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part, in which I have not consulted my own inclinations, • but the necessities of my friends. It is some comfort however, my Lords, that my present pleadings cannot so pro

perly be accounted an accusation, as a defence. For I de* fend a multitude of men, a number of cities, and the whole. ' province of Sicily. If, therefore, I am under a necessity of

arraigning one, I still feem to act agreeably to my former character, without deviating from the patronage and defence of mankind. But granting I could not produce such powerfal, weighty, and urgent reasons ; granting the Sicilians had * not folicited me to undertake their cause ; or that my con• nexion with them had not laid me under any obligations • to comply; and that in this whole affair I should profess no

other motive than the view of serving my country, and of • bringing to justice a man, infamous for avarice, insolence, • and villainy; whose robberies and crimes have not been con

fined to Sicily alone, but are likewise notorious over all 1 Achaia, Afwa, Cilicia, Pamphylia, in fine at Rome before th:

• eyes of all men ; who, I desire to know, could object es.ther to my conduct or intentions?

Immortal Gods! What nobler service can I at this time ren. der the commonwealth? What can I undertake more grateful

to the people of Rome, more desireable to our allies and foreign

nations, or more calculated for the safety and advantage of • mankind in general ? The provinces are plundered, harrafled, • and utterly ruined. The allies and tributaries of the Roman • people, overwhelmed with anguish and amfiction, despair

now of redress, and only solicit an alleviation of their calamities. They who are for having the administration of • justice continue in the hands of the senators, complain of the insufficiency of accusers. And they who are capable of act

ing as accusers, complain of the remissness of the judges. • In the mean time the Roman people, though labouring un• der many hardships and difficulties, desire nothing so much

as the revival of the ancient force and firmness of public • trials. Through their impatience for a vigorous adminiftra

tion of justice, they have extorted the restoration of the uri, • bunitian power. From the contempt into which our tribu

bunals are fallen, another order is demanded for the decifion • of causes. The infamy and corruption of the judges have toccafioned a desire to see the censorship re-established; an office, which though formerly accounted fevere, is now become. popular and agreeable. Amidst these exorbitant oppressions of guilty men, amidst the daily complaints of the Roman people, the infamy of our tribunals, and the odium conceived against the whole order of fenators, as there appeared no other rea, medy for these evils, but for men of ability and integrity

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to undertake the defence of the commonwealth and the laws :: "I own I was prevailed upon, out of regard to the common - safety, to endeavour at relieving the republic, in that party * where she seemed most to stand in need of help: And now that I have laid before you the reasons by which I was determined to appear in this cause, it remains that I speak to

the point under debate, that in the choice of an accuser you 'may the better see whereon to ground your judgment. I ap'prehend, my Lord, when an information is brought against • any one for extortion, if a dispute arises about the perfon ‘most proper to act as impeacher, that these two things are of principal moment; whom the parties aggrieved chiefly, • desire to have the management of their cause; and whom , the person accused, dreads, moft in that capacity. « Though I think both these points, my Lords, sufficiently. clear in the present cause, yet I shall speak particularly to each of them: And first, of that which ought to have the principal fway in this debate; I mean, the inclination of the suffering parties, for whose fake the present trial was. granted. C. Verres is charged with having for three years plundered the province of Sicily, rifled the cities, stripped • the private houses, and pillaged the temples. The Sicilians. in a body are present, to offer their complaints. They Ay, ' to my protection, of which already they have had long and

ample experience. By me they folicit redress from this courte and from the laws of the Roman people. They have cholen me as their refuge against oppression, as the revenger of their wrongs, the patron of their rights, and the fole manager of • the present impeachment. Will you, Cæcilius, pretend, either that the Sicilians have not importuned me to . undertake their cause, or that the inclinations of our best • and most faithful allies ought not to weigh with those . who compose this court? If you dare assert what Verres, to

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whom you profess yourself an enemy, desires above all

things should be believed, that the Sicilions have not applied to me in this case ; you will thereby do a service to the cause

of your enemy, against whom not a presumptive pretence only, • but an absolute judgment is already supposed to be given, from the notoriety that the Sicilians have unanimously ( demanded an advocate for their rights againft his oppressions. • If you, his enemy, dispute this fact, which he himself, tho' • it makes directly against him, has not the face to deny, be• ware that you are not suspected of pushing * your resentment

with too gentle a hand. Besides, several of the most illuftrious men of the commonwealth, all whose names it were needless to repeat, can witness the contrary. I shall men'tion only such as are present, whom I would be very far

from having the assurance to appeal to, were I conscious of advancing a falfhood. C. Marcellus, , who sits upon the bench, knows the truth of what I asfert : Gn. Lentulus Marcellinus, whom I fee in court, can likewise testify the same " thing: Two persons, on whose protection and patronage the Sicilians have a principal dependence; that whole province • being in a particular manner attached to the name of the « Marcelli. These know, that I have been not only impor

tuned to undertake this affair, but fo frequently, and with so much earneftness, that I was under a necessity of either

charging myself with the cause, or renouncing the ties of re<lation between us. But what need after all of appealing to witnelles, as if the thing was doubtful, or obscure? Men of the greatest quality in the whole province are here present, my Lords, who personally request and conjure you, that in

appointing one to prosecute their cause, your sentiments may not be different from theirs. Commissioners appear from

every city in Sicily, except two; whose deputies, if present, ' would considerably weaken the force of two principal * branches of the accusation, in which these cities were ac

complices * Pulhing your resentment, &c.] Videto (fays Tully) ne nimium familiariter ini micitias exercere videare. The translator by dropping the word familiariter, has greatly weaken'd the intended sarcasm, as the orator apparently ineant to glance at the connivance between Verres and Cæcilius, which is afferwards more openly explained, besides that the words pushing and gentle are contradictory:. But it requires great nicery in a translator to render passages of this nature with elegance and propriety.

complices with Verres. But why do they apply chiefly to me,

for protection? If the fact itself was doubtful, I might per"haps explain the reasons of this application. But as it is a

cale so evident, that you may judge of it by what you see, • I know no reason why an obje&tion from my being chosen, • preferable to all others, ought to affect one. But, my Lords,

I arrogate no such distinction to myself, and am so far from

claiming it in what I now offer to your consideration, that I • should be sorry if it entered into the imagination of any • person whatsoever, that I was preferred to all other patrons.

'Tis by no means so: But regard is had to every one's cir'cumstances, health, and abilities. My inclinations and fen

timents always were, that any one capable of managing the cause should undertake it, rather than myself; but myself rather than none.

• Since then it is evident, that the Sicilians have befought me to charge myself with their defence; it now remains

that we enquire, whether this ought to have any influence • in the present debate'; whether the allies of the Roman peo*ple, applying in a suppliant manner for a redress of grievances, • ought not to have great weight in swaying your determina

tions ? But why do I dwell upon this subject? as if it was not apparent, that the whole system of laws relating to ex

tortion, were established for the sake of the allies alone. • When citizens defraud one another, they may have recourse

to a civil action, and the municipal laws of the state. This • law is wholly social ; 'tis the peculiar right of foreign na

tions : they have this fortress, somewhat weakened indeed, ( and less able to protect them than formerly ; yet still, if any • hope remains, to chear the hearts of our allies, it is wholly • founded on this law. A law, which not only the people of

Rome, but the remoteft nations, long to fee under the care of rigorous guardians. Who then can deny that a law ought to

take its course according to the inclination of those in favour of (whom it was enacted ? Could all the people of Sicily speak with • one voice, they would say, You, Verres, have robbed and '.plundered us of all the gold, silver, and ornaments, that s were in our cities, houses, or temples; you have vio•iated every privilege we enjoyed by the friendihip of the fe

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nate and people of Rome ; and on that account we have • brought an action against you, of an hundred million of sel«terces. I say, could the whole province speak with one tongue, this would be its language. But, as that is imposfible, they have made choice of such an advocate, as they thought best for their purpose. Shall any one therefore, in

an affair of this kind, have the assurance to thrust himself • into another’s cause, contrary to the inclination of those who are immediately concerned ?

Should the Sicilians speak thus to you, Cæcilius, We know you not; we are strangers to your character; we never saw you

suffer us to commit the defence of our fors tunes to a man, whose integrity we have experienced ; would they not say, what all the world must approve ? Now

they even tell you, that they know us both ; that they expressly desire the one for their advocate, and will have nothing to do with the other. Were they silent as to

the reasons of this refusal, it would be no hard matter to disvine them: but they are by no means silent. Will you then

force yourself upon them, against their inclination ? Will you speak in a cause, in which you have no concern? Will

you charge yourself with the defence of those, who chuse raiher to see themselves abandoned by all the world, than <trust their defence in your hands? Will you engage to proStect a people, who are persuaded you have neither inclination • nor power to serve them? Why would you deprive them of

the small hopes of relief they have still left, in the equity of • the laws and judges? Why would you interpose, in oppo'fiiion to the will of those, for whose benefit the law was

chiefy designed? Why do you aim at entirely subyerting the : fortunes of a people, to whom you had rendered yourself • so very obnoxious in the province ? Why are you for divesting them of the power, not only of prosecuting their rights, " but even of deploring their misfortunes ? For which of them, do you imagine, would attend the trial under your management, when you know they are labouring, not to punish 4 another by your help, but, by mcans of another, to avenge the wrongs they have received from you ?

· But this proves only, that the Sicilians chiefly desire me. • for their advocate. The other point, whom Verres most

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