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him sleeping would not have gratified the passion, whatever it was, which instigated the deed. He struck him on the face with his hand, and as he started from a deep sleep at the blow, exclaimed, "Tis Í, Toobo Neuha! and drove down the deadly weapon. He snatched up a child of three years old whom the slain chief had adopted, and rescued him from the massacre,—but the most beautiful women of Tonga, the wives and mistresses of the How, were butchered by his followers! Dr. Martin says, that as he entered the house, and saw them sleeping on either hand, perfumed with sandal-wood and their necks strung with wreaths of the freshest flowers, he could have wept over their fate—but the freedom of his country was at stake. Such language is worse than nonsensical, and deserves to be severely reprehended. The freedom of Tonga! Supposing freedom had ever been thought of or dreamt of in these islands, or that any person there knew any thing about freedom, in what manner was it to be promoted by knocking out the brains of these innocent women? Was not the object of the chief accomplished by the single murder of the How? The murders which Dr. Martin makes his sentimental and patriotic savage lament, he might have prevented by a word;—the wickedness was gratuitous, a borne-bouche for his followers, a little amusement to keep their hands in. Such are the dispositions of savage man!
Mr. Mariner has, undoubtedly, represented the character of the murdered How as he heard it described;—but bis information came from the murderers and from their party. Mr. Pigott tells us, that the people of Aheefo, which was the How's particular district, warmly took up the cause of their chief,' and the missionaries say that the vews of his murder flew through the country and seemed to fire every one with indignation and a desire of revenge. One of the chiefs, to express his abhorrence in the strongest manner, ordered the body of old Finow to be taken up and fixed upon a tree for public exposure, which was esteemed the greatest indignity that could be offered to his family. A battle ensued, which fires the imagination of Dr. Martin, and he describes it in a style of language that may be thought, he confesses, ‘not very consistent with the sobriety of historical narration. The style, indeed, is such as may merit the approbation of Sir John Sinclair, who has lately informed the public that the battle of Waterloo is finely described in Ossian as translated by the Rev. Dr. Ross, There is, however, a fine characteristic circumstance: a chief, by name Tooi Hala Fatai, who had been amusing himself with two hundred and fifty followers as ferocious as himself by engaging in the Feejee wars, and acquiring the execrable habits of those fiercer savages, returned at this time and joined Finow; he was very ill, and
believing believing that the disease was incurable, rushed into the thickest of the enemy, and died, according to bis purpose, in battle.
Dr. Martin says, that Finow summoned together the partizans of liberty, and that his enemies fled in all directions conquered by that arm which had delivered the country from a tyrant. His bombast about standing like a rock and rushing like a torrent is more tolerable than this abominable abuse of language. The consequence of his conduct was, that he found it expedient to retreat from Tonga and look to his own possessions. He secured his authority in the Hapai islands, after one battle, and put to death all his prisoners, some by the French fashion of a noyade as practised by the Jacobines at Nantes, and the Buonapartists at St. Domingo: they were taken out in canoes which were scuttled and sunk immediately, or tied hand and foot in old leaky vessels and left to sink gradually. Others were tied naked to trees or stakes, and left to perish by the scorching heat of the sun,-by the tortures which boys inflicted upon them,-for in this country boys are trained to cruelty,—and by hunger. Those who were most fortunate were three or four days in dying; stronger frames endured more than a week in this dreadful state of suffering. Yet the sense of right and wrong has not wholly been effaced in this most inhuman people: ever since these atrocious acts they believe that the groans of the victims are heard frequently by night. Dr. Martin says, no doubt this is the roaring of the distant surf, or of the sea in subterraneous caverns. But the roaring of the surf can be no new sound,—and these things belong to the inner world which is in the mind of man, they are the echoes of conscience,--and are, indeed, dreadful realities. The island of Vavaoo was given by Finow to his brother Toobo Neuha, who was to pay him an annual tribute : he himself reigned in the Hapai islands.' Tonga, meantime, which had been in so flourishing and beautiful a state before the murder of its acknowledged sovereign, suffered all the miseries of anarchy and civil war. It was divided into several petty states—each at war with its neighbours, every party built a fort for itself, and Finow annually made a descent upon the island, attempting to reduce one or other of them, but they were so well fortified and intrenched that though several years had elapsed when Mr. Mariner arrived, he had not succeeded in taking or destroying one. The hope of obtaining means which might ensure bis success seems to have been the chief motive for surprizing the Port au Prince. He now ordered Mr. Mariner and four of his companions to prepare for accompanying him in his annual expedition, and to get ready four twelve-pounder carronades. They collected as many of the shot as could be found, for the natives not being able to shape them for any common purpose had thrown them aside: they cut up sheet lead and made it A4
into rolls, to be used as shot, and directed the native carpenters to mount the carronades upon new carriages with high wheels.
While these preparations were going forward, and the natives were busily engaged in repairing their canoes and collecting weapons for the war, Finow asked Mr. Mariner whether he had a mother living, and being answered in the affirmative, seemed to be touched with compassion. He then made one of his wives adopt him as her son, telling him he need only apply to her if he wanted any thing to make his situation more comfortable, and that it was in her power to procure for him whatever he might reasonably desire. Her conduct towards him was, from that time, as if he had been her own child. Power and ambition, and the habits of savage life, had made Finow a monster of cruelty and falschood, for all circumstances had tended thus to pervert his strong intellect; but monster as he was, he had many great qualities and some good
Little did he imagine when, in directing the massacre of the ship's crew, he gave orders to spare a boy whose appearance and youth had excited his compassion, that by that boy's means his life and actions should be made known throughout the civilized world, and perhaps to the latest posterity: for Finow is not one of those men whose bistory is forgotten as soon as read,-his character is strongly marked and prominent, one of those which in future ages will stand alone for remembrance. There is a portrait of this remarkable man in Labillardière's Account of D'Entrecasteaux' Voyage. He happens also to be described in the Journal of one of Captain Cook's officers, which is now before us: Finow,' says the writer, appeared to be about twenty-five years of age, a tail, handsome man: he had much fire and vivacity, with a degree of wildness in his countenance that well tallied with our idea of an Indian warrior, and he was one of the most active men I have ever seen. The western part of Tongataboo, with Anamooka, the Hapai islands, and all the islands to the northward, were under bis jurisdiction. But what gave him more consequence was his spirit, activity, and his post as general. Whenever the people of Tongataboo went to war, they were headed by him. His followers were numerous, and more attached to him ihan those of any other chief; in short, he was by much the most popular man among the islands. Nevertheless, Finow, with all his good qualities, was tainted with a degree of rapaciousness that made him guilty of actions rather bordering on meanness and dishonesty, which, I believe, he was chiefly tempted to from a desire of being liberal to his adherents. Mr. Mariner and his friendly editor will read this description of their hero in his youth with much interest.
Before the expedition set sail there occurred an instance of that utter disregard of human life by which all such men as Finow and
Buonaparte Buonaparte are distinguished. A woman, whose child, according to the accursed custom of these islands, had been strangled as an offering to the gods for the recovery of his sick father, lost her senses in consequence of the shocking act. All persons wished her dead, not so much because her existence was miserable to herself, as because it was mournful for others to behold her. Finow desired Mr. Mariner to shoot her, for the sake of putting her out of the way, and seeing at the same time the effect of a musket shot; but the boy replied with proper feeling, that though willing to risk his life in the king's service against his enemies, it was contrary to bis own religion, and to the laws of the country in which he was born, to destroy an innocent fellow-creature in cold blood. The answer excited no displeasure, and undoubtedly tended to raise the lad in Finow's esteem, but one of the Sandwichers was ordered a few days after to commit the murder. All being ready for the expedition, about one hundred and seventy large canoes sailed from the Hapai islands and Vavaoo against Tonga.
The name of this island (the Amsterdam of Tasman) has hitherto been written Tongataboo, but taboo is a distinct word, the meaning of which is well known, and which here designates Tonga as the Sacred Island. Perhaps the long state of peace which this people are said to have here enjoyed, before the fashion of war was imported from their Feejee neighbours, may have been owing to the superstition which this name implies: for there were two separate authorities here, the sacerdotal and the secular, as in Japan. Tooitonga, or Chief of Tonga, was an hereditary title, the possessor of which was believed to be descended from one of the chief gods; but whether the race began by a divine or mortal mother they pretend not to determine. Veachi was the head of another such sacred family. Both these personages were superior in rank to the king by reason of their descent; to which, indeed, such respect is paid in these islands, that if the How mcets a chief of nobler family than himself, he must sit down on the ground till the other has passed him. This explains Captain Cook's supposition that Finow bad deceived him concerning his authority, because that chief appeared as an inferior in Fatafehe's presence, that being the family name of the Tooitonga. It may be collected from the account in the Missionary * Voyage, that the Tooitonga formerly possessed civil as well as religious authority. Toogoo Ahoo was the first secular chief who resisted this, and by force of arms destroyed a power which rested wholly upon public opinion. This revolution may facilitate the introduction of Christianity into these islands, by weakening the superstition of the natives, and of that class of men who are iuterested in upholding it. But hitherto the effects have been dreadful. While ihe priestly system of government continued, intestine wars are said to have been unknown among them. Tasmau saw no weapons among them; and in Valentyn's account of the first discovery, it is said, that except an inclination to pilfering, they seemed to have no other evil in their mind: Dr. Martin even believes that they learnt the practice of war from the Feejees. Certain, however, it is, that they had enjoyed many generations of peace. The beautiful state in which the islands were found on their first discovery in 1642, by Cook after an interval of one hundred and thirty years, and by the Missionaries in 1797, contirmis, in this point, the account which Mr. Mariner received from the people themselves. Toogoo Ahoo paid dearly for the brief authority which he had enlarged by breaking their sacred spell, and from the hour when he effected this unhappy revolution, these islands have been the scene of slaughter, famine, and every imaginable horror.
* Page 252, 274, first edition.
One stiperstition remained in full force when Finow made this his most formidable attempt upon Tonga. On the western shore of that island is a piece of ground about half a mile square, from time immemorial the greatest chiefs have been buried; on this account it is considered sacred; no person may be prevented from landing there, and if the most inveterate enemies should meet there, they must restrain their hatred, on pain of the displeasure of the gods, to be manifested by some great calamity, or by untimely death. Here Finow landed with several of his chiefs to perform a ceremony at his father’s grave. All who attended put on mats instead of their usual dress, and wreaths * of the leaves of the Ifi-tree round their necks, as signiticant of respect and humility. They sat down before the grave cross-legged, beating their cheeks for half a minute. One of the Matabooles (the companions, counsellors, and ministers of the chiefs) then addressed the spirit of the dead, invoking him to favour and protect Finow: He comes to battle hoping he is not doing wrong; he has always held Tooitonga in the highest respect, and has attended to all religious ceremonies with exactness.' Pieces of cava root were then laid as an offering before the grave. Meantime the army were painting their faces and bodies for battle in their canoes, and the enemy on shore ran up and down the beach with furious gestures and shouts of defiance, splashing up the water with their clubs, brandishing them in the air, and flourishing their spears ;-a striking scene when contrasted with the inviolableness of the burial ground and the rites which were paid to the dead.
In one of the prints in Valentyn, a man is represented with a Vandyke ruff of leaves round his neck.