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III. The second Olynthiac Oration : proncunced in the same year. IV. The third Olynthiac Oration : pronounced in the same year.

V. The Oration on the peace : pronounced in the archonship of Archias, three years after the olynthiac Oration.

VI. The seventh Oration against Philip : commonly called the second. Pronounced in the archonship of Lyciscus, two years after the Oration on the peace.

VII. The Oration on the state of the Chersonefus : pronounced in the archonship of Sofigenes, two years after the second Phillipic.

VIII. The tenth Oration against Philip : commonly called the third. Pronounced in the same year.

IX. The eleventh Oration against Philip: cominonly called the fourth. Pronounced in the archonship of Nicomachus, the year after the former Oration.

X. The twelfth Oration against Philip : commonly called theOration on the letter. Pronounced in the archonship of Theophrastus, the year after the foregoing Oration. To which is prefixed, Philip's letter to the Athenians.

To every Oration our translator has prefixed a short introduction, giving an account of the historical facts preceding, and the subject matter of it, which cannot be disagreeable to the learned, and is absolutely necessary to the unlearned reader. There are also subjoined a few notes explaining the idioms and phrases made use of, and the customs alluded to, which are not unserviceable.

This translation may, in our opinion, be justly rank'd amongst those which will do honour to our language, being, for the most part, faithful without servility, and elegant without either weakne's or affectation: as will sufficiently appear by the following short specimen which we have extracted from the latter part of the noble and animated Oration on the state of the Chersonfus, where our author seems to have caught the fire and spirit, and not ill supported the strength and dignity of his illustrious original.

“We have those among us, who think a speaker fully con

futed by asking, “ What then is to be done?” to whom I 6 answer with the utmost truth and justnes“, “ not what we " are now doing.”—But I shall be more explicit: if they will • be as ready to follow, as to ask advice.


• First then, Athenians, be firmly convinced of these truths. • That Philip does commit hostilities against us, and has vio• lated the peace; (and let us no longer accuse each other of

his crimes)—that he is the implacable enemy of this whole * city, of the ground on which this city stands, of every in“habitant within these walls ; even of those who imagine

themselves highest in his favour. If they doubt this, let

them think of Euthycrates and Lasthenes the Olynthians. They (who seemed the nearest to his heart, the moment they be( trayed their country, were distinguished only by the superior cruelty of their death. But it is againft our conftitution, that his arms are principally directed; nor, in all his schemes,

in all his actions, hath he any thing so immediately in view, ( as to subvert it. And there is in some sort a necessity for this. • He knows full well, that his conquests, however great and “extensive, can never be secure, while you continue free: “but that if once he meets with any accident, (and every man is subject to many) all those whom he hath forced into

his service, with instantly revolt, and Ay to you for protection, • For you are not naturally disposed to grasp at empire your

felves ; but to frustrate the ambitious attempts of others; to “be ever ready to oppose usurpation, and affert the liberty of

mankind; this is your peculiar character. And therefore it is “not without regret that he sees in your freedom, a spy upon o the incidents of his fortune.

· Let us then be affured, that we are contending for the very bring of cur flate; let this inspire us with abhorrence of those who have fold themselves to this man, and let them feel the severity of public justice : for it is not, it is not possible to conquer' our foreign enemy, until we have punished those traitors who are serving him, within our walls. Elle

while we strike on these as so many obstacles, our enemics 'must necessarily prove superior to us.-And whence is it

that he dares treat you with infolence, (I cannot give his « present conduct any other name) that he utters menaces againit you, while to others, he does acts of kindness (to deceive

them at least, if for no other purpose ?) Thus, by heaping

favours on the 'Thesalians, he hath reduced them to their « present flavery. It is not poflible to recount the various

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6 artifices, by which he abused the wretched Olynthians, from

his first insidious gift of Potidaea. But now, he seduced the Thebans to his party, by making them masters of Boeotia, and

easing them of a great and grievous war. And thus, by being

gratified in some favourite point, these people are either in< volved in calamities known to the whole world, or wait with < submission for the moment wher such calamities are to fall • upon them. I do not recount all that you yourselves have • loft, Athenians! but in the very conclusion of peace, how

have you been deceived ? how have you been {poiled ? Was not Phocis, was not Thermopylae, were not our Thracian dominions, Doriscum, Şerrium, and even our ally Cerfobleptes, all wrested from us? Is he not at this time in poffeffion of Car

dia ? And does he 'not avow it? Whence is it, I say, that 'he treats you in so singular a manner? Because our's is

the only state where there is allowed full liberty to plead the 6 cause of an enemy : and the man who sells his country, may * harangue securely, at the very time, that you are spoiled of your dominions. It was not safe to speak for Philip at

Olynthus, until the people of Olynthus had been gained by the 6 surrender of Patidaea. In Theffaly, it was not safe to speak « for Philip, until the Theljalians had been gained by the ex

pulsion of their tyrants, and the recovery of their rank of

Amphictyons; nor could it have been safely attempted at « Thebes, before he had restored Boeotia, and extirpated the « Phocians. But at Aihens, although he hath robbed us of Amphipolis, and the territory of Cardia; though he awes us. with his fortifications in Euboea ; though he is now upon his & march to Byzantium; yet his partizans may speak for Philip (without any danger. Hence, some of them, from the meanseft poverty, have on a sudden risen

sudden risen to affluence; fome, from obfcurity ard disgrace, to eminence and honour; while you son the contrary, from glory have funk into meanness, from « riches to poverty : for the riches of a state I take to be its allies, its credit, its connexions; in all which you are spoor. And by your neglect of these, your utter insensibilis

ty to your wrongs, he is become fortunate and great, the * terror of Greeks and Barbarians; and you abandoned and despised; fplendid indeed in the abundance of your markets ;


but as to any real provision for your security, ridiculously « deficient.

• There are some orators, I find, who view your interests and their own in a quite different light. They would persuade you to continue quiet, whatever injuries are offered to you: they themselves cannot be quiet, though no one offers • them the least injury. When ane of these men rises, I am < sure to hear, “ What! will you not propose your decree 3 Will you

not venture ? No; you are timid; you want true •

spirit.”-I own indeed, I am not, nor would I chuse to be a bold, an importunate and audacious speaker. And yet, if I mistake not, I have more real courage than they who manage your affairs with this rafh hardiness. For he, who neglecting the public interefts is engaged only in trials, in confiscations, in rewarding, in accufing; does not act from any principle of courage ; but as he never speaks but to gair your favour, never proposes measures that are attended with

the least hazard; in this, he has a pledge of his security; 6 and therefore is he daring.. But he who for his country's * good, oftentimes opposes your inclinations; who gives the s mo salutary, though not always the most agreeable counsel; « who pursues those measures, whose success depends more son fortune than on prudence; and is yet willing to be acscountable for the event; this is the man of courage, this

is the true patriot: not they, who by flattering your paflions, have lost the most important interests of the state : men,

whom I am so far from imitating, or deeming citizens of 'worth, that should this question be proposed to me, “ What "" services have you done your country ?” though I might re6 count the gallies I have fitted out, and the public entertain"ments I have exhibited, and the contributions I have paid, 6 and the captives I have ransomed, and many like acts of be

nevolence; I would yet pass them all by, and only say, that (my public conduct hath ever been directly opposite to theirs. s I might, like them, have turned accuser, have distributed rewards and punishments: but this is a part I never assumed :

my inclinations were averse; nor could wealth or honours $ prompt me to it. No; I confine myself to such counsels $ as have funk my reputation, but if pursued, must raise


the reputation of my country. Thus much I may be allow

ed to say, without exposing myself to envy.--I should not have thought myself a good citizen had I proposed such «measures as would have made me, the first among my coun

trymen, but reduced you to the last of nations : on the con

trary, the faithful minister should raise the glory of his coun<try; and upon all occasions, advise the most falutary, not

the eafiest measures. To these, nature itself inclines; those are not to be promoted, but by the utmost efforts of a wise and faithful counsellor.

I have heard it objected, " that indeed I ever speak with 66 reason, but that still this is no more than words : that the “ state requires something more effectual ; some vigorous' “ actions.” Upon which, I shall give my sentiments without the least reserve. The sole business of a speaker is, in my opinion, to propose the course you are to pursue. It is easy to shew this. You know that when the great Timotheus

moved you to defend the Eubocans, against the tyranny of Thebes; he addressed you thus. « What, my countrymen ! “ when the Thebans are actually in the island, are you deli“ berating what is to be done, what part to be taken? will

you not cover the seas with your navies ? why are you not « at the Piraeus? why are you not embarked ?”—– Thus

Timotheus advised, thus you acted; and success ensued. But had he spoken with the same spirit, and had your indolence prevailed, and his advice been rejected; would the state have

had the same success? by no means. And so in the present • case; vigour and execution is your part; from your speakers you are only to expect wisdom and integrity.

• I will just give a summary of my opinion, and then de• scend. You should raise fupplies, you should keep up your present forces, and reform whatever abuses may be found in them,

(not break them entirely upon the first complaint.) You Mould * send ambassadors into all parts, to inform, to remonstrate, to exert all their efforts in the service of the state. But above all things, | let those corrupt minister:, feel the fevereff punishment ; let them at all times and in all places be the objects of your abhorrence : that wife and faithful counsellors may appear to have consulted their oron interests as well as that of others. If you will act thus, if you will



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