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was next debated on what terms he should be secure him in his dignity. He therefore conadmitted to the succession. The late nabob, cluded a treaty with Sujah Dowla. The Mogul among other impositions, had obliged himself to emperor was satisfied by obtaining a more ample support an army of 12,000 horse, and as many revenue than he had for some time enjoyed, by foot. It was alleged that he had not fulfilled his which means he might be enabled to march aa engagement, and that he had disbanded most of army to Delhi : for the company his lordship the troops. It was, therefore, now judged ex obtained the office of duan, or collector of rerepedient that the nabob should settle £800,000 nues, for the province of Bengal and its deper annually on the company, to be paid out of dencies. Thus Sujah Dowla was again put in the treasury; that he should also discard the possession of his dominions, excepting a small prime minister Nuncomar, and receive in his territory which was reserved to the Mogul, and place a person appointed by the council, who estimated at twenty lacks of rupees, or £250,000 was to act in the double capacity of minister annually. The company were to pay twenty-six and governor. The council were also to have a lacks of rupees, amounting to £325,000 sterling, negative upon the nomination of all the superin- They engaged also to pay to the nabob of Bengal tendants and principal officers employed in col- an annual sum of fifty-three lacks, or £662,500 lecting or receiring of the revenues. With these for the expenses of government, and the support extravagant requisitions the young nabob was of his dignity. The remainder of the revenues obliged to comply, though he had discernment of Bengal were allotted to the company, who, enough to perceive that he was now a mere on their part, guaranteed the territories in pos“slave to the council of Calcutta. Obliged by session of Sujah Dowla and the Mogul. treaty to dismiss Nuncomar from the office of The East India Company had now acquired vizier, he still continued to show him the same the sovereignty of a territory equal in extent to favor, until at last he was charged with carrying the most flourishing kingdom in Europe. By on a treasonable correspondence with Sujah all this, however, they were so far from being Dowla, for which the nabob was enjoined to send enriched, that the disorder of their affairs him to Calcutta to take his trial. The unfortu- attracted the attention of government, and gave nate prince used every method to deliver his the British ministry an opportunity at last of favorite from the impending danger, but to no depriving them of their territorial possessions, purpose : he was obliged to submit to the mor- and subjecting the province of Bengal to the tification of having all his desires with regard to authority of the crown. New misfortunes also his release rejected, though the committee after- occurred in the east, and the company found a wards set him at liberty without trial. The ex most formidable enemy in Hyder Aly. This traordinary powers thus exerted by the council man had raised himself from the rank of a sepoy, of Calcutta seem at last to have induced the to be one of the most considerable princes in Hincompany to desire some more efficient control dostan. Being sensible that the power of the over them. The great character which lord English was an insuperable bar to his designs, Clive had already gained in the east justly he practised on the nizam of the Deccan; and marked him out as a proper person for adjusting parily by promises, partly by threats, engaged their affairs. On the 3rd of May 1765 he, there- him to renounce his alliance with the company, fore, arrived, with full powers as commander-in- and to enter into a war against them. Having chief, president, and governor of Bengal. An introduced the European discipline among his unlimited power was also committed to a select troops, he imagined that, with the advantage of committee, consisting of his lordship and four numbers, he should be able to cope with his gentlemen, to act and determine every thing antagonists. In this, however, he was deceived; themselves, without dependence on the council. for, on the 16th September 1767, his army was It was, however, recommended in their instruc- entirely defeated by colonel Smith near Trino tions to consult the council in general ; but the mally; after which the nizam deserted his new sole power of determining all cases was left with ally, and concluded another treaty with the thern, until the troubles of Bengal should be en- English. From the latter, however, he did not tirely ended. By these gentlemen a plan of obtain peace, but at the expense of ceding to reformation was instantly set about : by which, them the Duanny of the Balegat Carnatic, which however, violent disputes were occasioned; but includes the dominions of Hyder Aly and some the committee, disregarding these, exerted their petty princes. Hyder, thus deserted by his ally, authority to the full extent, seldom even ac- transferred the seat of war to a mountainous quainting the council with their transactions, and country, where, during 1767, nothing decisive never waiting for their opinion.

could be effected; but his Indian cavalry was 7. From the arrival of lord Clive, as president sometimes enabled to cut off the supplies, and of Bengal, to the death of Hyder Aly.-Lord interrupt the communications of the British. Clive found that the success of the British arms During these operations some ships were fittel could be productive of nothing but wars; that out at Bombay, which conveyed 400 European to ruin Sujah Dowla was to break down the soldiers, and about 800 sepoys to attack Manstrongest barrier which the Bengal provinces could galore, one of Hyder's principal sea-ports. This have against the incursions of the Mahrattas and enterprise proved successful, and nine ships were other native powers to the west, who had long deso- brought away; but too smalla garrison having beea lated the northern provinces; and that the Mogul, left in the place, it was almost immediately after with whom the company had concluded a treaty, retaken. In the mean time the appointment of was utterly unable to support himself, and would field deputies to attend the army, and to control require the whole British power in the east to and superintend the conduct of the coinmander

in-chief, greatly weakened the British opera- appears to have inclined him to apply to th= tions. Hyder Aly had the prudence to avoid a French, and by their means he obtained military general engagement, but frequently intercepted stores in the greatest abundance, a number of the convoys of the English, cut off their detached experienced officers and soldiers, and much of parties, and wearied them out with long and the European discipline. Thus, in a short time, continual marches. The news of his success, imagining himself a match for the Mahrattas, hé against an enemy hitherto invincible by all the renewed the war, and gaized such decisive adpowers of India, so raised his reputation, that vantages as quickly oblized them to conclude adventurers flocked to him from all parts; by an advantageous treaty with him.

It now apwhich means his cavalry soon increased to up- peared that the English had not much hesitation wards of 90,000, to which, however, bis infantry in quarrelling with the Mahrattas. These tribes bore no proportion. Notwithstanding all his were originally governed by princes called success, the forces of Hyder Aly were altogether rajahs, who reigned at Setterah ; and, though in unable to cope with those of Britain, even when process of time they came to be divided into a there was the greatest imaginable disparity of number of petty states, yet they paid a nominal numbers. A detachment of the company's respect to the ram-rajah, who had a right to asforces had made an assault upon a fort called semble the chiefs, and order out their troops on Mulwaggle, in which they were repulsed with any emergency. By degrees the dignity of ramsome loss. This, with the small number of the rajah or sou-rajah (as he was also called) became detachment, encouraged Hyder to march, at the merely titular, the administration being entirely head of a great part of his army, to the protec possessed by the paishwa or chancellor. This tion of the fort.' The commanding officer how- office being usurped by one particular family, ever, colonel Wood, did not hesitate, with only Nana-row, the reigning paishwa seized the ram460 Europeans and 2300 sepoys, to attack this rajah, and confined him in a fortress. At his army, consisting of 14,000 horse, 12,000 men death he left two sons, Mada-row and Narainarmed with matchlock guns, and six battalions row; of whom the former, being the elder, sucof

sepoys. The engagement lasted six hours; ceeded him in the paishwaship. Ionogee Boosla, when at last Hyder, notwithstanding his num or Bouncello, the immediate predecessor of bers, was obliged to retreat, leaving the field Modagee Boosla, rajah of Berar, was one of the covered with dead bodies; and the loss of the pretenders to the dignity of ram-rajah, as being British was upwards of 300 killed and the nearest of kin; at the same time that Rogawounded. This engagement, however, was at- nut-row, called also Ragobah, uncle to Madatended with no consequences affecting the war row himself, pretended to the paishwaship. On in general, which went on for some time in the this account the latter was confined by Madasame manner, and greatly to the disadvantage of row, but he imprudently released him a little the company:

The divisions and discontents before his death, and recommended to him in among the officers and council daily increased, the most affectionate manner the care of his brothe soldiers deserted, and every thing went to ther Narain-row, who was to succeed to the ruin. The revenues of the establishment of paishwaship. Rogonaut, notwithstanding this, Madras being at last unequal to the expenses of murdered Narain-row, and then fled to Bombay, the war, large remittances were made from where, on promising a cession of territory, he Bengal to answer that purpose; and, as these was protected and encouraged in his pretensions. were made in a kind of base gold coin, the com- The Mahrattas remonstrated against his behapany is said by that means alone to have lost viour; but the English had determined to profit £40,000 in the difference of exchange. At last by the civil dissentions of the Indian powers, Hyder Aly suddenly appeared within a few and paid little regard to the justice or injustice miles of Madras, which occasioned such an alarm, of their cause. The Mahrattas therefore not that the presidency were induced to enter into a only made up their differences with Hyder Aly, negociation with bim. An offensive and defen- but became determined enemies to the English, sive treaty was therefore concluded on the 3d at the same time that a confederacy was formed of April 1769, on the simple condition that the among the most powersul princes of India to forts and places taken on both sides should be expel from that part of the world these western restored, and each party sit down contented intruders. with their own expenses.

The resentment of Hyder Aly was particularly It was stipulated that, in case of either party directed against the presidency of Madras; he being attacked by their enemies, the other should had also received fresh provocation by their give them assistance: and in this case even the causing a body of troops to march through his number of troops to be supplied by each was dominions without his leave, to the assistance of specified. It soon after appeared, however, that a prince for whom he had no friendship; as the presidency of Madras was resolved to pay also by the capture of the French settlement of very little regard to this engagement. Hyder Mahie, on the coast of Malabar, which he said Aly, being in a little time after involved in a war was within his dominions, and consequently that with the Mahrattas, applied for assistance; but the French were under his protection. His was refused by the presidency, who pretended troops were therefore assembled from every that they themselves dreaded a quarrel with the quarter, and the greatest preparations made for Mahrattas. Hyder now, therefore, found him- a powerful invasion. The presidency of Madras self overmatched, and applied several times to in the mean time spent their time in mutual the English for the assistance he had a right to altercations, neglecting even to secure the inounexpect; but was constantly refused. This first tain passes, through which alone an invasion

could be made, until their active antagonist, the least impression. Our men, both Europeans having seized and guarded those passes, suddenly and sepoys, repeatedly presented and recovered poured out through them 100,000 men, among their fire-arms as if they had been maneuvring whom was a large body of European troops on a parade. The enemy were repulsed in every under French officers, and commanded by attack; numbers of their best cavalry were colonel Lally, a man of great bravery and experi- killed, and many more were wounded; even once. The alarm was given on the 24th of July their infantry were forced to give way: and 1780, that lyder Aly's horse were only nine Hyder would lave ordered a retreat, had it po! miles from Madras. "The inhabitants instantly been for the advice of general Lally, who indeserted their houses, and fled into the fort; formed him that it was now too late, as general while the unresisted barbarian burnt the villages, Munro was most probably advancing on their reduced the inferior forts, and prepared to lay rear from Conjeveram; for which reason nothing siege to the capital. It being now absolutely remained but to break the detachment by their necessary to make some resistance, measures artillery and cavalry. Tippoo Saib had by this were taken for assembling the troops ; in doing time collected his party together, and renewed which, an express was sent to colonel Baillie, the cannonade; and, at the same time that the at that time at Gumeroponda, twenty-eight English were under the necessity of sustaining miles from Madras, to proceed thence directly an attack both from the father and son, two of to Conjeveram with the corps under his com- their tumbrils were blown up by Hyder's guns, mand. But the first regiment of cavalry posi- and a large openmg made in both lines. They sively refused to move without money; and, as had now no other ammunition than grape; their they persisted in their resolution, were at last guns discontinued firing: and in this dreadful made prisoners, and sent to Madras. The main situation, under a terrible fire not only of guns army, then consisting of 1500 Europeans, and but rockets, losing great numbers of officers and 4200 sepoys, under Sir Mlector Munro, with their men, they remained from half-past seven till train of artillery, proceeded towards Conjeveram, nine o'clock. Hyder Aly, now perceiving that On their arrival they found the town in flames, the guns were quite silenced, came with his great bodies of the enemy's cavalry advancing whole army round their right flank. The cavalry on both fanks, and no appearance of colonel charged them in distinct columns, and in the Baillie's detachment. The march of this body intervals between these the infantry poured in had been impeded by a small river, swelled by a vollies of musketry with dreadful effect. Mhiar sudden fall of rain. Hyder Aly having now Saib, with the Mogul and Sanoor cavalry, made raised the siege of Arcot, in which he had been the first impression. These were followed by the employed, marched towards Conjeveram; in the elephants and the Mysorean cavalry, which comneighbourhood of which he encamped, and in pleted the overthrow of the detachment. Cola the course of several days, at different times, nel Baillie, though grievously wounded, rallied offered battle. On the 6th of September, he the Europeans, and once more formed them into detached his son Tippoo Saib with the flower of a square, and with this handful of men he gained his army to cut off the detachment under colonel an eminence, where, without ammunition, and Baillie, who was now at Perrambaukam, a small most of the people wounded, he resisted and village distant about fifteen miles, he himself repulsed thirteen separate attacks: but, fresh remaining in the neiglıbourhood of Conjeveram, bodies of cavalry continually pouring in, they to watch the motions of Sir Hector Munro. The were broken without giving way. Many of our detachment under Tippoo consisted of 30,000 men, desperately wounded, raising themselves horse, 8000 foot, and twelve pieces of cannon from the ground received the enemy on their Notwithstanding this superiority in number, bayonets. Captain Lucas's battalion of sepoys, however, they were bravely repulsed by colonel at the time when our men moved up to a rising Baillie's troops; and a junction was effected ground, was stationed to the right of the Eurowith a detachment under Sir Robert Fletcher, pean grenadiers; but that corps seeing the sent by Sir llector Munro. This was on the 9th Europeans in motion, and misunderstanding of September, and next morning orders were perhaps this evolution for a retreat, broke in the given for the whole army to march; colonel utmost confusion. The Europeans, bravely sus Fletcher's detachment being dispersed in differ- taining their reputation, remained in this extreent parts of the line. About ten at night several mity of distress steady and undaunted, though guns began to open on the rear of the English, surrounded by the French troops, and by Hyder's on which colonel Baillie detached captain Rum- cavalry to the number of 40,000. They even exley with five companies of sepoy grenadiers to pressed a desire, though their number did not storm. This he could not accomplish, being exceed 400, of being led on to the attack. At interrupted by an unexpected torrent, which it was length colonel Baillie, finding that there was no found impossible to ford. Next day Hyder Aly prospect of being relieved by general Mupro, himself joined Tippoo, and suddenly opened on held up a flag of truce to one of the chiefs of colonel Baillie's detachment the fire of from sixty Hyder's army. But this was treated with conto seventy pieces of cannon, with an innumerable tempt, and the surdar endeavoured at the same quantity of rockets; and for a while Hyder's nu- time to cut off the colonel. A few minutes after, merous cavalry, supported by his regular in- however, our men received orders to lay down fantry and European troops, driven on by threats, their arms, with intimation that quarter would encouraged by promises, and led on by his most be given. This order was scarcely complied with, distinguished officers, bore on our little army when the enemy rushed in upon them in the in different quarters, without, however, inaking most savage and brutal manner; and, but for

the humane interposition of the French com vented them from pursuing the advantage they manders, the gallant remains of vur little army had gained. must have fallen a sacrifice to that savage thirst Ilyder Aly was soon encouraged to venture of blood with which the tyrant disgraced his vic- another battle. This was fought on the 27th of tory. In this unfortunate action nearly 700 Eu- August the same year, on the very spot where ropeans were killed on the spot: the loss on colonel Baillie had been defeated. It was more Hyder Aly's part was so great, that he indus- obstinately contested than even the former, betriously ioncealed it; being enraged that the ing continued with great fury froin 8 A. M. to conquest of such an inconsiderable budy should near dusk. A number of brave officers and ct it bim so many of his hravest troops. Ever soldiers fell on the part of the British, owing after he seemed to consider the English with an chiefly to the terrible fire of the enemy's artilextreme degree of terror; insorauch that, not- lery, and the advantageous position of their withstanding his present exultation on account troops.

At last the Indian army was totally of this victory, he no sooner heard a report of defeated, and driven from every post it had Sir llector Munro's march to attack hin, than he occupied; though, from the obstinate resistleft his camp in the utmost confusion, abandon ance made at this time, Hyder began to enter ing great part of his tents and baggage, and all tain hopes that his forces might, by a succession the wounded.

of such battles, be at last enabled to cope with On the news of colorel Baillie's disaster, the the English. He therefore ventured a third supreme council of Bengal requested Sir Eyre battle some weeks after, but was defeated with Coote to take upon him the management of the greater loss than before. Undiscouraged by this war; and a large supply of men and money was bad success, however, he laid siege to Vellore; instantly decreed. In the interim Sir Hector and, expecting that the relief of it would be atMunro had been greatly harassed on his march tempted, seized a strong pass through which he to Madras, whither he had retreated after colo- knew the British army must direct their march. nel Baillie's disaster; the forces of Hyder Aly The British commander accordingly advanced, had infested all the places in that neighbourhood and found the enemy in possession of some very in such a manner, as in a great measure to cut strong grounds on both sides of a marsh, through off all supplies; and Arcot, the capital of the which he was obliged to pass. Here he was atmost faithful ally the British ever had, was taken tacked on all sides, but chiefly on the rear, the by storm. But no sooner had Sir Eyre Coote enemy directing their force principally against taken upon him the command, than his antagonist the baggage and provisions. But their utmost changed his plan of operations. He detached efforts, were unsuccessful, and Sir Eyre large parties of his numerous forces to lay siege Coote forced his way to Vellore. Ilyder Aly to the principal fortresses belonging to the com- did not fail to wait his return through the same pany; while, with the bravest and hest discip- pass; and, having exerted his utmost skill in lined part, he kept the field against the British posting his troops, attacked him with vigor: but commander. On the very first appearance of though the English were assaulted in front and our army, however, his resolution failed, and he in both flanks at once, and a heavy cannonade abandoned the siege of every place he had was kept up during the whole time of the eninvested, retiring to a considerable distance on gagement, the Indians were at last defeated with the other side of the Palaar, without even dis- great slaughter. By these successes the presiputing the passage of it. The next operation dency of Madras were now allowed so much was to secure Pondicherry, whose inhabitants respite, that an enterprise was planned against had revolted. But they were easily dis- the Dutch settlement of Negapatam, situated to arined, their magazines seized, and all the boats the south of Madras. A very inconsiderable in ther possession destroyed; in consequence force, however, could yet be spared for this purof which precaution, a French squadron that pose, as Hyder Aly, though so often defeated, soon after appeared off Pondicherry, was obliged was still extremely formidable. Sir Hector to depart without being furnished with neces Munro had the inanagement of the expedition: saries. But in the mean time Hyder Aly, having and so furious was the attack of the British saidrawn large reinforcements from all parts of his lors, that the troops left to guard the avenues to dominions, resolved to try his fortune in a the place were defeated at the very first onset. pitched battle. His army, it is said, amounted A regular siege ensued; which was of a to 200,000 men, 40,000 of whom were cavalry, very short duration, a breach being soon made, and 15,000 well disciplined sepoys. Still, and the garrison surrendering prisoners of war. however, he durst not openly attack the The loss of Negapatam was quickly followed by British army, but took a strong post, whence that of 'Trincomale. hc might harass them on their march. Sir Admiral Hughes, who had conveyed Sir Hector Eyre Coote, was not backward to make the Munru with the land forces to the former place, attack; and, on the other hand, Hyder Aly and assisted him with his sailors, immediately after prepared to engage him with all possible advan- its surrender set sail for the latter, where he artage. The battle was fought on the 1st of July, rived about the middle of January 1782. Trin1781; and, notwithstanding the vast superiority comale itself was quickly reduced; but the main of Hyder Aly's army, he was routed with great strength of the settlement consisted in a fort slaughter. The Indians, however, made a much named Ostenburgh, the principal place on the more obstinate resistance than usual; the en- island, and by the capture of which the whole gagement lasted from 9 A. M. till 4 P. M.; settlement could be reduced. The governor and the deficiency of the English in cavalry pre proving obstinate, this pape as taken by storm,

with the loss of about sixty on the part of the from Sir Eyre Coote's army, lay encamped oe British, and very little on that of the Dutch, the banks of the Coleroon, which forms the the victors giving quarter the moment it was north boundary of Tanjour. Tippoo Saib, lar. asked.

ing procured exact intelligence of its situation, A more formidable enemy, however, now ap- formed a design of attacking it, while no danger peared on the coast of Coromandel. This was was suspected, on account of the distance of Suffrein the French admiral, who, setting out Hyder Aly's army. He set out on this design from France with eleven ships of the line and with an army of 15,000 horse and 5000 foot, several stout frigates, had fallen in with the Han- accompanied by a body of French regulars; and, nibal of fifty guns, and taken her when separated having crossed the Coleroon, suddenly surfrom ber consorts. This ship, along with three rounded the British forces. The colonel, perothers, a seventy-four, a sixty-four, and a fifty, ceiving his danger, formed his men into a square, had been sent out to the assistance of Sir Ed- distributing the artillery to the several fronts, ward Hughes; and the three last had the good and keeping his cavalry in the centre. He thus fortune to join him before the arrival of Suffrein. resisted for three days the utmost efforts of his The latter, supposing that he had not yet re numerous enemies, always compelling them to ceived this reinforcement, bore down upon the retreat with great loss. At last general Lally, English squadron at Madras, to which place they rightly conjecturing that the strength of the had sailed immediately after the capture of Trin- English must be exhausted and their number comale. Perceiving his mistake, however, he thinned by such desperate service, proposed jostantly bore away. The English admiral pur- that the infantry, which was fresh and entire, sued, took six vessels, five of them English should attack one of the fronts of the square, prizes, and the sixth a valuable transport laden while the forces of Tippoo should do the same with gunpowder and other military stores, besides with the other three. This proved successful; having on board a number of land officers and the British forces were brokeo with great siaughabout 300 regular troops. This brought on an ter, which however was stopped by the humanity engagement, in which M. Suffrein, perceiving the of the French commander; who even obtained rear division of the British fleet unable to keep from Tippoo Saib the care of the prisoners, and up with the rest, directed his force principally treated them with a degree of humanity which against it. The ships of admiral Hughes him- they certainly would not otherwise have expeself and commodore King sustained the most rienced. A number of British officers, however, violent efforts of the French, having two, and perished in the engagement, and only one resometimes three, vessels to contend with. Thus mained unwounded. the commodore's ship was reduced almost to In the mean time, the succours from France, wreck; but about 6 P. M., the wind becoming so long expected by Hyder, arrived ; and, as more favorable to the English, the squadron of soon as a junction was formed, they proceeded, the enemy were obliged to draw off. The loss under the command of M. Duchemin, to invest of men on the part of the British amounted to Cuddalore; which, not being in a situation to little more than 130 killed and wounded, but, stand a siege, was surrendered on capitulation. that of the French exceeded 250. After the Some other places of less consequence were also battle Sir Edward returned to Madras; but reduced, until at last, being joined by Hyder's hearing nothing of Suffrein there, he made the numerous forces, they determined to lay siege to best of his way for Trincomale, being appre- Vandervash, a place of great importance, and hensive of an attack upon that place, or of in- the loss of which would have been extremely detercepting a convoy of stores and reinforcements trimental to the English. This quickly brought then expected from England. Suffrein was ac- Sir Eyre Coote with his army to its relief; but tually at that time on his way to intercept it. Hyder Aly, notwithstanding his being reinforced This brought the hostile fleets again in sight of by the French, durst not yet venture a battle in each other; and, the British admiral having been the open field. On this the British commander reinforced by two ships of the line, a desperate proceeded to attack Arnee, the principal deposit battle ensued, which continued till towards of his warlike stores and necessaries.' Thus the night, when the ships on both sides were so much latter was obliged to quit his advantageous shattered, that neither could renew the engage- ground; but he did so with such secrecy and ment next day. Though these engagements were speed, that he came upon the British army udanot decisive, they were nevertheless of the utmost wares, while preparing for its last march to Arprejudice to the affairs of Hyder Aly, who was nee, now only five miles distant. Perceiving thus prevented from receiving the succours he that the march of the British was through low had been promised from France; and he was grounds, encompassed on most parts with high still farther mortified by the defeat of his forces hills, he planted his cannon upon the latter ; before Tellicherry, which he had blocked up from which he kept a continual and heavy fire on since the commencement of hostilities.

the troops below, while his numerous cavalry · This misfortune was the more sensibly felt, as attacked them on every side. Notwithstanding an open passage was now left for the English all disadvantages, however, the British comman into those countries best affected to Hyder. His der at last closed in with the enemy; and after bad success, here, however, was in some measure an obstinate dispute completely routed them on compensated by the entire defeat of about 2000 the 2d of June 1782. English infantry and 300 cavalry under colonel Still Sir Eyre Coote, wanting cavalry, in which Braithwaite, a rave an experienced officer. the enemy abounder), was obliged to move rearer This detachment, consisting of chosen troops Madras; soon after which he was obliged, on

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