Page images
PDF
EPUB

ted by Mr. John Douglas in his lectures on anatomy, gives us to understand, that by means of a pipe contrived for the purpose, he has injected into it a mixture of mel rofarum and warm water, so as to cure deafness in several instances. The operation was first proposed by Moni. Guyot, but fupposed impracticable until explained by Mr. Douglas, and performed by Mr. Wathen, who has illustrated his essay with a print of the instrument introduced.

The thirty-sixth article is a Latin essay concerning the action of quick-lime upun volatile alcaline salt, by Dr. John AlbertSchlosser, a native of Utrecht. This gentleman, from comparing the experiments which have been made by Hoffman, Boerhaave, Pott, Duhamel, Macquer, Malouin, Alston, and IV lytt, concludes, that · quick-lime is a true simple, alcaline • earth, brought to the utmost purity by the force of fire; that the salts extracted from quick-lime, do not properly belong to its original composition, but deduce their origin from va. rious acids, attracted from the atmosphere, and united with the true alcaline earth ; and that therefore the purest and • strongest lime-water is merely a full saturated solution of this • alcaline earth.'-He observes, that Duhamel was the first person who endeavoured to investigate the fingular power of quick. lime upon volatile alcaline falt, by which the spirit which Boerhaave attributed to the fire, is generated. He discovered, by experiments, that volatile alcaline salts, as often as they are prepa. red from fal ammoniacus, by the help of fixed alcaline falt, or pure chalk, lay hold of a certain part of the fixed alcaline salt, or pure chalk, which they carry up along with them; while, on the contrary, as often as quick-lime prepared from the same chalk is used, there neither is any thing calcarious joined to the volatile alcaline salt, nor any sublimation of the fiery spirit, unless there be a mixture of water. The same ingenious chymist, from other experiments, concludes, that the quick-lime, while it is joined to the concrete alcaline volatile salt, separates the oily particles from the others that constitute the sale, and unites them to itself, and that hence the igneous spirit derives its origin and property. Then Dr. Schlosser proceeds to de. scribe a series of judicious experiments, which seem to ascertain the nature of this igncous fpirit. "Since, therefore (says 7 .

: "he)

he) quick-lime is that true alcaline earth, which, by a cer

tain union with other elements, produces the fixed alcaline salt, why should not I conclude, that the igneous spirit is produced from the real volatile alcaline salt of the quick-lime; <for, some particles of the acid and phlogiston, are more • strongly attracted by this alcaline fixed earth, than by the

earthy particles of the volatile alcaline falt.'--At the end of the essay, the doctor proposes the following questions: Is ( not the lithontriptic virtue of quick-lime to be solely ascribed

to that power by which it destroys volatile alcaline salts ? • Is not the surprising property of the acid in the salt with « which the urine is impregnated, to be accounted for on the • same principles I used above for explaining the virtue of quickolime *? Why therefore do not we prescribe this acid, which

is bland and soluble, to persons afflicted with the stone, either « in small doses by the mouth, or dissolved in water, to be in(jected into the bladder ?

The next article contains a remarkable case of a boy who recovered and did will, after fifty seven inches of his intestines had been cut off, in consequence of a mortification occasioned by a bruise.

This curious history is followed by an account of some experiments on the sensibility and irritability of the several parts of animals, in a letter from Richard Brocklesby, M. D. F.R.S. to the reverend Thomas Birch, D. D. Secr. R.S. A person ambitious of distinguishing himself in the world of science, without the talents requisite for that purpose, is very apt to astound the public by hammering upon the discoveries of other people, though his labour denotes neither invention nor improvement. Haller's doctrine of irritability was so well established, that it required no further confirmation; or if any student doubted the truth of his experiments, he might have fatisfied himself in privatc, without disgusting the public with a recapitulation of barbarous executions, which were productive of no new phænomena, Where then was the importance of

the * Mr. Schlufer, at the end of his thesis, published at Leyden in the year 1753, demonitrated from experiments, that this acid unites with a certain true volatile alcaline lalt, and by this means is regenejated into a neutral sali, exactly fimilar to that which at first exifted in the urine.

che inquiry ?-One would imagine that Dr. Brockleshy had directed and superintended those barbarities, on purpose to have an opportunity of promulgating his own aversion to cruelty, in the preamble of his letter : yet he makes but a sorry excuse for the tortures he inflicted, by giving us to understand, that the pain and misery by him caused, even to the victims of this subject, were to be regarded much less than what hap

pens every day in Smithfield to twenty oxen and sheep, by . cutting off their tails, and other parts of the skin, and driving

them miles afterwards. This apology puts us in mind of the defence of a ruffian, who being taxed with biting off another man's ear, yes, (said he) but I did not slit his nose into 'the bargain, as Dick Slash did by Tom Taylor. There is something very curious in this expedient of Iheltering one's reputation for humanity, under the shade of a butcher's Daughter. house.

This learned physician, after having cut, Aea'd, mangled, and corroded the great tendons of a young lamb and an old sheep, vellicated the pericranium, trepanned the skull, poured corrosives on the membranes of the brain, divided the muscles, plucked out the heart, pickled and salted the cellular mem. brane, liver, pancreas, spleen, and urinary bladder, poured soJutions of opium on the irritated parts of mufcular fibres, and torn out the intestines of a live animal, says, he is induced to coincide with most of the conclusions drawn by Dr. Haller, Castel, and Zimnerman, that no part is sensible but the nerves

only, and that some parts are irritable without sensibility ac"companying them in any great degree; whilst others are al

together without sense, at the same time that they are inca. . pable of being irritated at all.'

The doctor having thus declared his coincidence with those foreign luminaries, concludes his letter with recommending sallad oil in the rheumatisin, to be used in gentle and continued frictions on the pained parts, which he supposes to be in a state of crispation, like a beef-stake on a grid-iron.

The 39th article is an account of worms in animal bodies, by Frank Nicholls, M. D. &c. &c.

This renowned anatomist affures us, that the cod and the bley, as well as feep and bullocks, are apt to be troubled VOL, Il.

with

with worms, some of which he sends to the secretary of the society, to be lodged in the repository, if it be judged requisite. As a cure for these disorders, he proposes fumigation with mercurials, or fætids, as tobacco. This is the first time we ever heard that aromatic plant termed a foetid; and we wish the epithet may not give offence to some smoaking philosophers, who, thus provoked, 'may be apt to say, the whole article is not worth a pinch of snuff.

The insects of the polype kind, described in the next article by Dr. Brady, are extremely curious, and matters of great import to those microscopical observers, who pry into the minutiæ of nature.

In the forty-first article we find some new astronomical ob. fervations touching a star's occultation by the moon, made in Afia by a French physician, who has likewise ascertained the latitudes of Aleppo, mount Cafius, Seleucia in Syria, Antioch, Diarbekir, and Bagdad. He says, that those spårkles, suppofed in Europe to be no more than scintillations, are real stars : that nitre is produced by a combination of the universal acid, with the natrum of the ancients: that assafoetida is drawn from a ferulaceous plant of the thapsia kind, common in Media; and that he had found the small nardus indica, a graminous plant, some of which species bear spicaceous flowers, both male and female, and others only female fowers. ·

Dr. Malcolm Fleming, physician at Brigg in Lincolnshire, is author of the following observations, proving, that the foetus is in part nourished by the liquor amnii : he examined the meconium of a calf that was brought forth dead, and found the fcybala, into which the meconium was formed, stuck full of tough, thick, white hairs, which he supposes were loosened by maceration from the calf's skin, and swallowed with the liquor amnii. He met with the same appearance in the first dung of several calves that were produced alive: he saw no fuch hairs in the meconium of several embryos of calves, which had no hair upon their skins; nor could he find a single hair in the stomach or intestines of puppies, nor in the meconium of a colt, which he carefully examined ; because in these the hairs were firmly rooted on their skins; whereas, in a ripe calf new brought forth, many are found quite loosened at their roots and only adhering to the skin by the moisture on it. The Doctor's deduction is very natural; for we cannot conceive how those hairs should be mixed with the meconium in the intestines, unless the animal swallows them with the liquor amnii, in which it floats. In the mean time, we are willing to believe Dr. Malcolm Fleming's solemn proteftation, that he had not seen Aldes and Swarmerdam when he made this discovery, of which, therefore, he ought to reap the bo. nour.

[To be continued.]

ART. III. A FOURTH LETTER to the people of England. On the conduct of the

M r s in alliances, fiezts, and armies, fince the first differences on the Ohio, to the taking of Minorca by the French. 8vo. Pri 25. M. Collier.

DEFORE we proceed to investigate the merits of this re

markable performance, we beg leave to premise, that far from being advocates for the ministry, we hould be glad of an opportunity to detect and expose all such errors and defigns of the administration, as may tend to the prejudice of our country. We believe some fatal errors have been committed, and hope the parliament will set on foot a candid inquiry, which will ascertain the misconduct or delinquency of those who have done amiss, that the public may obtain some reparation for the damage and disgrace which it has undergone. Towards this desirable end, we will endeavour, in our animadversions on the piece before us, to separate truth from fiction, concern from calumny, argument from sophistication, and to diftinguish between the genial flame of true patriotism and the destructive brand of impudent fedition.

Were we to carp at immaterial faults, we fhould affirın that the very price of this performance is an imposition on the public ; but, perhaps the author, like a quack in medicine, pretends to convey twice the eficacy, in the fame volume, of any other composition.

That he is an empiric in language as well as in politics, will appear from fome specimens of his expression, in which he seems to have imitated the eloquence of bis predecessor

D 2

Para

« PreviousContinue »