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answer till the 13th of June, when he sent a de- triumph; and, or the 29th of June, colonel Clive claration of war. The English council at Cal- went to the palace, and in presence of the rajahs cutta now resolved on the deposition of the and grandees of the court solemnly handed him nabob; which at this time appeared practicable, to the musnud (or carpet) and throne of state, by supporting the pretensions of Meer Jaffier where he was unavimously' saluted soubahdah or Ali Cawn, who had entered into a conspiracy nabob, and received the submission of all preagainst him. Meer Jaffier had married the sister sent. While these transactions were going forof Aliverdy Cawn, the predecessor of Surajah; ward, the utmost efforts were used to expel the and was now supported in his pretensions by the French entirely from Bengal. By the articles general of the horse, and by Jugget Seet the of capitulation at Chandernagore, the whole of nabob's banker, the richest merchant in all India. that garrison were to continue prisoners of war; By these three the design was communicated to but, about the time of signing the treaty, Mr. Mr. Watts, the English resident at the nabob's Law with a small body of troops made his escape court, and by him to colonel Clive and the se out of Cassumbazar, and bent his march towards crct committee at Calcutta. The management Patna. There he had been protected by the late of the affair being left to Mr. Watts and Mr. nabob; and, on the commencement of fresh hosClive, it was thought proper to cominunicate it tilities, had collected about 100 French, the only to Omichund, through whom the correspondence remains of that nation in Bengal. With these he that was necessary might be carried on with was within two hours' march of Surajah Dowla's Meer Jaffier. This agent proved so avaricious, camp when the battle of Plassey was fought; on that it was resolved to serve him in his own way; hearing of which he stopped; but afterwards, and, by a piece of treachery to hini also, to gain being informed of the nabob's escape, he marched their point with both parties. Two treaties were again to his assistance, and was within a few therefore written out; in one of which it was hours of joining him when he was taken. Three promised to comply with Omichund's demand, days after he was pursued by Major Eyre Coote but in the other his name was not even men. at the head of 223 Europeans, three companies tioned; and hoth these treaties were signed of sepoys, fifty Lascars, or Indian sailors, and by all the principal persons concerned, admiral ten Marmutty men, or pioneers, to clear the roads, Watson alone excepted, whom no political mo- together with two pieces of cannon, six-pounders. tives conld influence to sign an agreement which On this expedition the major exerted his utmost he did not mean to keep. These trcaties, the diligence to overtake his antagonist, and spent a same in every other respect, were to the follow- very considerable space of time in the pursuit; ing purport: 1. All the effects and factories be- for, though he set out on the 6th of July, he did longing to Bengal, Bahar, and Orixa, were not return to Muxadabad till the 1st of Septemto remain in possession of the English, por ber. Mr. Law, however, had the good fortune should any more of the French ever be allowed to escape. Major Coote now obliged Ramnarain, to settle in these provinces. 2. In consideration the most powerful rajah in the country, to swear of the losses sustained by the English Company, allegiance to Meer Jaffier; and laid open the by the capture and plunder of Calcutta, he agreed interior state of the northern provinces. 'Before to pay one crore of rupees, or £1,250,000 ster- his return, admiral Pocock had succeeded to the ling. 3. For the effects plundered from the command of the fleet on the decease of admiral English at Calcutta, he engaged to pay fifty lacks Watson. News were also received, that the of rupees, or £625,000. 4. For the effects plun- French had been very successful on the coast of dered from the Gentoos, Moors, and other inha- Coromandel. bitants of Calcutta, twenty lacks, or £250,000. Salabat Zing had applied to the English for 5. For the effects plundered from the American assistance against the French; but, as they were merchants, inhabitants of Calcutta, seven lacks, prevented from performing their agreement by or £87,500. 6. The distribution of all these sums the disaster at Calcutta, he was under the necesto be left to admiral Watson, colonel Clive, sity of accommodating the differences with his Roger Drake, William Watts, James Kilpa- former friends, and admitting them again into trick, and Richard Becher, esquires, to be dis- his service. M. Bussy was now reinforced by posed of by them to whom they think proper. the troops under Law, who had collected 500
Colonel Clive began his march against Surajah Europeans in his journey. With these he unDowla on the 13th of June, the day on which dertook to reduce the English factories of Ingethat chief sent off his last letter. The decisive ram, Bandermalanka, and Vizagapatam : but as action at Plassey followed, in which the trea the latter was garrisoned by 140 Europeans and chery of Meer Jaffer, who commanded part of 420 sepoys, it was supposed that it would make the vabob's troops, and stood neuter during the some defence; by the conquest of it, bowever, engagement, rendered the victory easy. The the French became masters of all the coasts from unfortunate nabob fled to his capital, but left it Ganjam to Masulipatam. In the southern prothe following evening, disguised like a faquir, vinces the like bad success attended the British with only two attendants. By these he appears cause. The rebel polygars, having united their to have been abandoned and even robbed; for forces against Mazuphe Cawn, obtained a comon the 3d of July he was found wandering for- plete victory; after which, the English sepoys saken and almost naked on the road to Patna. being prevailed upon to quit Madura, the conNext day he was brought back to Muxadabad; queror seized upon that city for himself
. In and a few hours after private beheaded by the beginning of 1758 the French made an Meer Jaffier's eldest son.
attempt on Trichinopoli. The command was The usurper took possession of the capital in given to M. d'Auteuil, who invested the place
with 900 men in battalion, 4000 sepoys, 100 Madras were equally unsuccessful. The latter hussars, and a great body of Indian horse. The was besieged from the 12th of December, 1758, place was then in no condition to withstand to the 27th of February, 1759, when they were such a force, as most of the garrison had gone obliged to abandon it with great loss. to besiege Madura under captain Caillaud; but The remainder of the year 1759 proved enhearing of the danger he marched back, and tirely favorable to the British arms. D'Ache entered the town by a road which the enemy the French admiral, who had been very roughly had neglected to guard : when the French ge- handled by admiral Pocock on the 3d of August neral drew off his forces disconcerted, and re- 1758, having refitted his fleet, and been reisturned to Pondicherry. Captain Caillaud then forced by three men of war at the islands laid siege to Madura, but was so vigorously re- Mauritius and Bourbon, now ventured once pulsed, that he was obliged to turn the siege more to face his antagonist. A third battle eninto a blockade, and, before any progress could sued on the 10th of September, 1759, when the be made in it, Mazuphe Cawn was prevailed French, notwithstanding their superiority both upon to resign it for the sum of 170,000 rupees. in number of ships and weight of metal, were A large garrison of sepoys was now again there- obliged to retreat with considerable loss; having fore put into the place, and Caillaud returned 1500 men killed and wounded, while those on to Trichinopoli. An attempt was next made board the English fleet did not exceed 369. By by colonel Ford on Nellore; but the enterprise the 17th of October the British fleet was comproved unsuccessful, through the unheard of pletely refitted ; and admiral Pocock, having cowardice of a body of sepoys, who, having shel- been joined by a reinforcement of four men of tered themselves in a ditch, absolutely refused war, soon after returned to England. All this to stir a step. Several other enterprises of no time the unfortunate general Lally had been great moment were undertaken; but the event employed in unsuccessful endeavours to retrieve was on the whole unfavorable to the British, the affairs of his countrymen; but his fate was whose force by the end of the campaign was re- at last decided by laying siege to Wandewast, duced to 1718 men, while that of the French which had lately been taken by colonel Coote. amounted to 3400 Europeans, of whom 1000 The advantage in numbers was entirely in favor were sent to Pondicherry.
of the French general ; the British army consistBoth parties now received considerable rein- ing only of 1700 Europeans, including artillery forcements from Europe; admiral Pocock being and cavalry, while the French amounted to 2200 joined on the 24th of March by commodore Europeans. The auxiliaries on the English side Stevens with a squadron of five men of war, and were 3000 black troops, while those of the French the French by nine men of war and two frigates, amounted to 10,000 black troops, and 300 Cafhaving on board general Lally with a large body fres; nor was the difference less in proportion of troops. The British admiral.went in quest of in the artillery, the English bringing into the them, and an engagement took place, in which field only fourteen pieces of cannon and one the French were defeated with the loss of 600 howitzer, while the French had twenty-five pieces killed and a great number wounded; while in the field and five on their batteries against the the English had only twenty-nine killed and fort. The battle began about 11 A. M. on the eighty-nine wounded. The former returned 22d of January, 1760, and in three hours the 10 Pondicherry, where they landed their men, whole French army fled towards their camp; money, and troops. After the battle three but quitted it on finding themselves pursued by of the British captains were tried for misbeha- the English, who took all their cannon except viour, and two of them dismissed from the ser- three small pieces. They collected themselves vice. As soon as his vessels were refitted, the under the walls of Cheltaput, about eighteen admiral sailed again in quest of the enemy; but miles from the field of battle, and soon after recould not bring them to an action before the 3d tired to Pondicherry. Colonel Coote now caused of August, when the French were defeated a se- the country to be wasted to the very gates of this cond time, with the loss of 251 killed and 602 fortress, by way of retaliation for what the French wounded. Notwithstanding this success at sea, had done in the neighbourhood of Madras. lle the British were greatly deficient in land forces; then set about the siege of Cheltaput, which the re-establishment of their affairs in Bengal surrendered in one day; a considerable detachhaving almost entirely drained the settlements inent of the enemy was intercepted by captain on the coast of Coromandel. The consequence Smith; the fort of Timmery was reduced by of this was the loss of Fort St. David, which the major Monson, and the city of Arcot by captain French general Lally reduced, destroying the Wood. This last conquest enabled the British fortifications and villages, and ravaging the to restore the nabob to his dominions, of which country in such a manner as filled the natives he had been deprived by the French; and it with indignation. He proved successful, how- greatly weakened both the French force and inever, in the reduction of Devicottah, but was terest in India. M. Lally, in the mean time, had obliged to retreat with loss from before Tanjore, recalled his forces from Syringham, by which his army being distressed for want of sup- means he auginented his army with 500 Europlies. From this time, the affairs of the French peans. These were now shut up in Pondicherry, daily declined. On their retreat from Tanjore, which was become the last hope of the French they abandoned the island of Syringham; they in India. To complete their misfortunes, admitook Tripatore, however, but were defeated in ral Cornish arrived at Madras with six men of their designs on the important post of Chingla- war; and, as the French had now no fleet in pet, about forty-five miles south-west of Madras. these parts, the admiral readily engaged to co Their next enterprises on Fort St. George and operate with the land forces. The consequence
was the reduction of Carical, Chellambrum, and imbecility, had been. This last consideration Verdachellum, by a strong detachment under had induced many of the council at first to opmajor Monson; while colonel Coote reduced pose the revolution; and indeed the only plauPermacoil, Almamverpa, and Waldour. He was sible pretence for it was, that the administration thus at last enabled to lay siege to Pondicherry of Meer Jaffier was so very weak, that, unless he itself; and the place capitulated on the 15th of was aided and even controlled by some persons January, 1761, by which an end was put to the of ability, he himself must soon be ruined, and power of the French in this part of the world. very probably the interests of the company along
6. Of the British wars with the native powers, with him. Meer Cossim, however, was a inan to the appointment of lord Clite as governor of of a very different disposition from his father-inBengal.-While the British were thus employed law. As he knew that he had not been served Meer Saffier, the nabob of Bengal, who had been by the English out of friendship, so he did not raised to that dignity by the ruin of Surajah think of making any return out of gratitude; but, Dowla, found himself in a very disagreable situ- instead of this, considered only how he could ation. The treasure of the late naboh had been most easily break with such troublesome allies. valued at sixty-four crore of rupees (about for a while, however, it was necessary for him £80,000,000 sterling), and in expectation of this to take all the advantage he could of his alliance sum, Meer Jaffier had submitted to the exactions with them. By their assistance he cleared his of the English. On his accession to the govern- dominions of invaders, and strengthened his ment, however, the treasure of which he became frontiers, and he reduced the rajahs who had remaster fell so much short of expectation, that he belled against his predecessor, obliging them to could not fulfil his engagements to them, and pay the usual tribute; by which means he rewas reduced to the extremity of mortgaging his paired his finances, and thereby secured the
In this dilemma his grandees became fidelity of his troops. Having thus, by the factious and discontented, his army mutinous for assistance of the English, brought his government want of pay, and himself odious to his subjects. into subjection, he took the most effectual means The English themselves, who had raised him to of securing himself against their power. As the supreme power, also brought a variety of charges viciuity of his capital, Muxadabud, to Calcutta, against him. On the 13th of June, 1760, Mr. gave the English factory there an opportunity Holwell wrote from Calcutta to Mr. Warren of inspecting his actions, and interrupting his Hastings, that he had received, by express, intel- designs when they thought proper, he took up ligence of the murder of the princesses of Aliverdy his residence at Mongheer, a place 200 miles Khan and Shah Ahmet in a most inhuman man- farther up the Ganges, which he fortified in the ner, by Meer Jaffier's orders. In like manner best and most expeditious manner. Sensible of we are told that many others of Surajah Dowla's the advantages of the European discipline, he relations had perished ; yet when it was thought now resolved to new-model his army. For this proper to replace Meer Jaffier, in 1761, all these purpose be collected all the Armenian, Persian, dead persons were found alive excepting two. Tartar, and other soldiers of fortune, whose miIt must also be remembered, in behalf of the un- litary characters might serve to raise the spirits fortunate nabob, that, besides the sums exacted of his Indian forces, and abate their natural of him by the English at his accession, be had timidity. He also collected all the wandering ceded to them a large extent of territory, and Europeans who had borne arms, and the sepoys granted them so many immunities in trade, that who had been dismissed from the English serhe had in a manner deprived himself of all his vire, and distributed them among his troops. Ho resources. There were accounts of this remark- changed the fashion of the Indian muskets from able revolution published at the time materially matchlocks to firelocks; and, as their cannon differing from one another. Our troops accord- were almost as deficient as their small arms, he ing to each of them took possession of the palace; procured a pattern of one from the English, by Meer Cossim was raised to the musnud; and which he soon formed a train of artillery: having the old nabob hurried into a boat, with a few of thus done every thing in his power to enable himhis domestics and necessaries, and sent away to self to withstand the English by force of arms, Calcutta in a manner wholly unworthy of the he resolved also to free his court from their emishigh ,ank he so lately held. The servants of the saries, by imprisoning or putting to death every company, who were the projectors of the revolu- person of any consequence in his dominions who tion, made no secret that there was a present had shown any attachment to their interest. promised them of twenty lacks of rupees from His next step was to free himself from those reCossim, who was desirous of making the first act straints which his predecessor Meer Jaffier, and of his power the assassination of Jaffier, and was even be himself, had been obliged to lay upon very much displeased when he found that the the Indian trade, to gratify the avarice of his English intended giving him protection at Cal- European allies. At his accession, indeed, he cutta.
had ceded to the company a tract of land worth It could scarcely be supposed that Meer Cos no less than £700,000 annually, besides £70,000 sim, raised to the nabobship in this manner, a-year on other accounts. All this, however, would be more faithful to the English than Meer was not sufficient; the immunities granted them Jaffier had been. Nothing advantageous to the in trade were of still worse consequence than interests of the company could indeed be reason even those vast concessions. He knew by exably expected from such a revolution. No suc- perience the distress which these inmunities had cessor of Meer Jaffier could be more entirely in brought upon his predecessor, and therefore desubjection than the late nabob, from his natural termined to put an end to them. In pursuance
of this resolution, he began in 1762 to subject twelve pieces of cannon. These very soon came the English traders every where to the payment to action with the enemy; and cleared the counof certain duties, and required that their disputes, try of them as far as Cossimbuzar River, a branch if heyond the limits of their own jurisdiction, of the Ganges which lay between Calcutta and should be decided by his magistrates. This Muxadabad, or Murshedabad, the capital of the gave such aların at Calcutta, that, in November province. 1762, the governor Mr. Vansittart waited on him All the pains taken by Meer Cossim to disciin person at Mongheer, to expostulate with him pline his troops had not made them able to cope upon the subject. The nabob answered his re- with the Europeans. The English were suffered monstrances by saying that if the servants of the to pass the river without opposition ; but an army English company were permitted to trade in all of 10,630 Indians was advantageously posted parts, and in all commodities, custom free, they between the river and the city. These were enmust of course draw all the trade into their own tirely defeated, and major Adams pushed on hands, and his customs would be of little value. directly for the capital. In his way he found That he would sooner collect no custorns, and so the Indians again strongly posted with entrenchdraw a number merchants into the country ments fifteen feet high, and defended by a nuand increase his revenues by encouraging the merous artillery. This strong post was taken by cultivation and manufacture of a large quantity stratagem; a feint being made with a small body of goods. By these intimations Mr. Vansittart of troops against that part where the enemy had was much disconcerted; and under the circum- collected their greatest strength. In the mean stance thought proper to submit to certain regu- time the greatest part of the British army had in lations, by which the trade of the English was the night marched round the Indian fortification, put under restrictions. This excited the utmost and by day break made a furious assault on a indignation at Calcutta. On the 17th of January, place where there was only a slight guard. 1763, the council passed a resolution, disavow- These instantly fled ; the entrenchments were ing the treaty made by the governor; affirming abandoned ; and the city fell into the hands of that he assumed a right to which he was by no the conquerors. The British now penetrated means authorised; that the regulations proposed into the heart of the province, crossed the numerwere dishonorable to them as Englishmen, and ous branches of the Ganges, and traversed tended to the ruin of all public and private trade; morasses and forests in quest of the enemy. and that the president's issuing oui regulations, Meer Cossim, on the other hand, was not wantindependent of the council, was an absoluté ing in his defence; but the utmost efforts he breach of their privileges. They sent orders could use were totally insufficient to stop the therefore to all the factories, that no part of the career of an enemy so powerful and victorious. agreement between the governor and nabob The two armies met on the banks of a river callshould be submitted to. Application was again ed Nunas Nullas, on the second of August 1763. made to Meer Cossim to persuade him to a third Cossim had chosen his post with great judgment, agreement; but, before the success of this nego- and his forces had much of the appearance of an tiation could be known, hostilities commenced European army, not only in their arros and acon the part of the English. There was at that coutrements, but in their division into brigades, timc in Patna (a city on the Ganges, about 300 and even in their clothing. The battle was miles above Calcutta), a fortified factory belong- more obstinate than usual, being continued for ing to the East India Company, where were a four hours : but, though the Indian army consista few European amd Indian soldiers. By this ed of no fewer than 20,000 horse and 8000 foot, factory the city was suddenly attacked on the the English proved in the end victorious, and 25th of June 1763, and instantly taken, though the enemy were obliged to quit the field with the it was defended by a strong garrison. The go- loss of all their cannon. From this time the vernor and garrison fled into the country on the Indians did not attempt any regular engagement first appearance of danger ; but, perceiving that with the British. They made a stand indeed at the victors took no care to preveni a surprise, he a place named Auda Nulla, which they had forsuddenly returned with a reinforcement, retook tified in such a manner that it seemed proof the city, and drove all the English into their fort. against any sudden attack. But here also they Eventually the English left the fort with a design suffered themselves to be deceived, and the place 10 retreat into the territories of a neighbouring was taken with great slaughter. They now nabob; but being pursued by a superior force abandoned a vast tract of country, to the very they were all either killed or iaken. 'The nabob gates of Mongheer. The next operation was the at the same time slaughtered the deputies who siege of Mongheer itself; which, notwithstandhad been sent him by the council of Calcutta, to ing all the pains Meer Cossim had been at to treat about a new agreement with regard to fortify it, held out only nine days after the trenches commercial affairs. These acts of treacherous were opened : so that nothing now remained to hostility were soon followed by a formal decla- complete the conquest of Bengal but the reducration of war. Meer Jaffier, notwithstanding the tion of the city of Patna. Meer Cossim, in the crimes formerly alleged against him, was pro- mean time, enraged at the progress of the English, claimed nabob of Bengal, and the English army vented his rage on the uuhappy prisoners taken immediately took the field under the command at Patna : all
of whom, to the number of about of major Adams. The whole force, however, at 200, he caused to be inhumanly murdered. Dr. first consisted only of one regiment of the king's Fullarton was the only person who escaped, havtroops, a few the Company's, two troops of ing received a pardon from the tyrant a few days European cavalry, ten companies of sepoys, and before the massacre. This inhumanity was far
from being of any service to the cause of Meer all their tents; while, on the side of the con. Cossim. Major Adams marched without delay querors, only thirty-two Europeans and 239 from Mongheer to Patna; and, as the place was Indians were killed, and fifty-seven Europeans indifferently fortified, it made but a feeble resist- and 473 Indians wounded. The only place of ance. The cannon of the English soon made a strength now belonging to the allies on this side practicable breach, and in eight days this great the river was a fort named Chanda Geer, which city was taken by storm. Thus the nabob was stood on the top of a high hill, or rather rock, deprived of all his fortified places, his army was situated on the bank of the Ganges, by which it reduced to a small body, and himself obliged to could be constantly supplied with provisions ; fly to Sujah Dowla nabob of Oude, who acted and as to military stores, it stood in little need as grand vizier to the Mogul. Here he was kind- of them, so long as stones could be found to ly received, and an asylum promised for his per- pour down on the assailants. Notwithstanding son; but admittance was refused to his army, these difficulties, however, colonel Munro adnor would the nabob consent to make his countryvanced to attack it, but was repulsed; and, though a seat of war. The English were entire masters the attack was renewed next day, it was attended of Bengal; for, though Meer Jaffier was pro- with no better success : on which the English claimed nabob, he had no authority but what cominander proceeded to encamp with his army they conferred on him. Major Adams did not under the walls of Benares. Soon after this, long survive the conquest of Patna, which was colonel Munro heing recalled, the command taken on the 6th November 1763; he died in devolved on major Sir Robert Fletcher. The March 1764. Meer Cossim being thus driven nabob in the mean time, instead of attacking the out, an agent was sent from Calcutta to Sujah English army at once, contented himself with Dowla, proposing an alliance with him and the sending out parties of light horse to skirmish Mogul, and offering to asssist them against Meer with its advanced posts, while the main body Cossim or any other enemy who should attempt lay at the distance of about fifteen miles from an invasion of their dominions; in return for Benares. On the 14th January 1765 Sir Robert which it was expected that they should declare ventured at midnight to break up his camp under themselves open enemies to Cossim, and use the walls of Benares, and to march off towards their utmost endeavours to seize and deliver him the enciny. In three days he came up with the up with all his effects. This design was commu main body, who retreated before him; on which nicated to Major Adams on the 8th of Decem- he resolved to make another attempt on Chanda ber 1763; bui, as he was next day to resign the Geer, which he reduced; or rather the garrison command of the army, major Carnac was de- mutinied for want of pay, and obliged the comsired to watch the motions of Meer Cossim, as mander to surrender. The reduction of Chanda well as to guard the dominions of Meer Jaffier Geer was followed by that of Eliabad, a large against any hostilities which might be attempted. city on the Ganges, between sixty and seventy
It soon appeared that the friendship of the miles above Chanda Geer, defended by thick English was not what Sujah Dowla desired. Ile and high walls, and a strong fort. Sujah Dowla considered them as usurpers, who, having ob- in the mean time had been abandoned by the tained a footing in the country under pretence Mogul, who concluded a treaty with the English of commerce, could be satisfied with nothing soon after the battle of Buxard. He, however, less than the entire possession of it, to the ruin gathered together the remains of his routed of the original inhabitants. In the beginning armies, and applied to the Mahrattas for assisof February 1764, therefore, he had determined tancer. This native people, though very formito assist Meer Cossim in attempting to recover dable to the other nations of Hindostan, had Bengal, and the president and council of Cal- never been able to cope with the English. On cutta determined to commence an immediate the 20th of May, 1765, general Carnac, having and offensive war against him. But difficulties assembled his troops, marched immediately to occurred in carrying on a war at this time, arising attack them; and, having gained a complete vicfrom the death of major Adams, whose name tory at a place called Calpi, obliged them to rehad become formidable to the Indians, and the treat with precipitation across the Yumna. Sujah mutinous disposition of the army. The former Dowla, now destitute of every resource, deterwas obviated by the appointment of colonel Hec- mined to throw himself on the clemency of the tor Munro, who, in military skill, was not infe- English. Previous to this, however, he allowed rior to his predecessor; and a most severe ex- Meer Cossim and the assassin Somers to escape ; ample of the mutineers was made, twenty-four nor could any consideration ever evail upon of whom were blown away from the mouths of him to deliver them up. Three days after the cannon. Meer Cossim commenced hostilities battle of Capi, the nabob surrendered himself by cutting off a small party of English troops, unconditionally to general Carnac. and sending their heads to the Mogul and Sujah In the beginning of February this year died Dowlah. An army of 50,000 men was col- Meer Jaffier Ali Cawn, nominal nabob of lected, with a most formidable train of artillery. Bengal. The succession was disputed betwixt The hostile armies met on the 22nd of October, his eldest surviving son Najem il Doula, a youth 1764, at Buxard, on the Carumnassa, about 100 of about eighteen years of age, and a grandson miles above Patna. The event was similar to by his eldest son Miran, at that time only seven that of other engagements with the British. The years old. As the English were absolute soveallied Indian army was defeated with the loss of reigns of the country, it was the council of Cal6000 killed on the spot, 130 pieces of cannon, a cuita which had, in fact, to decide this question. proportionable quantity of military stores, and The poivt being carried in favor of Najem, it