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unemployed) poor were crowded into workhouses or farmed out in manufactories, there can now be no question upon the subject, when public money is either added to the regular wages of labour, or supplied in its stead.
When the expediency of such a practice becomes matter of discussion, a general rule of reference is of the utmost importance ; and is furnished at once by the universal truth, that mankind have a tendency in all cases to multiply beyond the regular supply of food, or regular demand of labour. This determines the point, and shows that the impulse is to be first applied to labour, which will spontaneously increase population, and not to population, which may not so certainly obtain subsistence by finding labour : and even if it finally succeeds, there is an intermediate risk, and a certainty of distress and discontent.
The importance of having such a rule established may be best appreciated by reflecting on the consequences of wanting, or neg. lecting it. These were predicted by Mr. Malthns at a period when there was an extraordinary demand for men, and very little disposition to suppose the possibility of any evil arising out of the redundancy of population. But his remarks on the nature and effects of the poor laws have been in the most striking manner confirmed by the experience of the years 1815, 1816, and 1817.
' During these years, two points of the very highest importance have been established, so as no longer to admit of a doubt in the mind of any rational man.
* The first is, that the country does not in point of fact fulfil the promise which it makes to the poor in the poor-laws, to maintain and find in employment, by means of parish assessments, those who are unable to support themselves or their families, either from want of work or any other cause.
* And secondly, that with a very great increase of legal parish assessments, aided by the most liberal and praiseworthy contributions of voluntary charity, the country has been wholly unable to find adequate employment for the numerous labourers and artificers who were able as well as willing to work.
• It can no longer surely be contended that the poor-laws really perform what they promise, when it is known that many almost starving families have been found in London and other great towns, who are deterred from going on the parish by the crowded, unhealthy and hor. rible state of the workhouses into which they would be received, if indeed they could be received at all; when it is known that many parishes have been absolutely unable to raise the necessary assessments, the increase of which, according to the existing laws, have tended only to bring more and more persons upon the parish, and to make what was collected less and less effectual; and when it is known that there has been an almost universal cry from one end of the kingdom to the other for voluntary charity to come in aid of the parochial assessments.' - vol. ii. pp. 351, 352.
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This evil, which we cannot help referring to the existing habit of interference with the wages of labour, and with the ordinary progress of population, can only be remedied by a return to the natural course, and the easiest mode of accomplishing this object is really the single question for Parliament to consider; the extent as well as the cause of the evil itself being alike established by the evidence wbich they have so laboriously collected. But we must not digress into another wide and difficult field of discussion.,
Secondly, it is no slight advantage to be provided with an incontrovertible answer to all sweeping reformers; and to know on positive grounds that the face of civilized society must always remain uniform in its principal lineaments, and be distinguished by the same features which it has bitherto borne; that our business therefore is to lessen or remove its blemishes, and to prevent their growing into deformities: but that we can no more organize a community without poverty, and its consequence, severe labour, than we can organize a body without natural infirmities, or add a limb to the human frame. Some perhaps may think it a misfortune to know thus much-and certainly if ignorance in this case would lead to bliss, it were folly to be wise; but it can only conduct to inevitable misery. In fact, the present year has shewn the practical value of this advancement in our knowledge. The Spenceans, it is true, who coolly talk of dividing the land among the people and establishing an Agrarian Republic, are not of a sort to be addressed by reason. But it is always satisfactory to have reason on the side of law; and to be prepared to prove, if any will listen, that these new sons of the earth, these SITAPTOI of modern sedition or modern ignorance, after having devoured all the property of the country, would soon be reduced, like their predecessors of old, to the necessity of devouring one another. And that their leaders, however ill-informed, have sense enough to discover the barrier which the Principle of Population opposes against their schemes, is evident from the rancorous hostility with which Evans, the Cadmus of the tribe, has attacked Mr. Malthus in what he is pleased to entitle his Christian Policy.'
With this general view of the bearings of the subject upon our internal economy, we shall close our remarks upon the important addition to political science contained in Mr. Malthus's Essay. Upon the book itself, which has already reached a fifth edition, it would now be superfluous to pronounce an elaborate opinion. The author, as we have often intimated, might have clothed his principles in a more attractive garb, and have introduced them to the public under a more favourable aspect: and we cannot help re
gretting gretting that the same masterly hand, which first pointed out why equality, and plenty, and community of goods were unattainable to beings constituted like mankind, had not also proceeded to show that they were no less undesirable; that the same powerful guide, who first checked, in her untried course, the frail bark of universal happiness, sailing as she was with youth at the prow and pleasure at the helm,' and pointed out the unforeseen bank on which she could not fail to split, had not also taken the pains to prove that the course human nature was forced to pursue is also the best it could pursue, when the object and end of the voyage are added to the consideration.
Art. IV. 1. Narrative of a Survey for the purpose of discover
ing the Sources of the Ganges. 2. A Journey to Lake Manasuwara in Undés, a Province in Little
Thibet. By William Moorcroft, Esq. 3. On the Height of the Himalaya Mountains. By H. T. Cole
brooke, Esq. Asiat. Res. vol. xii. 4to. Calcutta. 1817. THE sources of great rivers and the summits of high mountains
have been, at all times, objects of anxious research, either from the impulse of superstition, or the more laudable motive of extending the limits of human knowledge. In the latter point of view, we are disposed to consider the three tracts placed at the head of this Article as the most important which have hitherto appeared in the · Transactions of the Society' for inquiring into the history and antiquities, the arts, sciences and literature of Asia; because, iinperfect as they are, they tend to elucidate the geography, and add somewhat to the natural history, of one of the most interesting portions of the globe-the upper and central regions of Asia.
It had long been suspected that the course given to the Ganges of a western direction from the Manasarowar lake on the portliern side of the Himalaya mountains as far as Ladack, and back again to the eastward, till it penetrated these vast snowy ranges, and gushed out at the Cow's-mouth, on the southern side, was founded on insufficient authority. At the suggestion, therefore, of Colonel Colebrooke, the sanction of the Bengal government was solicited, and obtained, for this officer to undertake an expedition to ascertain the fact; but he was prevented by an illness which terminated in death. The execution of the plan then devolved on his assistant, Lieutenant Webb, who, accompanied by the Captains Raper and Hearsay, set out in the spring of the year 1808, for Haridwar; whence they proposed to commence their arduous task, as soon as the fair, which is annually held at that place, should be ended.
Mr. Webb was instructed to survey the Ganges from Haridwar to Gangoutri, or Gangowatri, where this river has been supposed to force its way by a subterraneous passage, through the Himalaya mountains, or to fall over their brow in the form of a cataract; he was directed to ascertain the dimensions of the latter, (if, in defiance of probability, it should be found to exist,) and, should it not prove to be the source of the Ganges, to trace, by survey, this branch of the river as far towards it as might be practicable: in particular, he was to endeavour to learn whether, as some Indian authorities stated, and as Major Rennell was inclined to think, this main branch of the Ganges had its source in the celebrated lake Mansaroer, or Manasarowar, situated on the northern side of the Snowy Mountains; and, if so, to obtain its bearing and distance. He was also instructed to fix the positions of Bhadri-nath and Cedara-nath, near to which, according to information obtained by Colonel Hardwicke, the two branches of the Ganges, called the Alacananda and the Cédár, took their rise.
Haridwar (from Hari, Vishnu, and dwará, a door or passage) is the place where the united streams of the Ganges, after forcing their way through the mountainous regions which fence in, as it were, the base of the Himalaya on its southern side, first enter the plains of Hindostan; it is a place regarded by the Hindoos with peculiar veneration. To this hallowed spot, an annual pilgrimage is enjoined; and here also an annual fair is held called the Mela. For the double purpose of making their ablutions in the sacred stream, and trading, people of every rank, age and sex, from every part of India, from the Penjab, Caubul, Cashmere and the upper regions of Tartary assemble here in the month of March : every twelfth year is celebrated by greater festivities thau ordinary, and by a greater concourse of people. The period at which Lieutenant Webb and his party arrived at Haridwar, happened to be one of these duodecennial meetings ;—just twelve years after Colonel Hardwicke had visited the same spot: but the humanity of the Bengal government, which has so frequently and so effectually been displayed over every portion of its wide possessions, had stepped in, on the present occasion, to prevent the repetition of those scenes of outrage and murder, which were witnessed with such horror by Colonel Hardwicke,* and stationed a detachment of troops there for the preservation of the peace. An European can form but a very imperfect notion of the multitudes brought together on such an occasion. Colonel Hardwicke estimates the number at two millions and a half, which, from the information obtained from a Gosseyn, he thinks rather under than over the truth; and Captain Raper, who considers it impossible to
This gentleman states that five hundred fakeers were killed, and a greater number wounded, the last day of the Mela, by the Seiks. As. Res. vol, vi.
form any accurate computation, ventures to rate those which he saw at more than two millions. - Towards the end of the festival, he says,' every avenue is closed by the swarms which pour in from all quarters. Those who come merely for the purpose of bathing arrive in the morning, and, after performing their ablutions, depart in the evening, or on the following day; by which means a constant succession of strangers is kept up, occasioning one of the most busy scenes that well be conceived. These ephemeral visitors bring, in general, their own provisions with them; but thousands of carts are employed in conveying grain to the fair, chiefly from the Duab; and though the consumption occasioned by such hosts of people would lead one to apprehend a scarcity in the neighbourhood, the appearance of the crops was sufficient to quiet all uneasiness on that score;
the whole country exhibiting to the surveying party' a perfect picture of affluence and plenty.
It is highly gratifying to find that the mild but superstitious Hindoos are not insensible to the attention thus given to their conveniences and comfort by the British government; while, at the same time, all due respect is paid to their religious prejudices. The following account will be read with pleasure after the painful narrative of Col. Hardwicke.
* The tenth of April, being the Purbi, or last day of bathing, the crowds of people were immense, every avenue to the Ghát was completely choaked up; and the flight of steps, leading to the water, poured down from the top such a constant succession of fresh comers that the lower tiers were unable to resist the impetus, and were involuntarily hurried into the stream. The fair, however, concluded without any troubles or disturbance, to the great surprise and satisfaction of numbers, who were accustomed to consider bloodshed and murder inseparable from the Cumb'ha Méla, as, for many ages past, their duodecennial periods have been marked with some fatal catastrophe. A very salutary regulation was enforced by our police; prohibiting any weapons being worn or carried at the fair. Guards were posted at the different avenues, to receive the arms of the passengers ; a ticket was placed on each, and a corresponding one given to the owner; the arms were returned on the ticket being produced.
• This arrangement had the desired effect, for the utmost tranquillity prevailed, and from the content and satisfaction that were expressed by all ranks of people, on this occasion, we may anticipate the praises that will be carried hence, to all parts of Hindostan, on the mild system of the British government. - p. 461. Raper.
The fair being ended, the surveying party proceeded to the northward in order to fall in with the Bhagirat'hi, or most western branch of the Ganges, (except the Yamuna,) whose source was imagined to be at or near Gangoutri. The authority on which the supposition rested was founded not merely on that of the native Hin