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! religion and infidelity,--the charge will but aim, where it cannot • poslībly wound, and hardly be of force, to leave even the scar of • infamy behind it.'. In the sentence above-quoted we do not apprehend the force of the word even, because we imagine what he calls the scar of infamy, to be the worst mark in the world. Our author then harangues a little on the learning, piety, and loyalty of those who are called to that honourable ministration, and desires the present generation to set a proper value on their own happiness. He concludes with a pious ejaculation, that the honours of this weighty trust may descend to after ages, “ 'Till temporal honours • shall be no more, 'till swallowed up, and consummated in never. ! fading and eternal honour. This Sermon is, upon the whole, but a poor ill-written and ill-connected performance, and has no pretence to any merit, but that of being penned by an Archdeacon. Art. 22. Some Experiments on the Chalybeat Waters, lately discovered,

near the Palace of the Lord Bishop of Rochester, at Bromley, in Kent. With Observations on Chalybeat Waters in general, and the most successful Method of drinking them : in which

an Expedient is offered, to reconcile the different Opinions of Dr. Hoffman and Dr. Short, concerning the Existence of Alkaline Salts, in those Chalybeat Waters, which are commonly but improperly called Acidule. With some plain and easy Directions to make Artificial Chalybeat Waters; and to distinguish, with absolute Certainty, the Factitious from the Native. To which are added, Some Directions for discovering the unwholjome Contents of Common Water; and some Methods of correcting them, so as to render them more safe for Alimentary Purposes. By Thomas Reynolds, Surgeon. 8vo. Pr. i s. Payne.

The chief design of this performance seems to be, to recommend to the notice of the publick, a chalybeat spring discovered about two years ago. We cannot say there is any thing new, or particular in this treatise, except that the author is of opinion, that the chalybeat waters may be used, at lealt with as much success, in the winter as in fummer. That our readers may see with what arguments he supports this opinion, we cannot do better than quote his own words.

• To speak my mind freely upon this matter ; I am of opinion,

says he, that chalybeats in general will be found, upon trial, to agree ·more universally with those who have occasion to drink them, in the • winter than in the summer season; for the winter brings such ad• vantages to the drinkers of chalybeat waters, as the summer can• not afford, especially in particular cales. For, besides that parti

cular habits are not so likely to be attended with a plenitude, and • all its troublesome consequences, by taking them in the winter, as • they are in the summer ; the waters are much stronger of the mi

neral principle in cold than in warm weather; and all volatile

chalybeats, without exception, are beit in the coldest weather, and * most intense froit. They may also be carried many miles diftant

• from

from the spring, without suffering any sensible injury, (as I have • often experienced ;) which cannot be done in a warm season by • any means yet discovered. So that chose, who, for particular rea• fons, cannot go to the spring, or even out of their rooms, or are * confined to their beds, may, in the winter, drink chalybeat waters • at their own houses, with such success as cannot be hoped for, or • expected in a warm season. And those who can venture abroad, • and have carriages, or can ride, or walk, may find a great many • days proper and agreeable enough for exercise without any dan•ger of being over-heated by it, as is often the case in very warm weather, or incommoded by the cold.

• The confideration, that chalybeat waters are, for the most part, ordered to be drank, to counteract the effects of some chronic dis• ease, will also afford a very powerful reason, for giving the pre• ference to the winter sea on; as then the symptoms of such dif* eafes generally occur with greater severity: and it is very natural • to suppose, that the tender and debilitated fand more in need of • the afiiltance of this noble prophylactic, at that, than at any other « time.

• What I have advanced of the strength of chalybeat waters, in • cold weather, the good effects of drinking them in the winter, * and the necessity of continuing the use of them for a very long • season in obstinate cases, is not hypothesis, or mere conjecture, but

the result of long experience : for I have drark the waters of • Tunbridge wells, the most part of four fummers, and two win*ters ; in the summer upon the spot, and in the winter at my own • house, which is 25 miles distant from the well. In the very hard • froit of 1752 and 1753, I have thought they were as strong, or stronger at home, as far as I have been able to judge, by the deep

ness of the purple they give with galls, and the irony taite, as I • have at any time found them at the well. And, indeed, I had the * more convincing proof of their being as efficacious, by receiving

the same beneħt from them in every respect, as when I drank • them in the summer on the spot. All the cantion that was used in • filling the bottles to bring home, was to have them corked under

water, to exclude the air as much as possible, and resining the corks.' Art. 23. A Treatise on the Virtues and Efficacy of a Crust of Bread,

eat carly in a Morning Fasting : To which are added, Some particular Remarks concerning the great Cures accomplished by the Saliva or Fasting Spittle, as well when externally applied, as when internally given, in the Scurvy, Gravel, Stone, Rheumatism, and divers other Diseases, arising from Obstructions. With some critical Observations concerning the Recrements of the Blood; demonstrating, that when regularly secreted, they both contribute to preserve the Life of Animals and keep them in Health, By Nicholas Robinson, M. D. Member of the Royal College of Physicians, and Physician to Christ's Hospital, London. 810. Pr. is. Robinson.

Neque enim, ulla alia re, homines propius ad Deos accedunt, quam salutem hominibus dando.

CICERO.

The

The godlike Dr. Robinson (for such is the epithet he seems by his motto to aspire at) has in this treatise obliged the publick with the discovery of a powerful remedy against the Gravel, Stone, Gout, and Rheumatism.- A remedy in daily and constant use with every person who swallows his spittle. Yet if the old Athenian Cynick was alive and could hear Dr. Robinson discant upon this subject, he might poflibly, in a fit of contradiction, take it into his head not to swallow all his spittle. But we shall take the liberty to entertain our readers with the beginning of this curious treatise, from which they will easily form a judgment of the whole. Ex pede Herculem. Sect. I. Of the virtues of a Cruft of Bread, eat early in a morning

fasiing, with its force and efficacy in relieving the jcurvy, gravel, fione, gout, rheumatism, and various other aiseases. • I am now going to speak of a remedy second to none, in the cure and relief given in the foregoing diseases: it may indeed serve

other intentions and purposes as far as I know, but in the Gravel, • Stone, Gout, and Rheumatism, I know it to be the best and surelt * remedy hitherto discovered; and if you join fasting to this noble • medicine, I know none more efficacious: would you know this • invaluable secret, it is abstinence: I say abstinence ;-but by the • word abitinence, I do not mean a mere negative remedy, as if • fasting was to do all the work herself, by suffering nature, in due • courle of time, to resolve the obstructions, and, at her leisure, • to digest off the viscid juices and corrupt humours; for abstinence • is only necessary as an aslifant, both to improve the operation, and • enable the crust of bread, eat early in a morning fasting, to exert • its virtues with more falutary effects : for all medicines operate best

upon an empty stomach, and few purging medicines are advised, . if they are greatly efficacious, but that they are prescribed to be • taken in a morning early, and the first thing that the patient does ; • and he is often advised not to eat till two or three hours after.

* I chuse to express myself, in the vulgar manner of speech, be• cause the visible relief given in the Gravel or Stone is usually a• scribed to the bread alone, and not to any other assistant remedy • mixed with it in the mouth, or in its passage to the stomach, and • so into the blood : for it is a truch, establithed by constant obser'vation and experience, that divers persons, by eating a cruit of • Bread in a morning early, and fasting two or three hours after it, • have received great relief in the Gravel; others have declared,

that under the Stone their severest symptoms have been mightily mitigated ; and fonce again, under the most painful symptoms of

the Gout and Rheumatism, have found their pains greatly relieved • by adhering to this remedy, and applying chewed bread, well • moistened with the fasting faliva, warm to the gouty parts : and I

do not speak these things of two or three people only, that have * accidentally been thus relieved, but of hundreds, nay, I may fay *thousands, that, within my own knowledge, have received great • benefit from this invaluable and falutary medicine.

• Now to examine the main point, and enquire upon what principles this great relief is given; for if we conlider the bread itself, • this concrete can have no efficacy, at one time more than another, • if the efficacy, I say, proceeds from the intrinsical principles of the • bread; for then a cruit eat at five or fix in the afternoon, or at a • proper distance from our meals, must produce the same effects up

on the urinary passages ; upon the obstructions of the joints and • membranes of the muscles, that it does, when eat in a morning • fafting ; and therefore we are to consider, whether this virtue and . efficacy, supposed to be lodged in the bread, may not more pro• perly be owing to some other assisting cause, than to the piece of

bread itself; for we know very well, that the matter of fact is so, viz. That a crust of bread, eat early in a morning fafting, does • produce these good effects in the foresaid Diseases; and if we search into the virtues of bread, and confider what ingredients

there is in a crust, we shall not discover any virtues in the bread, • more than to nourish the body; for the purest wheat, when chang• ed into never so many different forms, only produces a more ele

gant nourishment: This is the prime law of its nature, and there• fore we cannot suppose that the bread itself can contain any powers

capable of producing these principles of dissolution of the gravel, • attenuation of the phlegm, and mitigation of the painful symptoms

of the stone; and therefore I must conclude, that the bread itself does not contain any principles powerful enough to accomplish that • great relief, that is often received from eating a cruft of bread in

a morning early; for then its great efficacy would sensibly appear, • from the great quantities we eat of this aliment, in our several • meals, at morning, noon, and night: And hence I infer, that the • good that is known to ensue, from eating the bread, must be the • result of somewhat that accompanies the bread, and that we can

conceive to be nothing but the fasting saliva, which leads me to • speak of the origin, secretion, and composition of this Auid, or

what we vulgarly call the fasting spittle ; as it is a fluid that serves • divers great and important purposes in the animal-economy.'

After all, as there is something that may be worth the reader's notice in the Doctor's account of the external use of the fafting faliva, we shall deliver it as it comes to our hand, and so conclude this article.

• I am, says the Doctor, intimately acquainted with a gentleman, that every spring and fall was accosted (disagreeable enough greeting, you'll say ) with a very troublesome scorbutic tetter ; he had taken Mercury in all shapes, advised with several physicians, and by their advice had applied mixtures, ointments, and waters, prescrib.ed for tettery humours, but without success: At last, he was ad* vised to apply the fafting saliva every morning, which, in a fortnight's time, effe&tually cured him.

Nor do I know a better medicine for troublesome corns. А person of some distinction had a corn on the off side of his foot, •ihat so shackled his limbs, as almost to reduce him to the state of 'a cripple : He employed the corn-cutter without effect; for every . time it was cut, it both bled and pained him very much : He had * made use of plasters, balsams, ointments, lotions, and all manner of applications, but to no manner of purpose : He then accidentally

• aked

* asked a gentleman's opinion, and was advised every night to foak • his feet in warm water and bran, and the next morning to apply • chew'd bread, well moistened with the fasting spittle, by way of

pultice, which, in a little time, perfectly relieved him; for the • corn, in less than a week, tumbled out by the roots, and he has • heard no more of it since. The like happened to a gentleman that

'was advised to apply the chewed bread, mixed with the fafting • spittle, to a gouty node, which mightily relieved him, and has kept his feet easy ever since.

• In those hard excresences we call warts in the hands, face, and • divers other parts of the body, it is an infallible cure, if constant• ly used. It also mightily asíifts in relieving fore eyes, especially • those whose eye-lids, from hard drinking, are red, angry, and

inflamed: In these cases, if you do but lightly touch the parts af. • fected, with this noble balsam, every morning, you will find great • relief.'

Art. 24. Frugality the Support of Charity. A Sermon, preached

at St. Nicholas's Church in Newcastle, before the Governors of the Infirmary, for the Counties of Durham, Newcastle, and Northumberland, on Wednesday, June 23, 1756. Being their Anniversary Meeting. By Edmund Tew, D. D. Rector of Boldon, in the County of Durham. To which is annexed, a Report of the State of the Charity; and a List of the Governors and Subscribers. Preached and published at the Request of the Governors. 4to. Pr. 15. Hitch.

This short discourse appears to us extremly well calculated to promote the interest of that excellent charity which it so warmly and sincerely recommends, it is written in a plain, though not unaffecting stile, and in praise of a virtue which, of late years, is very sarely to be found amongst us. Our author's application to the prea sent times is sensible and judicious.

• We are now in the morning of a new war, in which our com'merce is at stake. We have often fought generously for others, • and muft now fight for ourselves, without the alliitance of our

good allies--And therefore frugality is doubly necessary to carry on this war; and indeed, without it, even victories would not avail us; but, with it, our Naval Forces, and the Divine Fa vour, what have we to fear?' After enumerating the advantages of frugality in every ftation of life, he obferves that,

6. It is plain then, that frugality intends an accomplishment of * good purposes, is as widely distant from penuriousncís and prodi

gality, as they are from one another, and must be therefore you, thy of all men to be received. To save from ourielves, that we might enjoy, from this exalted principle, to give to him thot

needeth, must be a recommendatory virtue before God and ail the * people. Many might come in and go out of the world uneard of, or with an ill favour, was it not for their continued vids and

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