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Seas was on foot, he was recommended as a pectation, he published other six soon after, proper person to be employed on the occasion: which proved the means of making his fortune, but the performance did not answer the public by introducing him to the acquaintance of Peter expectation. Works of taste and elegance, where Storer, esq., of Highgate, whose youngest daughter imagination and the passions were to be affected, Sidney he married in 1753, and with her receive were his province; not works of dry, cold, accu ed a handsome fortune, as well as a very large rate narrative. However, he executed his task, addition to it, on the death of her brother in and received for it the enormous sum of £6000. 1759. Having early entertained a fondness for He died in 1773, some say of high living, others, angling, he now gave up business, and purchased of chagrin from the ill reception of his Narrative. a house at Twickenham, on the Thames, where On a handsome marble monument at Bromley, he could enjoy his favorite amusement. In 1760 in Kent, is the following inscription, the latter he published a new edition of Walton's Compart of which is taken from the last number of plete Angler, in 8vo. with notes ; to which he The Adventurer:
prefixed a Life of Walton. In 1761 he was apTo the memory of
pointed a justice of the peace for Middlesex.
In 1763 he published in 8vo. Observations on JOHN HAWKESWORTH, LL.D. the State of the Highways, and on the laws for Who died the 16th of November
amending and keeping them in repair : to which MDCCLXXIII, aged 58 years.
he subjoined the draught of a bill, which was afThat he lived ornamental and useful
terwards passed into a law. In 1764 he distinTo society, in an eminent degree,
guished himself by opposing an enormous claim Was among the boasted felicities
of the city of London, which, in a bill presented Of the present age; That he labored for the benefit of society,
to Parliament, had proposed to subject the Let his own pathetic admonitions
county of Middlesex to two-thirds of the expense Record and realise.
of rebuilding the jail of Newgate, estimated at
£40,000. Mr. Hawkins drew a petition against • The hour is hasting, in which whatever praise the bill with such success, that it was withdrawn or censure I have acquired will be remembered by the city members. In 1765 he was elected with equal indifference. Time, who is impa- chairman of the quarter session. In 1768 and tient to date my last paper, will shortly moulder 1769, during the riots at Brentford and Moorthe hand which is now writing it in the dust, fields, be acted with so much spirit, activity, and and still the breast that now throbs at the reflec- propriety, that, in 1772, his majesty conferred on tion. But let not this be read as something that him the honor of knighthood. In 1773, and relates only to another; for a few years only can 1778, he enriched Dr. Johnson's and Mr. Stedivide the eye that is now reading from the hand vens's edition of Shakspeare with those notes that has written.'
which bear his name. In 1776 he published his HAWKING. See Falconry.
General History of the Science and Practice of HAWKINS (Sir John), a brave English ad- Music; in 5 vols. 4to., dedicated to the king, miral under queen Elizabeth, born in Devonshire. and which he presented to him personally, at He was rear-admiral of the feet which she sent Buckingham House. The collecting of the maagainst the Spanish Armada, and had a great terials for this work had cost him sixteen years share in that glorious victory. Ile was after- labor. In 1784 he met with one of the severest wards made treasurer of the navy. But his losses a literary man can sustain, by the destrucmemory is disgraced by his having been the first tion of his valuable library, containing many rare European who carried off slaves from the coast books, by fire. In 1787 he published the Life of Africa, and introduced that inhuman traffic and Works of Dr. Johnson, in 11 vols. 8vo. deinto the West Indies. Queen Elizabeth herself, dicated to the king. He died at Westminster of while she honored his bravery by knighthood, an apoplexy, on the 21st of May 1789 : leaving threatened bim with the divine vengeance for the character of an active magistrate, an affecthis practice. He died in the West Indies in tionate husband and parent, a firm friend, and a 1595.
sincere Christian. HAWKINS (Sir John), a celebrated author, and HAWKINS, a county of East Tennessee, a lineal descendant of the admiral, was born in United States. Rogersville is the chief town. London, March 30th, 1719. He was the youngest Hawkin's Island, an island off the west coast son of Mr. Hawkins, a house-carpenter and of North America, in Prince William's Sound, builder in London, and was bred to the law. about twenty miles long, and from one to four Though deeply engaged in that study, in his miles wide. Long. 214° 10° to 214° 38' E., lat. younger years, and afterwards in the practice, he 60° 28° to 60° 40' N. found leisure to exercise bis genius by writing HAWKWEED. See Crepss and lieRACIUM. essays on various subjects, for the Gentleman's HAWKWOOD (Sir John), a famous English Magazine, Universal Spectator, and Westminster general, was the son of a tanner at Sible lleddingJournal ; some of which attracted the attention ham in Essex, where he was born in the reign of of the public. He formed an early intimacy Edward III. He was bound apprentice to a with Dr. Johnson, which continued through life. tailor in London; but, being pressed into the About 1741 he became a member of two Musical army, was sent abroad, where he signalised himSocieties, and in 1742 published six Cantatas, self as a soldier in France and Italy, and partithe poetry of five of which was written by him- cularly at Pisa and Florence. He commanded self, and the music composed by his friend Mr. with great ability and success in the army of Stanley. These having succeeded beyond ex- Galeacio duke of Milan; and was in such high
esteem with Barnabas, his brother, that he gave hangs odes upon hawthorns, and clegies upon bramhim Domitia his natural daughter in marriage, bles.
Shakspeare. As You Like It. with an ample fortune. He died at Florence, The hawthorn-fly is all black and not big. full of years and military fame, in 1394.
Walton. HAWLBOWLING, a small island in Cork Some in their hands, beside the lance and shield, harbour, Ireland, nearly opposite to the town of The boughs of woodbine or of hawthorn held. Cove, on which there is a small fort; and which,
Dryden. during the late war, was fixed upon as a naval
Now hawthorns blossom, now the daisies spring. depot.
Pope. The hawthorn whitens.
Thomson. HAWSE, or Hause, implies the situation of
From the moist meadow to the withered hill, the cables before the ship's stem, when she is
Led by the breeze the vivid verdure rups moored with two anchors out from forward, viz.
And swells and deepens ; to the cherished eye one on the starboard and the other on the larboard
The hawthorn whitens. Young's Night Thoughts. bow. Hence it is usual to say, she has a clear hawse, or a foul hawse. It also denotes any make hedges : there are two or three varieties of it
The use to which it is applied in England is to small distance a-head of a ship, or between her about London; but that sort which produces the head and the anchor employed to ride her, as, smallest leaves is preferable, because its branches alHe has anchored in our hawse, The brig fell ways grow close together.
Miller athwart our hawse, &c. A ship is said to ride
HAY, n. s.
Sax, bleg, big ; French, with a clear hawse when the cables are directed
HAY-MAKER, n, s. haie, a hedge; Dutch, to their anchors, without lying athwart the stem ;
HAY-COCK, n. s.
Shey. Grass dried to fodor crossing, or being twisted round each other der cattle in winter. Hay-maker, one employed by the ship's winding about, according to the in the process of making hay.
Hay, as derived change of the wind, tide, or current. A foul from haie, signifies a net which encloses the hawse, on the contrary, implies that the cables haunt of an animal. To dance the hay, is to lie across the stem, or bear upon each other, so
dance in a ring, probably from dancing round a. as to be rubbed and chafed by the motion of the
hay-cock. vessel. The hawse accordingly is foul, by hav
This king of kinges was proud and elat; ing either a cross, an elbow, or a round turn. If
He wend that God that sit in majestee the larboard cable, lying across the stem, points
Ne might him nat bereve of his estat : out on the starboard side, while the starboard
But sodenly he lost his dignitee, cable at the same time grows out on the larboard
And lik a best him seemed for to be, side, there is a cross on the hawse. If, after this,
And ete hay as an oxe. the ship, without returning to her former position,
Chaucer. The Monkes Tale. continues to wind about the same way, so as to
Make poor men's cattle break their necks; perform an entire revolution, each of the cables Set fire on barns and hay stacks in the night, will be twisted round the other, and then directed And bid the owners quench them with their tears. out from the opposite bow, forming what is call
Shukspeare. ed a round turn. . An elbow is produced when I will play on the tabor to the worthies the ship stops in the middle of that revolution, And let them dance the hay.
kd. after having had a cross: or, in other words, if Make hay while the sun shines. she rides with her head northward with a clear
Camden's Remains. hawse, and afterwards turns quite round, so as to We have heats of dungs, and of hays and herbs. direct her head northward again, she will have laid up moist.
Bacon. an elbow.
This maids think on the hearth they see, HawsE-Preces, the foremost timbers of a ship, When fres well nigh consumed be, whose lower ends rest on the knuckle timber, or There dancing hays by two and three, the foremost of the cant timbers. They are ge Just as your fancy casts them.
Drayton. nerally parallel to the stem, having their upper The gum and glistening, ends sometimes terminated by the lower part Looks just as if that day of the beak-head, and otherwise by the top Snails there bad crawled the hay. Suckling. of the bow, particularly in small ships and mer One while a scorching indignation burnes chantmen.
The fowers and blossomes of our hopes away ; HAWSER, n. s. a large rope which holds the
Which into scarsitie our plentie turnes, middle degree between the cable and tow-line, in
And changeth unmowne-grasse to parched hay.
G. Withers. any ship whereto it belongs, being a size smaller
Or if the earlier season lead than the former, and as much larger than the latter.
To the tanned hay-cock in the mead. Milton. HAWTHORN, n. s. ?
By some hay-cock; or some shady thorn,
He bids his beads both even song and morn.
Dryden, the thorn that bears haws; the white-thorn. Coneys are destroyed by hays, curs, spaniels, ou Hawthorn-fly, an insect.
tumblers, bred up for that purpose.
Mortimer. Some in her hondes baren boughes shene,
The best manure for meadows is the bottom of hays Some of laurer, and some of okes bene,
mows and hay stacks.
Id. Some of hawthorne, and some of wodebind,
Some turners turn long and slender sprigs of ivory, And many mo which I have not in mind,
as small as an hay stalk.
Moson. Chaucer. The Floure and the Leafe. As to the return of his health and vigour, were There is a man haunts the forest, that abuses our you here, you might enquire of his haymakers. young plants with carving Rosalind on their barks ;
Pope in Swift.
Hay and oats, in the management of a groom will rebellion of Owen Glendower. It is at present make ale.
Swift. a considerable town; and has a large market for HAY. The time of mowing grass for hay corn and cattle. must be regulated according to its growth and HAYDN (Joseph), a celebrated musical comripeness; nothing being more prejudicial to the poser, born in Lower Austria, in 1733. His crop than mowing it too soon; because the sap father was a wheel wright, and placed in such is not then fully come out of the root, and, when circumstances that he could neither give his son: made into hay, the grass sbrinks away to nothing. an education suited to a liberal profession, nor It must not, however, be let stand too long till it procure for him instruction in that art for which have shed its seeds. When the tops of the grass he manifested an early and an ardent predileclook brown, and begin to bend down, and the tion. He was accustomed to sing to his father's red honey-suckle flowers begin to wither, it is harp the simple tunes which, without any knowripe for mowing.
ledge of music, his father played; and he A Hay for taking rabbits, hares, &c., is made acquired a little acquaintance with different from fifteen to twenty fathoms in length, and in instruments under the tuition of a schoolmaster, depth a fathom. As rabbits often straggle abroad his relation. From this school he was taken to about mid-day for fresh grass, when they are Vienna, to sing in the choir of the imperial chagone forth to any remote brakes or thickets, pitch pel. Reuter, who was maestro de capello of the two or three of these hays about their burrows, cathedral, was here sensible of his merits and and lie close there; but, if there are not hays foresaw his fame. At the age when his voice enough to enclose all their burrows, some may began to change, Haydn was dismissed from the be stopped up with stones, &c. Then set out choir; after which, during a long course of years, with the dog to hunt up and down at a good dis- he endured all the rigor of adverse fortune, findtance, and draw on by degrees to the man who ing it very difficult to earn even a bare subsistence. lies close by the hay, who may take them as they He lodged in the sixth story; his garret had bolt into it.
neither door nor casement; his breath congealed Har (William), esq., an English writer, born on his bed-clothes ; and the water which he at Glenburne, in Sussex, about 1700, and edu- fetched from the fountain for his toilette in the cated at Headley. In 1730 he published a morning, was frequently changed into ice before poem, called Mount Caburn, dedicated to the he could re-ascend to the exalted regions of his duchess of Newcastle. In 1734, when lord Hard- abode. Haydn gave lessons, and performed at wicke was created a peer, he was chosen to suc- orchestras and musical parties; but his indigence ceed him as M. P. for Seaford, which he conti- kept him secluded from society: an old wormnued to represent during his life. He defended eaten harpsichord was his sole source of happithe measures of Sir Robert Walpole, and was ness. Consoling himself with this companion of supposed to be the author of a ministerial pam- his misfortunes, he courageously continued to phlet, entitled A Letter to a freeholder on the compose; and his ardent genius prevented him late Reduction of the Land-tax to one Shilling from sinking into a state of torpid despair. At in the Pound ; printed in 1731. In 1735 he last he had the good fortune to have as his pupil published Remarks on the Laws relative to the a Miss Mortini, a relation of Metastasio ; and at Poor, with Proposals for their better Relief and her house he obtained his board gratis during Employment; and brought in two bills for that three years. Afterwards he removed to one of the purpose, but without effect. In May 1738 he suburbs. About that time he engaged himself was appointed a commissioner of the Victualling as director of the choir of the Charitable Brothers, office. In 1753 appeared his Religio Philosophi; in the Leopoldstadt, at a salary of sixty florinsor the Principles of Morality and Christianity, per annum. He was obliged, on Sundays and. illustrated from a View of the Universe, and of holidays, to be at their church by eight o'clock in Man's Situation in it. This was followed, in the morning; at ten he played the organ in the 1754, by his Essay on Deformity; in which he chapel of count Haugwitz, and at eleven he sung rallies his own imperfections with much liveli- in the choir of the cathedral of St. Stephen. ness and good humor. • Bodily deformity,' Thousands would have sunk under such hardsays he, is very rare. Among 558 gentlemen, ships. He came to England in 1791, and rein the house of commons, I am the only one that turned to Germany in 1796. During his stay
Thanks to my worthy constituents, who he composed many pieces, and met with those never objected to my person, and I hope never rewards and that admiration which he so highly to give them cause to object to my behaviour.' merited.- Haydn never was in Italy. If he had In 1754 be also translated Hawkins Browne De enjoyed that advantage, there can be no doubt Immortalitate Animi. In 1755 he translated that, with his excellent ideas of singing and harand modernised some Epigrams of Martial. A mony, he would have acquired great reputation little time before, he had been appointed keeper as a composer of operas. He, however, spoke, of the Records in the Tower; and it is said that Italian with considerable facility, and acknowhis attention and assiduity during the few months ledged that he owed much to an Italian musician he held that office were eminently serviceable to of the name of Porpora, with whom he became his successors. He died January 19th, 1755. acquainted at the house of a lady in Meinersdorf.
Hay, in geography, a town of South Wales, in Haydn served about three months in the capacity Brecknockshire, seated near the confluence of of a valet, solely for the purpose of improving the rivers Wye and Dulas. It was a town of himself by his instructions. Porpora was teachnole in the time of the Romans; being förtified ing the lady to sing, and Haydn accompanied with a castle and wall, which were ruined in the her on the harpsichord; during the intervals.
between the lessons, he submitted his composi- Hayter was appointed to superintend the expetions to the correction of his master. Thus was riment, and in consequence took up his abode formed the composer, whose sublime notes re at Palermo. He returned in 1810, and the MSS. sound in all the orchestras of Europe; and who were presented to the University of Oxford; but continued his labors with increasing applause the result disappointed the public. He soon and glory during half a century, to the time of after died of an apoplectic shock in France. He his death in 1809. His principal works, besides published Observations on the Herculanensia, innumerable symphonies, are, The Creation and 4to. the Seasons.
HAYWARD, one who keeps the common HAYE'S ISLAND, a small island near the herd or cattle of a town. He is appointed by southern point of Hudson's Bay, formed by the the lord's court; his office is to see that the rivers Nelson and Hayes, which, after running cattle neither break nor crop the hedges of entogther for some time, separate into two arms. closed grounds, Near the entrance of them into the sea stands HaywARD (Sir John), an eminent English l'ork Fort, called by the French De Bourbon. historian and biographer of the seventeenth cen
HAYLEY (William), a poet and biographical tury, educated in the University of Cambridge, writer, was born November 9, 1745, at Chichester, where he took the degree of LL.D. In 1610 he of which cathedral his grandfather had been was appointed historiographer of a college then dean. He received his education at the school at Chelsea ; and, in 1619, was knighted. He of Kingston-upon-Thames, and at Eton, whence wrote, 1. The lives of the three Norman kings of he removed to Trinity College, Cambridge. On England, William I. and II., and Henry I. 2. leaving the University he retired to his paternal The first part of the life and reign of king Henry estate of Eartham, in Sussex, where he resided IV. 3. The life and reign of king Edward VI.; till the loss of a natural son, about 1800, so and several theological works. He died in 1627. afflicted him that he removed to Felpham in that HAZAEL, Heb. beint i. e. seeing God., an county, where he died November 12, 1820. His officer belonging to Benhadad, king of Syria, principal publications are, 1. An Essay on who, as is generally supposed from the common Painting 2. An Essay on History. 3. An rendering of 2 Kings viii
. 15, caused that prince Essay on Epic Poetry. 4. The Triumphs of to be put to death, and reigned in his stead. Some, Temper. An edition of these, with other pieces however, have thought that the thick cloth was and plays, was printed in 6 vols. 8vo. His spread over the face of Benhadad by himself or prose works are, An Essay on Old Maids, 3 vols., by his order to allay the violence of the fever. and the Lives of Milton, Cowper, and Romney Hazael defeated Joram, Jehu, and Jehoahaz, the Painter. He was the author of various ele- kings of Israel ; and, after his death, was succeed gant quartos, and quartos have been devoted to ed by Benhadad his son, A. A. C. 889. his personal history: but he will be chiefly known to posterity as the biographer of Cowper;
HAZARD, M. $, v. a. & , French, hazard, whose character, after all, he but very imperfectly
HAZ'ARDABLE, adj. [v n. I hazarder, hazarunderstood.
Haz'ARDER, n. s.
deur; Ital. and HAYNES (Hopton), a learned unitarian, born
HAZARDRY, n. s.
Sp.atar ; Runic, in 1672. In 1696 he was employed in the mint,
haski. Hazard,' in which he rose to the office of king's assay
says Crabb, master. In the year 1748, becoming infirm, he
comes from the oriental zar and tzar, signifying was allowed to retire. He was also principal any thing bearing an impression, particularly talley-writer at the exchequer for forty years; the Italians zara, and by the Spaniards azar.'
the die used in chance games, which is called by and died in 1749, at the age of seventy-seven. Hazard is when, in contingent events, the incliHe wrote The Scripture Account of the Attributes and Worship of God, and of the Character nation is to the unfavorable side, and thus it is and Offices of Jesus Christ, of which a second opposed to chance. The figurative meanings edition was printed by the Rev. Theophilus are, accident; danger; risk ; to try your chance;
to venture. Lindsay in 1790.
Hazardry is temerity; precipitaHAYNES (Samuel), son of the above, was edu- tion; rash adventure; all derived' from, and cated at King's College, Cambridge, where he founded on, the literal meaning applied to dice took his degree of D.D. 1748. He was tutor to
Now wol I you defenden hasardrie the earl of Salisbury, by whom he was presented
Hasard is veray moder of lesinges, to the livings of Hatfield and Clothel; he was
And of deceite, and cursed forsweringes also a canon of Windsor, and published a collection of state papers, relating to affairs in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and
It is repreve and contrary of honour, Elizabeth, from 1542 to 1570, transcribed from For to ben hold a common hasardour, the Cecil MSS. Dr. Haynes died in 1752.
And ever the higher he is of estat, HAYTER (John), M. A., was educated at Eton The more he is holden desolat. and King's College, Cambridge,where he obtained
Chaucer. The Pardoneres Tale. the degree of B.A. in 1778, and that of M.A. in
- Live, and allegiance owe 1788, between which dates he was presented to
To him that gives thee life and liberty, the living of Hepworth in Suffolk. His present And henceforth by this daies ensample trow, majesty, then prince of Wales, offering to be at That hasty wroth and heedlesse hazardry, the expense of unrolling and decyphering the Doe breed repentance late and lasting infamy. Greek 'MSS. in the ruins of Ilerculaneum, Mr.
Spenser's Faerie Queene.
More wise they weend to make of love delight Here observe that 12 is out to 9, 7, and 5; 11 is Then life to husard for faire ladies looke. Id. out to 9, 8, 6, and 5; and ames-ace and deuce
We are bound to yield unto our Creator, the Father ace, are out to all mains whatever. of all mercy, eternal thanks, for that he bath delivered
HAZE, n. s., v. n. & v.a. Sax. þarne; Goth. his law unto the world; a law wherein so many things
shasa, hoar-frost. are laid open, as a light which otherwise would have Fog or mist; dark ; dull: to haze is to confuse; been buried in darkness, not without the hazard, or
hence to frighten or alarm. rather not with the hazard, but with the certain loss of thousands of souls, most undoubtedly now saved.
Our clearest day here is misty and hasy; we sce Hooker.. not far, and what we do see is in a bad light.
Barnet's Theory. They might, by persisting in the extremity of that opinion, hazard greatly their own estates, and so Oft engendered by the hazy North, weaken that part which their places now give. Id.
Myriads on myriads, insect armies waft.
Thomson. And I will stand the haxard of the die.
HAZEBROUK, a large town of French Flan
Shakspeare. ders, twenty-seven miles west by north of Lille. I will upon all hasards well believe
Its streets are straight, and its houses in general Thou art my friend, that knowest my tongue so well. well built : its population about 6600. It is the
Id, capital of an arrondissement; and has a brisk I pray you tarry; pause a day or two
trade in thread, linen, and fruits the produce of Before you hazard; for, in chusing wrong, the surrounding country. I lose your company.
HAʼZEL, adj. Sax. þæsel; Lat. corylus. It was not in his power to adventure upon his own fortune, or hearing a public charge to hazard' himself the color of hazel; hence used figuratively to
HAʼZELLY, adj. J Nut tree. Liglit brown, of against a man of private condition. Hayward.
describe color. An hacardable determination it is, unto fluctuating
Kate, like the hasel twig, and indifferent effects, to affix a positive type or period.
Is straight and slender; and as brown in hue She from her fellow-provinces would go,
As husel outs, and sweeter than the kernels.
Id. Grant that our lasardonas attempt prove vain,
Why sit we not beneath the grateful shade, We feel the worst, secured from greater pain.
Which hazels, intermixed with elms, have made ?
Dryden, Dryden. The hazard I have run to see you here, should
Uplands consist either of sand, gravel, chalk, rock, inform you that I love not at a common rate. Id.
or stone, haselly loam, clay, or black mould.
Mortimer. Where the mind does not perceive connection, there men's opinions are not the product of judgment, but
Chuse a warm dry soil, that has a good depth of the effects of chance and hazard, of a mind floating at
ligbt hazel mould.
Id. all adventures, without choice and without direction.
There are some from the size of a hazel cut to that of a man's fist.
Woodward. Locke, The wise and active conquer difficulties
Where flows the murmuring brook, inviting dreams; By daring to attempt them : sloth and folly
Where bordering hazel overlangs the streams, Shiver and shrink at sight of toil and hazard,
Whose rolling current winding round and round, And make the impossibility they fear. Rowe.
With frequent falls makes all the woods resound.
Gay. Men are led on from one stage of life to another in
The nuts grow in clusters, and are closely joined a condition of the utmost hasard, and yet without the least apprehension of their danger. Rogers.
together at the bottom, each being covered with an By dealing indifferently mercies to all, you may
outward husk or cup, which opens at the top, and
when the fruit is ripe it falls out. hazard your own share. Sherlock.
The species are The duke, playing at hazard, held in a great many
hasel-nut, cobnut, and filbert. The red and white file hands together, and drew a huge heap of gold.
berts are mostly esteemed for their fruit. Miller. Swift.
The flowering thorn, self-taught to wind
The hazel's stubborn stem entwined,
And bramble twigs were wreathed around,
And rough furze crept along the ground.
Beattie, Hazard, in gaming. See Gaming.
Hazel, or Hazle, in botany. See Corylus. HAZARD, is properly so called, as iť speedily The kernels of the fruit have a mild, farinaceous, enriches a man or ruins him. It is played only oily taste, agreeable to most palates. Squirrels with two dice without tables; and as many may and mice are fond of them, as well as some birds. play as can stand round the largest round table. A kind of chocolate has been prepared froin Two things are chiefly to be observed, viz. main them; and there are instances of their having been and chance; the latter belonging to the caster, formed into bread. The oil expressed from them and the former, or main, to the other gamesters. is little inferior to the oil of almonds; and is There can be no main thrown above 9, or under used by painters and by chemists for receiving 5; so that 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, are the only mains. and retaining odors. The charcoal made of the Chances and nicks are from 4, to 10; thus 4 is wood is used by painters in drawing. Evelyn a chance to 9, 5 to 8, 6 to 7, 7 to 6, 8 to 5; and tells us that no plant is more proper for thicken9 and 10 a chance to 5, 6, 7, and 8: in short, 4, ing of copses than the hazel, for which he directs 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, are chances to any main, if the following expeditious method. Take a pole any of these nick it not. Now nicks are either of hazel twenty or thirty feet in length, the head when the chance is the same with the main, as 5 a little lopped into the ground, giving it a chop and 5; or the like; or 6 and 12,7 and 12,8 and 12. near the ground to make it succumb; this