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shake off this indolence, perhaps, even yet, perhaps, we may promise

ourselves some good fortune. But if you only just exert yourselves in acclamations and applauses, and when any thing is to be done,

fink again into your supineness, I do not see how all the wisdom in the * world can save the fate from ruin, when you deny your allifiance. *

The twelve Orations, together with Mr. Leland's introductory remarks, form a very agreeable and regular history of Philip, which is finish'd, by our author, in the following words:

· Having thus far (says he) traced the progress of Philip's at“tempts on Greece, it may be no improper conclusion to con• tinue the account, down to his final triumph over the liber'ty of that country.

We have seen the Athenians at last exerting themselves in "a manner worthy of that renowned people. And Philip,

now returning from his Scythian expedition, in which he had

engaged, when foiled in his attempts on Perinthus and Byzantium ; found himself considerably distressed and harrassed

by the hostilities of Athens. To extricate himself from thefe • difficulties, he formed a bold and subtile project of entering · Greece: and so laid his scheme, as to make the Athenians them «selves the instruments of his designs.

• By his intrigues he procured Aeschines to be sent as their deputy to the council of Amphittyons. This was in reality of the highest consequence: for no sooner had the deputy

taken his feat, but a question was moved, whether the Locrians of Amphi(sa had not been guilty of facrilege, in plow

ing the fields of Cirrha, contiguous to the temple of Delphos ?? • Sentiments were divided. Aeschines proposed a view; this

was decreed : and when the Amphictyons came to take it, the Locrians, jealous of their property, and no doubt enflamed " by those who were in the secret of the whole design, fell on

those venerable persons, and cbliged them to consult their • safety by flight. Such an outrage was judged to demand the feverest punishment: and it was decreed that all Greece

should join in inflicting it. But when the army came to the • place of rendezvous, their appearance gave no reat, rospect of

< success.

* Our readers will easily perceive that the passages distinguished by Italics, are but too applicable to the present times, and might with equal propriety be spoken by a Pit or a DEMOSTHENES.

o success. Aeschines then arose, and by a long and eloquent • harangue prevailed upon the Amphictyons to declare Philip

general of the Grecian forces, and to invite him to execute 6 their decrees. As the event was expected, his army was

ready. He marched into Greece; but instead of attacking the Locrians, he immediately seized Elataea, a city of Phocis,

of the utmost moment, as it awed Boeotia, and opened him ' a passage into Attica.

• This step struck Greece with astonishment. Athens particularly received the news with inexpressible confusion. The

people ran disinayed to an assembly, and called on Demosthenes • by name, to give his opinion in this critical juncture. His • usual eloquence was exerted to animate their drooping cou

rage; and by his advice ambassadors were fent thro' Greece, • and particularly to Thebes, to engage the states to rise at

once, to oppose the Macedonian torrent before it bore down 6 all.. Demosthenes himself headed the embassy to the Thebans. • He found a powerful antagonist in Python, Philip's agent : yet in spight of his remonftrances, he fo fired that people ; that they at once forgot all the favours Philip had conferred on them; and joined against him with the utmost cordial. 6 zeal. The confederates met at Eleusis. The Pythian priest• efs uttered the most terrible predictions; and threatened

them with the severest fate;, but Demosthenes took care to < prevent the effect of this, by treating her oracles with con• tempt; which he declared were dictated by Philip, and calsculated to serve his interests.

« This prince now saw all his arts defeated ; and therefore (resolved upon an engagement, as his last resource. He there<fore advanced to Cheronaea, in the neighbourhood of which

city the confederates were encamped, under the command 6 of Chares and Lysicles, two Athenian generals, by no means

worthy of commanding so illustrious an army. The next day, by fun-rise, both armies were in the field. Alexander then but nineteen years old, surrounded by a number of experienced officers, commanded the left wing of the Macedonians. He began the onset; and was bravely opposed by the

Sacred Band of the Thebans. On the right Philip himself commanded; where the Athenians made their attack with

• such


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such vigour as obliged his soldiers to give ground. The ad

vantage was pursued with the most imprudent and intempe• rate heat. But while the Athenians were rushing on without

any order, Philip bore down upon upon them with his pha• lanx, and obtained an easy tho' a bloody victory. At the

fame time, and with a like effusion of blood, Alexander triumphed over the Thebans.

« Thus were the confederates totally overthrown, and the • liberty of Greece loft for ever.'

Art. II, The Philosophical Transactions, for the Year 1755,


N the nineteenth, by Mr. Simpson, that ingenious mathema

tician, observes, that the method practised by astronomers, in order to diminish the errors arising from the imperfections of instruments and of the organs of sense, by taking the mean of several observations, has not been so generally received, but that some persons of considerable note, have been of opinion, and even publickly maintained, that one single observation, taken with due care, was as much to be relied on, as the mean of a great number. Mr. Simpson espouses the opposite opinion, and from the application of mathematical principles, throws new light upon the subject. He assumes a series of numbers to express the respective chances for the different errors to which any single observation is subject: and the result of his calculation greatly favours the method of taking a mean value.

From the discussion of two propofitions, he proves, that the proportion, or odds when one single observation is relied on, is only as 2 to 1: so that the chance, for an error exceeding two seconds, is not to part so great from the mean of fix, as from one single observation; and the chance for an error exceeding three feconds, will not be gobo part so great from the mean of fix, as from one single observation. The method therefore, of taking the mean of a number of observations, greatly diminishes the chances for all the smaller 'errors, and prevents almost all possibility of any great errors : a confideration that ought to recommend the method, not only to astronomers, but, to all others concerned in making experiments of any kind. The more such obfervations or experiments are made, the less erroneous the conclusion will be, provided they can be repeated under the fame circumstances.

The twentieth article gives an account of the fungus vinosus, which adheres to casks and walls in wine-vaults. It has been used as a styptic in lieu of the agaric, in closing the arteries after amputation ; and succeeded in several operations performed by Mr. Thornhill and Mr. James Ford, surgeon at Brisol.

The next article contains some queries relating to Confiantinople, answered by James Porter, Efq; the English ambassador at the Porte. Whether there is any sure method of knowing the number of people carried off by the plague ; or the number of inhabitants in that capital? Whether there is a greater number of women than men born in the east? Whether plurality of wives is favourable to the increase of mankind ? What is the present state of inoculation in the eart? What is become of the printing-house at Constantinople? Whether there are any original maps of the Turkish dominions, drawn from actual surveys ? What sort of learning is cultivated among the Greeks and Turks? Mr. Porter computes that in the plague 1751, those who died or Aed on account of that visitation amounted to 135000. That the number of inhabitants in Constantinople does not exceed 513000. That the number of males born in the east, exceeds that of the females : that Mahometans procreate less than the Christians. That inoculation is practised, though very seldom, among the Greeks and Georgians, but never among the Turks. That a few books had been printed at Constantinople by an Hungarian renegado, but after his death the printing materials were never used. That they had not above three or four maps, one of Persia, one of the Bosphorus, and one of the Euxine. That there is no learning in the east : though the Greek clergy lave founded a sort of academy at Mount Athos, for the instruction of their youth; but it is very imperfect and ill founded, and the director extremely illiterate.


The twenty-second-article is composed of extracts of letters to Thomas Hollis, Esq; concerning the late discoveries at Herculaneum.

* Near the royal palace at Portici, has been discovered a • large garden, with a palace belonging to it. In one room of

this palace was found a mofaic pavement (which I have seen) • made up of different coloured stones. It represents a city surrounded with walls, having four towers, one at each

corner; and has since been taken up, to be placed with other beautiful antique pavements in the faid gallery.

• For some time past they have been digging at Santa Maria di Capua, by the king's order. There they have met with • several very fine statues of Greek workmanship; and among

them a Venus, which is entire, and matchless; and all of • them have been carried to the king's new palace at Caferta. Extract of a letter from Camillo Paderni, dated at Naples,

January 1755. October 22, 1755, was found a bust in bronze, larger than

the life, and of excellent Greek workmanship; which “ from some circumstances may be thought to be a Syrian king. It has eyes of white marble, like many other busts, « which have been met with.

November 27, we discovered the figure of an old fawn, or « rather a Silenus, represented as sitting upon a bank; with a ty

ger lying on his left side, upon which his hand rested. Both “ these figures served to adorn a fountain, and from the mouth “ of the tyger had flowed water.

This Silenus was of bronze, “ and of good workmanship. The head was crowned with « ivy, the body all over hairy, and the thighs covered with “ a drapery

“ From the same spot were taken out, November 29, three little boys of bronze, of a good manner.

Two of these were “ young fawns, having the horns and ears of a goat. They « have likewise silver eyes, and each of them the goat-lkin on 6 his shoulder, wherein they antiently put wine, and through « which here the water issued. The third boy is also of « bronze, has silver eyes, is of the fame size with the two for“ mer, and in a standing posture like them, but is not a

" fawa,

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