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" fawn. On one fide of this last stood a fmall column, upon “ the top of which was a comic mask, that served as a capital “ to it, and discharged water from its mouth. All the figures “ before described are two palms in height without their « bases.

December 16, in the same place were discovered another

boy, with another mask, and three other fawns; in all re“ spects like those, which were found the 27th and 29th of « November, except that there was no tyger. Besides these " we met with two little boys in bronze, somewhat less than " the former. These likewise were in a standing posture, “had silver eyes, and held each of them a vase, with handles, “ upon his shoulder; from hence the water flowed. We « also dug out an old fawn, crowned with ivy, having a long “ beard, a hairy body, and sandals on his fect. He sat astride “ upon a large goat fkin, holding it at the feet with both « his hands, from which had issued a larger quantity of water us than from the others; though the fawn himself is of the «s fame size with the former,

“ All the above-mentioned figures were taken out of a

place not exceeding eight palms square, and were covered « with the ruins of the building : for they were not in a gar“ den, but in a room paved with mosaic work, the remaining

part of which we are now going on to examine. You may

rely intirely upon what I write, as nothing can be moved “ from the place where it is discovered, but in my presence, “ We have likewise found a large quantity of houshold furni“ ture, made of earthen and iron ware, and some glass. At “ present this is all that I am at liberty to mention. Shortly “ will be published a general catalogue of all the things, which 6 have hitherto been found; and this


will come out also “ the first volume of the paintings. Both these I will take “ care to convey to you.

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Copy of a letter from a learned gentleman of Naples, dated Fe

bruary 25, 1755, concerning the books and antient writing, . dug out of the ruins of an edifice near the site of ile old city of • Herculaneum ; to Monsignor Cerati, of Pisa, F. R. S. sent to Mr. Baker, F.R.S. and by him communicated; with a translation by John Locke, Esgā F. R. S.



N obedience to your commands, I send you the best

account I can of the writings. You must know then, " that within two years last past, in a chamber of a house, “ (or more properly speaking, of an antient villa, for by many “ marks it is certainly known, that the place, where they “ are now digging, was never covered with buildings, but “ was in the middle of a garden) there has been found a “great quantity of rolls, about half a palm long, and “ round; which appeared like roots of wood, all black, and “ seeming to be only of one piece. One of them falling on “ the ground, it broke in the middle, and many letters were “ observed, by which it was first known, that the rolls were " of papyrus. · The number of these rolls, as I am told, were “ about 150, of different sizes. They were in wooden cases, " which are so much burnt, as are all the things made of “wood, that they cannot be recovered. The rolls however

are hard, though each appears like one piece. Our king " has caused infinite pains to be taken to unrol them, and « read them ; but all attempts were in vain ; only by flitting “ fome of them, some words were observed. At length sig

nor Asemani, being come a second time to Naples, proposed “ to the king to send for one father Antonio a writer at the Vatican, as the only man in the world, who could under“ take this difficult affair. It is incredible to imagine what “ this man contrived and executed. He made a machine, “ with which, (by the means of certain threads, which being “ gummed, stuck to the back part of the papyrus, where there

no writing) he begins, by degrees, to pull, while “ with a sort of ingraver's inftrument he loosens one leaf “ from the other (which is the most difficult part of all) " and then makes a sort of lining to the back of the papyrus, “ with exceeding thin leaves of onion, (if I mistake not) and " with some spirituous liquor, with which he wets the papyrus, “ by little and little he unfolds it. All this labour cannot be “ well comprehended without seeing. With patience lupe“rior to what a man can imagine, this good father has un“rolled a pretty large piece of papyrus, the worst preserved, “ by way of trial. It is found to be the work of a Greek wri“ter, and is a small philofophic tract (in Plutarsh's manner) VOL. II,



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" on music; blaming it as pernicious to society, and produc“ tive of softness and effeminacy. It does not discourse of “ the art of music. The beginning is wanting, but it is to “ be hoped, that the author's name may be found at the “ end: it seems however to be the work of a stoic philoso“pher; because Zeng is much commended. The papyrus “ is written across in so many columns, every one of about “ twenty lines, and every line is the third of a palm long. . “ Between column and column is a void space of more than “ an inch. There are now unrolled about * thirty columns; “ which is about a half of the whole; this roll being one of o the smallest : the letters are distinguishable enough. Fa“ther Antonio, after he has loosened a piece, takes it off er where there are no letters; and places it between two cry“ stals for the better observation ; and then, having an ad“ mirable talent in imitating characters, he copies it with all “ the lacunæ, which are very numerous in this scorched papy“ rus; and gives this copy to the canon Mazzochi, who tries “ to supply the loss, and explain it. The letters are capital " ones, and almost without any abbreviation. The worst is, the 66 work takes up so much time, that a small quantity of writing “ requires five or fix days to unroll; so that a whole year is al

ready consumed about half this roll. The lacunæ, for the “ most part, are of one or two words, that may be supplied

by the context. As soon as this roll is finished, they will “ begin a Latin one. There are some so voluminous, and the “ papyrus so fine, that unrolled they would take up an “ hundred palms space. They tell me, that some of the Latin ones are in a running hand; which confirms the opi“nion of the marquis Maffei, That the character, by us ab“ surdly called Gothic and Lombard, is the antient running“ hand, corrupted by time. However, I have not seen any “ of these last. The curiosity of these papyri is, that there “is no little ftaff of wood, on which they were rolled.

“ Thus I have told you all, that I know.concerning these papyri. . “We may comfort ourselves, that the affair is in good

« hands; • OriginalTrenta. .

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t hands; being under the care and conduct of fo learned an " antiquarian, as the canonico Mazzochi, and of this able and to adroit father Antonio."

In the twenty-fourth article we find an account of several earthquakes felt at Confantinople

, by Mr. Porter, the British ambassador, who describes them with great accuracy; and from his own observation, justly concludes, “That there are not 'any fixed or probable prognostics of earthquakes ; but that

they come on us indiscriminately in the midst of high winds and calms, heat and cold, rain, snow, and fair weather ; "lo that no other connection can be suspected of these with

the atmosphere, than merely the collected mass of igneous exhalations, perceived on the 6th of September at night; un« less the direction of the winds, which seemed most com'monly nearly in the fame line with the shakes of the earthquakes, might be thought to have any. • 2dly, What some of the antients have told us of the spring and autumn being the two usual seasons for earthquakes,

appears not only from these, but what has been ohserved " by others, to be no general secure rule, fince they happen * equally in all seasons.

3dly, The velocity of motion, and the distance of the line of communication, appear extremely surprising. From Adri* anople to Smyrna, in a right line, is not less than 250 miles, and to Constantinople 150 miles. Possibly the reason it was • felt with lefs force at the former of these places arises from the difference of distance, and that its force decreased in proportion to it; whence we might form a conjecture on 'some grounds, that the origin of the explosion was at or • about Adrianople.

The 25th article is composed of three letters from Henry Ecles, Esq; concerning the cause of the ascent of vapour, exhalation, and winds, and the general phænomena of the weather and barometer, all which he ascribes to the power of electrical vapour. He denies that vapour and exhalation thro' the air, are effected by impulie, or an alteration in their specific gravity; but these are hardy affertions, which we apprehend this gentleman has not supported with proper demonftration; that fire, whether solar or culinary, will drive the particles, both of Auids and solids, upwards into the air, may be proved by a thousand different experiments; and it is no less certain, that particles, specifically lighter than air, will be buoyed up, and float in the atmosphere without any impulse from fire, just as oil or spirit floats in water: whatever, therefore, divides any body into parts specifically lighter than air, will produce vapour, fume, or exhalation ; and the atmosphere will suspend that vapour, just as falt, when dissolved, is suspended in water. This division of parts may be occasioned by agitation without heat, as in the instance of evaporation produced by wind, which is effected to an astonishing quantity, during a hard gale, as many incontestable experiments have shewn. Mr. Boyle has proved, by statical experiments, that sharp frost raises a considerable quantity of ice into the air without intermission, until the whole mass is consumed. The circum-ambient atmosphere, though generally distinguished by the name of air, consists chiefly of water, or a moist Auid, in which a variety of substances are dissolved, and in which every Auid will rife and float, when their particles are so separated, as to acquire Jarge surfaces in proportion to their solidity.


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Mr. Eeles allows, that bodies, by an increase of surface, meet a greater resistance in passing through any medium; but, he says, that resistance which prevents the sinking of the minute parts of a body in a fluid specifically lighter, must equally retard their ascent in the same huid, and therefore can never be the cause of their ascending : if this was the case, a piece of gold leaf, immersed in a pail of water, would be fixed at the same depth at which it is immersed, as the pressure is equal on all fides : but this is not true in fact, for the leaf will immediately rise to the surface.-If this supposition was really true, it would not affect the common theory with respect to the ascent of vapour, because it does not rise in a body specifically lighter than itself; for the particles into which it is divided, are specifically lighter than those of the atmosphere through which it ascends. Though impulse therefore is not a force sufficient to raise vapour to that height at which it is often suspended, yet, this agent joined to the alteration in the specific gravity of the particles, will, we apprehend, be sufficient for the purpose, even without the help of electrical fire. Not that we pretend to


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