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One branch will bleed a gallon, or more, in the course of the day. This juice has been chiefly recommended in scorbutic disorders; but its most sensible effect appears to be as a diuretic. A pleasant wine may be prepared, by adding to each gallon of the juice one pound of sugar, boiling for half an hour, and regularly taking off the scum which arises; then setting it aside to cool, and assisting the fermentation by means of yeast: when this is completed, it may be barrelled, bunged up close, and asterwards either bottled off or drawn out of the barrel when a year old. Evelyn says, “this wine, exquisitely made, is so strong that the common sort of stone bottles cannot preserve the spirits, so subtile they are and volatile; and yet it is gentle and very harmless in operation within the body, and exceedingly sharpens the appetite, being drunk ante pastum. The juice has been also used for brewing, in place of water; and, according to a paper in the forty-sixth number of the Philosophical Transactions, it would appear, that any portion of malt will afford as much and as good ale, as four times the quantity with cominon Water.
The flesh of the bull (bull-beef) is but seldom eaten, on account of its toughness and difficult solubility in the stomach. To remedy this in times of eld, the animals were torn by lions, hunted by men, or baited by dogs:* these inhuman practices are, however, to the eredit of the present age, aimost completely abandoned, although they certainly had the effeet of making the flesh more tender, and, consequently, more easy of digestion.}
Ov-beef is a wholesome and nourishing food, and readily digested by persons in health ; it forms the greatest proportion of the animal food made use of by the people of this country. Dr. Cullen observes, “We commonly prefer the castrated ox, in which the sat is better mixed, and as more alkalescent; the flesh is more sapid, and, unless it be
* Patrocles affirmed, that a lion being shewn to a strong bull three or four hours before being killed, caused his flesh to be as tender as that of the ox.
f This is supposed to be owing to the induction of a disposition to putrescency, or, as Cullen would say, rendering the flesh more “alkalescent;” by which all animal substances become more easy of digestion; and it is well known, that baited flesh becoides tainted very speedify.
i5 from a very old animal, is generally to be preferred.” After the ox has attained its full growth, the older it is, the more difficult of digestion is the beef. “And, if the steer must fall, In youth and sanguine vigour let him die, Nor stay till rigid age or heavy ails, Absolve him ill-requited from the yoke.”f The Romans, when they first ventured to dress an ox, afraid of the consequences which might have resulted from eating flesh, with the nature of which they were unacquainted, roasted the animal entire, and stuffed its belly with all sorts of sweet herbs and good slosh, that the season afforded; this puddiug, on account of its size, acquired the appellation of Equus Trojanus, or the Trojan Horse, containing almost as many different articles as that did soldiers. Cow's beef is much more soluble than that of the ox, but not so nutrient; it was, however, more esteemed by the Irish in former times, and the Normans, than the others; and, although but little used in this metropolis, forms no despicable food. The Normans appear to have had a peculiar mode of killing cows, for the purpose of rendering the flesh more tender and digestible. “I saw the Norman butchers kill them (cows) in our camp, whilst I lay there in camp with that flower of chivalry, the Earl of Essex. When the cow is struck down with the axe, presently they lay her upon her back, and make a hole about the navel, as big as to receive a swan's quill, through which the butcher blows wind so long, till the whole skin swells round about like a bladder, in such sort that the beast seems of a double bigness; then, whilst one holdeth the quill close and bloweth continually, two or three others beat the cow as hard as they can with cudgels, round about, which beating never bruiseth the flesh, (for wind is ever betwixt it and the skin,) but maketh both the hide to prove better leather, and the flesh to eat better and tenderer than otherwise it would.”—(Muffet, page 61.) Beef, in any form, was supposed by the ancients to be unwholesome, and to produce agues, leprosies, dropsies, obstructions of the liver, &c. &c.; * Materia Medica; vol. 1. # Armstrong's Art of Preserving Health; book 2. ; Virgil's Eneid; hook ii. 19. § Galen de Aliment. Facultat. Avicensia, Callen. Mied, lib. ?, tract 2. - W Heil
When dried or smoaked, it is rendered more tough, dense, and difficult of solubility; and, consequently, unfit for those whose powers of assimilation are impaired.
Beef tea is prepared by putting a pound of lean beef, in thin slices, into a quart of water, then simmering for half an hour, and taking off the scum ; occasionally spices are added to it, but more commonly only salt. It is a light and nourishing food, where the digestive organs are in a weak state; and also for children, when mixed with an equal quantity of cow's milk. The most convenient mode of exhibition for this, as well as every other liquid used by way of diet, for children, is, by means of the glass bottle, made for the purpose, the Bulbous extremity or mouth of which may be covered with wash-leather, having a small perforation; or with a prepared heifer's teat.* Prejudices have, however, been long maintained against the employment of animal food for children; but it is a well-attested fact, that an animal diet, from early infancy, more especially when the child is weakly, or when any of the farinaceous preparations disagree by producing diarrhoea, &c. has had a great agency in preventing scrofulous affections in those predisposed to them.; “Its salutary power averts their rage, Averts the general bane.”
-soTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR,
Mr. Blake's Means of Escape from Fire.
[Aug. 1, always vociferated on such occasions, the additional words, “Get ready your feather-beds;” or the words “Featherbeds” alone might be sufficient? By such an exclamation as “fire —fcather-beds !” repeated as it would not fail to be, when once uttered and understood, the neighbours would not only comprehend that there was a house on fire, but that it was required of them to exhibit, and partly put out of one of their windows, a feather-bed, ready to be thrown down in case of need. It would, in all cases, be soon seen whether the important article was wanted or not : and, as it would rarely happen that more than one, or at most two, would be necessary, the surrounding neighbours would see as plainly when the number wanted was supplied; and that further aid of that description was not called for. I should desire no better sccurity for a prompt compliance with the demand, on all occasions, than the spontaneous eagerness every one would feel to perform with alacrity so humane a duty; the shame and reproach that would ever be attendant on a disregard of the call; and the ignominious stamp which would be set upon any house, whose occupants should be so unfeeling as to shrink from a compliance with so reasonable a claim. One thing must not be lost sight of, and ought to be cffectually provided for; and that is—the almost certain injury, and in many cases the destruction, to which beds or mattresses so used would be exposed. How would it do to reser the compensation to the immediate attention of the vestry, as a parish concern; or, as an infinitely less expensive matter to the insurance offices (than the plan which these hints arc intended to improve upon,) if they were to be so solicited as to procure from them an acquiescence in regulations to the effect of subjecting their funds to the trifling remuneration. In my opinion, it would bo no small recommendation of such offices as might intimate in their advertisements a willingness to repair the little injury so incurred for the relief, or with a view to the relieving, the inhabitants of houses by them insured. At any rate, some uncouivocal and effectual means should be arranged, —whereby those who may supply such important assistance should be completely protected against the constant risk of so doing at their own cost. June 1818. C. Boo, &
181s.] List of Disfranchised Boroughs. 17 To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. If any of your readers should be able SIR, to explain the why and the wherefore
ERHAPS the following list of they have lost this once valuable priviobsolete or disfranchised boroughs lege, it will oblige, A. C. R. may be worth a place in your enter- June 25, 1818. taining miscellany.
Names of Places.
When first summoned.
Newberry . . . [Berkshire . - 30 Edward I. 11 Edward III.
Polecreen . . . Cornwall . . . 11 Edward III. 12 Fdward III.
Sherborn . . . Do. . . . 11 Edward III. 12 Edward III.
Bere Regis . Do.
Essex . . .
11 Edward III.
12 Edward III. 35 Edward I.
Alton . . e Do. . . . 93 Edward I. 4 Edward II.
Spalding . .
Corbrigg . . Do. . . . 23 Edward I. 24 Edward I.
18 Mr. Dick on the Surface of the Moon. [Aug. 1,
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, HAVE always considered it as a subject of regret, that, in most of the astronomical treatises which have been published in our country, there are no Iarge and well-defined representations of the moon's surface, as it appears in the different stages of her increase and decrease. Almost every book on astronomy, however diminutive in size, contains a general view, on a small scale, of the full moon, which has been copied in succession by every compiler and engraver, since the time of Ricciolus, without much attention to accuracy. In some maps of the moon, published not more than forty years ago, the resemblance is almost as distant and imperfect as if they had been drawn at random; and are calculated to give no adequate idea of the lunar hemisphere, as seen through a good telescope. But, however accurately the face of the full moon may be drawn, it is well known to every one, who is in the habit of contemplating the moon's surface through telescopes, that the view of her orb, when fully cnlightened, is not the most interesting or satisfactory. All that we can then perceive is a few dark streaks and patches, which diversify her luminous orb, and which indicate merely a diversity of colour or configuration in the substances which compose her surface. It is only at the quadratures, and when she assumes a gibbous or a crescent phase, that the singular peculiarity of her mountain scenery, her circular caverns and valleys, with their conical mounts, her insulated rocks, her diversified ridges, and other varietics on her surface, can be accurately distinguished; and, therefore, every variety of phase is to be preferred to that of a full enlightened hemisphere, for exploring the variegated scenery of the lunar surface through a telescope. From not
attending to this circumstance, several curious persons have been frequently disappointed, who have come to me at the time of full moon, when she was just rising above the horizon, to obtain a view of the lunar mountains and cavities; presuming that that period must be the fittest for viewing all the varieties on the moon's disc. Yet, though the magnified views of our satellite are the most beautiful and variegated at the quadratures and other phases, we have no accurate delineation, accompanied with descriptions of these interesting appearances, in any work in the English language with which I am acquainted. The only works on Selenography, which I have seen, are those of Hevelius and Schroeter; the one, a large folio volume, in Latin; and the other written in the German language. The work of Hevelius is now become very scarce and dear; and the Selenotopographische Fragmenten, of Schroeter, having never, so far as I know, been translated into English, can be perused by very few astronomical readers. Would it not, then, be a useful addition to our treasures of astronomical science, were a moderate-sized treatise on Selenography to make its appearance in the English language; as our Selcnography is, undoubtedly, the most imperfect part of our astronomy. Such a work might be compiled from the treatises of Hevelius and Schroeter; and the most interesting delineations of the lunar scenery might be taken from their plates, or from Russel's lunar globe. Were a person, who has been in the habit of frequently inspecting the moon's surface with good telescopes, to undertake such a work, he might add a few original delineations, accompanied with some dissertations and discussions on her physical constitution, the altitudes of her mountains, the depth of her cavities, the existence of her atmosphere,
the celestial phenomena, particularly the varied appearances of the earth, as viewed from her surface; and the variegated scenery which an inhabitant of our globe, if placed in different positions on her surface, would recognize and contemplate. Whether the moon be inhabited or not, by intelligent beings, it is certain that her surface, in respect of hill and dale, towering mountains, elevated cliffs, and deep vales, presents a more variegated, romantic, and sublime scenery, than is to be found on the terraqueous globe, the scenery of the ocean excepted; for it does not appear that any large collections of water at present exist on her surface, no portion of it presenting so smooth and uniform an aspect as a large body of water, viewed from a distance, would undoubtedly exhibit. Whether such a work as that now suggested may be undertaken or not, it would, at any rate, be highly requisite that every astronomical treatise which professes to give a description and a pictorial representation of the moon, should contain a delineation of her surface as it appears when she presents a gibbous, and also when she exhibits a crescent, phase; otherwise no adequate idea can be conveyed to general readers of the most interesting telescopic appearances of that nocturnal luminary. Since the moon is the nearest celestial body to the earth, and the only orb where the minute varieties on its surface can be accurately inspected by good telescopes, it is rather unaccountable that so meagre descriptions and delineations of its surface should be found in our popular treatises on astronomy. The satellites of Jupiter have been delineated in all their variety of aspect and relative positions; but the interesting phenolena on our own satellite, and the changes which possibly take place on its surface, have never yet been accurately delineated in any English work accessible to the general reader. If we be ever to obtain an ocular demonstration of the habitability of any of the celestial orbs, the moon is the only one where we can expect to trace, by our telescopes, indications of the agency of sentient or intelligent beings; and, I am pretty much convinced, that a long-continued series of observations on this planet, by a multitude of individuals, might completely set at rest the question—“Whether the moon be a habitable world?” Were a vast number of persons, in
Mr. Dick on the Surface of the Moon. 19
different parts of the world, to devote themselves to a particular survey of the surface of the moon,_were different portions of this surface distributed among them as the objects of their more particular research,-were every mountain, hill, cavern, cliff, and plain, accurately inspected,—and every change and modification in the appearance of particular spots carefully marked and represented in a series of delineations, it might lead to some certain conclusions, both in regard to her physical constitution and
her ultimate destination. It can be demonstrated, that a telescope which magnifies 100 times will shew a spot on the moon's surface, whose diameter is 1223 yards; and one which magnifies 1000 times, will, of course, enable us to see a portion of her surface whose size is only 122 yards; and consequently an object, whether natural or artificial, of no greater extent than one of our large edifices, (for example, St. Paul's church, London,) may, by such an instrument, be casily distinguished. Now, if every minute point on the lunar surface were accurately marked by numerous observers, it might be ascertained whether any changes are taking place, cither from physical causes or from the operatious of intelligent agents. If a large forest were cutting down, if a city were extending its boundaries,— if a barren waste were changing into a scene of vegetation,--or if an immense concourse of organized animated beings were occasionally assembled in a particular spot, or shifting from place to place,—such changes would be indicated by certain modifications of shade, colour, or motion; and, by accurate and long-continued inspection, might be readily traced; and, consequently, would furnish a direct proof of the agency of intelligent beings analogous to man, and of the moon's being a habitable globe. That changes occasionally happen on the lunar hemisphere next the earth, appears from the observations of Herschei and Schroeter, particularly the latter. In the Transactions of the Society of Natural Philosophy, at Berlin, Schroeter relates, that on the 30th December, 1791, at five o'clock P.M. with a sevenfeet reflector, magnifying 161 times, he perceived the commencement of a small crater on the south-west declivity of the volcanic mountain in the Mare Crisium, having a shadow of at least 2" 5. On the 11th January, at 20' past five, on looking at this place again, he could see ID 2 neither