondence ensure that variety and intellect which the public may duly appreciate. Birmingham; June 26. J. Luckcock. N.B. It appears from an official report, that the quantity of rhubarb imported into Great Britain, during three successive years, was in value:—

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73. SEDITION. | NEVER yet saw the seditious paper that I would have thought it necessary to prosecute; but this by no means implies that emergencies may not make it proper. 74. SLAVERY. Rather than slavery should be established, let discord reign for ever. 75. TYTHES. He said the country was oppressed by ty thes, the collection of which was harsh and injurious; and he anxiously wished that some gentleman in the House would, attempt to relieve the country from that species of barbarism and discouragement to every agricultural improvement, One-tenth part of the produce of England was assigned, and this perhaps was more than one-seventh part of the land. He wished to deprivé no clergyman of his just rights; but, in settling a new constitution, and laying down new Principles, to enact that the clergy should have one-seventh of all grants, he

must confess appeared to him an absurd doctrine.

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toleration, without any restriction; and,
at the same time, of an established
church,
He also said that he was a com-
plete friend to religious establishments,
on the same ground that he was a friend
to toleration. He thought it highly
proper that a system of instruction for
the improvement of morals should be
provided for in every country; but highly
roper, also, that those who dissented
from that system should incur no penal-
ties, should suffer no disabilities, on ac-
count of their dissent; because, to admit
of religious instruction, whatever cha-
racter it assumed, as far as it contri-
buted to inculcate morals, was to enlarge
the sphere of religion.

77. LAWS OF SCOTLAND.

If that day should ever arrive, which the lord advocate seems so anxiously to wish for; if the tyrannical laws of Scotland should ever be introduced in opposition to the humane laws of England; it would then be high time for my honourable friends and myself to settle our affairs, and retire to some happier clime, where we might at least enjoy those rights which God has given to man, and which his nature tells him he has a right to demand.

In the debate on the criminal law of Scotland, he rose, and said, “I have often prepared myself not to be astonished at any desertion of former principies; I have often been surprised at doctrines advanced in this House; I have often had my understanding per

plexed and confused; but never did I

find myself so much at a loss as on the
present occasion.”
78. ERRORS OF THE UNDER STANDING.
No mail is accountable for the errors
of his understanding.

79. RIGHTS OF MAN.
The rights of man, I say, are clear:
man has natural rights; and he, who de-
nies it, is ignorant of the basis of a free
government, is ignorant of the best prin-
ciple of our constitution.
80. TREASON AND SEDITION BILL.
Sir-I hope this bill (Treason and
Sedition Bill,) will never come into this
House. I am not friendly to any thing
that will produce violence. Those who
know me, will not impute to me any such
desire ; but I do hope that this bill will
produce an alarm ; that, while we have
the power of assembling, the people will
assemble; that, while they have the
power, they will not surrender it, but
come forward, and state their abhor-
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rence of the principle of this proceeding;
and those who do not, I pronounce to be
tiaitors to their country. -
- 81. LIBERTY.
Nothing, indeed, can be more true
than that all the virtues of man are allied
to liberty: in the generous soil of frcedom
they take deep root, and acquire full
vigour and maturity; their vines foster
on the dunghill of slavery, and shoot
forth with nauseous luxuriance.
82. OPINIONs.
Mr. Fox paid a handsome compli-
ment to the worth and character of Mr.
Walker, who, he said, entertained
opinions respecting the constitution of
which he did not approve; but that was
no reason for withdrawing his good
opinion, while his life and conduct were
irreproachable. It was their duty to
take into their minds, not toleration, but
that on which toleration was founded,
sympathy for human infirmity and hu-
man error, and to recollect, that those
who differed from us might be right,
although we could not see it. He ex-
pressed his doubts of the legality of the
associations and subscriptions for crimi-
nal prosecutions; not of those for aiding
the civil magistrate in suppressing riot or
insurrection. Of one of this sort he
should be ready to become a member,
and to assist the magistrate in person, if
necessary; for it was the duty of every
man to do so.
83. WISDOM OF MAN IN FORMING A
Gover NMENT.
And if, said Mr. Fox, by a peculiar
interposition of Đivine power, all the
wisest men of every age, and of every
country, could be collected into one
assembly, he did not believe that their
united wisdom would be capable of
forming even a tolerable constitution.
In this opinion he thought he was sup-
ported by the unvarying evidence of

history and observation. Another opi

nion he held, no matter whether erro-
neous or not, for he stated it only as an
illustration, namely, that the most skilful

architect could not build, in the first

instance, so commodious a habitation
as one that had been originally intended
for some other use, and had been gra-
dually improved by successive alterations
suggested by various inhabitants for its
present purpose. If, then, so simple a
structure as a commodious habitation
was so difficult in theory, how much
more difficult the structure of a govern-
ment. One apparent exception might
be mentioned, the constitution of the

United States of America; which he
believed.

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