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sounds, which yield the finer isinglass, consist of and frequently injurious to its native qualities. parallel lines, and are easily rent longitudinally; Isinglass is sometimes used in medicine; and but the ordinary sorts are found composed of may be given in a thin acrimonious state of the double membranes, whose fibres cross each other juices, in the same manner as the vegetable gums obliquely, resembling the coats of a bladder; and mucilages, regard being had to their different hence the former are more readily pervaded and disposition to putrescence. Women subject to divided with subacid liquors; but the latter, the fuor albus take it dissolved in milk. See through a peculiar kind of interwoven texture, CHEMISTRY. are with great difficulty torn asunder, and long

ICHTHYOL'OGY, n. s. Fr. ichthyologie ; resist the power of the same menstruum; yet, Gr. ixOvodoyia, from ixovs and déyw. The docwhen duly resolved, are found to act with equal trine of the nature of tish. energy in clarifying liquors. Isinglass receives Some there are, as camels and sheep, which carry its different shapes in the following manner: the no name in ichthyology. Browne's Vulgar Errours. parts of which it is composed, particularly the ICHTHYOLOGY. See Pisces. sounds, are taken from the fish while sweet and ICHTHYOPH'AGY, 1. s. Gr. ixous and fresh, slit open, washed from their slimy sordes, páyw. Diet of fish; the practice of eating fish. divested of every thin membrane which enve ICHTHYOPHAGI (from ιχθυς, fish and φαγείν lopes the sound, and then exposed to stiffen a to eat), nations who according to the fabulous aclittle in the air. In this state they are formed counts of Herodotus lived only upon fish. They into rolls about the thickness of a finger, and in had cattle, but made no use of them, excepting length according to the intended size of the to feed their fish withal : they made their houses staple; a thin membrane is generally selected of large fish-bones, the ribs of whales serving for the centre of the roll, round which the rest them for their beams. The jaws of these aniare folded alternately, and about half an inch of mals served them for doors; and the mortars each extremity of the roll is turned inwards. wherein they pounded their fish, and baked it The due dimensions being thus obtained, the in the sun, were nothing else but their vertetwo ends of what is called short staple are pinned bræ. together with a small wooden peg; the middle ICHTHYPERIA, in natural history, a name of the roll is then pressed a little downwards, given by Hill to the bony palates and mouths of which gives it the resemblance of a heart shape; fishes, usually met with fossile, either in single and thus it is laid on boards, or hung up to dry. pieces or fragments. They are of the same subThe sounds which compose the long staple are stance with the bufonitæ; and are of very various longer than the former ; but the operator length- figures, some broad and short, others longer and ens this sort at pleasure by interfolding the ends slender; some very gibbose, and others plainly of one or more pieces of the sound with each arched. They are likewise of various sizes, from other. The extremities are fastened with a peg the tenth of an inch to two inches long, and an like the former; but the middle part of the roll inch in breadth. is bent more considerably downwards; and, to ICKENILD STREET, an old Roman highway, preserve the shape of the three obtuse angles so called from the Iceni, which extended from thus formed, a piece of round stick, about a Yarmouth in Norfolk, the east part of the kingquarter of an inch diameter, is fastened in each dom of the Iceni, to Barley in Hertfordshire, angle with small wooden pegs, in the same giving name in the way to several villages, as manner as the ends. In this state it is permitted Ickworth, Icklingham, and Ickleton. From Barto dry long enough to retain its form, when the ley to Royston it divides the counties of Campegs and sticks are taken out, and the drying bridge and Hertford. From Ickleford it goes completed; lastly, the pieces of isinglass are by Tring, crosses Bucks and Oxfordshire, passes colligated in rows, by running packthread the Thames at Goring, and extends to the west of through the peg-holes, for convenience of package England. and exportation. The membranes of the book ICOLMKILL, or ICOLUMBKILL, a celebrated sort, being thick and refractory, will not admit island of Scotland, and one of the Hebrides; called a similar formation with the preceding; the also I, Hy, Hii, and anciently Iona : famous for pieces, therefore, after their sides are folded in the monastery founded in it by St. Columba. wardly, are bent in the centre, in such a manner These ruins are much dilapidated, but they are that the opposite sides resemble the cover of a now preserved by a strong wall erected round book, whence the name; a peg, being thus run the chief parts, at the expense of the Argyle faacross the middle, fastens the sides together, and mily. The cathedral is thirty-eight yards long, thus it is dried like the former. This sort is in- and eight broad; the east window of which is a terleaved, and the pegs run across the ends, the beautiful specimen of Gothic workmanship. better to prevent its unfolding. Cake isinglass In the middle stood a tower, three stories high, is formed of the fragments of the staple sorts, supported by four arches. Near the altar-place put into a flat metalline pan, with a very little is a beautiful tomb of black marble, with the water, and heated just enough to make the parts figure of the abbot Macfingone. On the north cohere like a pancake when it is dried; but fre- of the cathedral are some remains of the bishop's quently it is overheated, and such pieces are house, and on the south is a small neat chapel, useless in fining. Experience has taught the in which are many curious tombs to the memory consumers to reject them. Isinglass is best made of the lords of the isles. Here is also an enin summer, as frost gives it a disagreeable color, closed burying-ground, containing the tombs of de it of ght, and impairs its gelatinous ty-eight Scottish kin four kings of Ireland, principles; its fashionable forms are unnecessary, eighi of Norway, and one of France, all buried

here from the supposed peculiar sanctity of the condemned the worship and use of images; and ground. Bede calls it Hi; but the proper his successor Leo IV. pursued the same meaname is I, which in the Gaelic signifies an island. sures, and enacted penal statutes to extirpate The name lona is now quite lost, and it is al- idolatry. Irene, who poisoned her husband Leo ways called I, except when the speaker would in 780, and usurped the throne during the minowish to lay an emphasis upon the word ; it is rity of her son Constantine, summoned a council then called Icolumkill. " It lies in the Atlantic, at Nice in Bithynia, in 786, called the second and is separated from the west point of Ross by Nicene council, which restored the worship of a narrow channel, called the Sound of I. It is images, and denounced severe punishments about three iniles long, and from half a mile to a against those who maintained, that God was the mile in breadth. is flat, consisting of heath, only object of religious adoration. Charlemagne green pasture, rocks, and arable ground, very distinguished himself as a mediator in this con fertile.'

troversy: he ordered four books to be composed, I'CON, n. s.

Greek, Elkovoklasns, refuting the arguments urged by the Nicene biIcon'ocLAST, n. S. Elkwy and Khácw. Icon, a shops to justify the worship of images; which

Iconol'o Y, n. s. picture, or representation: he sent to pope Adrian in 700, to engage him to iconoclast, a breaker of images : iconology, the withdraw his approbation of the decrees of the doctrine of representation by a picture.

last council of Nice. Adrian wrote an answer; Some of our own nation, and many Netherlanders, and in 794 a council of 300 bishops, assembled whose names and icons are published, have deserved by Charlemagne at Frankfort on the Maine, congond commendation. Hakewill on Providence. firmed the opinion contained in the four books,

Boysardus, in his tract of divination, hath set forth and solemnly condemned the worship of images. the icons of these ten, yet added two others.

In the Greek church, after the banishment of Browne's Vulgar Errors. Irene, the controversy concerning images broke ICONIUM, in ancient geography, the capital out anew, and was carried on by the contending city of Lycaonia in Asia Minor, now called parties, during half the ninth century, with vaCogni. St. Paul coming to Iconium (Acts xiii. rious success. The emperor Nicephorus appears 51 ; xiv. 1, &c.), in A. D. 45, converted many Jews to have been an enemy to this worship; but bis and Gentiles there. But some incredulous Jews successor, Michael Curopalates, patronised and excited the Gentiles to rise against Paul and Bar- encouraged it. But the scene changed on the nabas, which obliged them to tly to the neigh- accession of Leo the Armenian, who assembled bouring cities. St. Paul undertook a second jour- a council at Constantinople in 814, that abolishney to Iconium, A. D. 51.

ed the decrees of the Nicene council. His surJCONOCLASTE, IconoclasTES, Icono- cessor, Michael Balbus, disapproved the worship CLasts, are titles which the church of Rome of images, and his son Theophilus treated the gives to all wbo reject the use of images. Not idolaters with great severity. However, the emonly the reformed, but some of the eastern press Theodora, after his death, and during the churches, are called Iconoclastæ, and esteemed minority of her son, assembled a council at by them heretios, as opposing the worship of the Constantinople in 842, which approved the deimages of God and the sainsts, and breaking crees of the second Nicene council, and restored their representations in churches. The oppo- image-worship. The council held under Phosition to images began in Greece under the em tius in 879, reckoned by the Greeks the eighth peror Bardanes, soon after the commencement of general council, also confirmed the Nicene dethe eighth century, when the worship of them crees ; upon which a festival was instituted by became common. But the tumults occasioned the Greeks, called the feast of orthodoxy. The by it were quelled by a revolution, which, in council of Paris, assembled in 824 by Louis the 713, deprived Bardanes of the imperial throne. Meek, allowed the use of images in churches, The dispute, however, broke out with redoubled but prohibited rendering them religious worship. fury under Leo the Isaurian, who issued out an But, towards the conclusion of this century, the edict, in 726, abrogating the worship of images. Gallican clergy began to pay a kind of religious This edict occasioned a civil war, which broke homage to the images of saints, and their example out in the islands of the Archipelago, and rava was followed by the Germans and other nations. ged a part of Asia, and afterwards reached Italy. However, the Iconoclastæ still had their adherents The civil commotions in Italy were chiefly pro- among the Latins; the most eminent of whom moted by the Roman pontiffs, Gregory I. and was Claudius, bishop of Turin, who, in 823, orII. Leo was excommunicated, and his subjects dered all images, and even the cross, to be cast in the Italian provinces, rising in arms, either out of the churches, and burnt; and he wrote a massacred or banished all the emperor's officers. treatise against the use and worship of them. Leo however assembled a council at Constanti- The controversy was again revived by Leo binopie in 730, which degraded Germanus, the shop of Chalcedon, in the eleventh century, on bishop of that city, who was a patron of images; the emperor Alexius’s converting the silver images and ordered all the images to be publicly burnt. that adorned the churches into money, to supply But the zeal of Gregory II. in favor of image- the exigencies of the state. The bishop main worship was surpassed by his successor Gregory tained that he had been guilty of sacrilege, and III. ; in consequence of which the Italian pro- published a treatise to show that in these images vinces were torn from the Grecian empire. Con- there resided an inherent sanctity, and that the stantine Copronymus, in 754, convened a council adoration of Christians ought to be extended to at Constantinople, regarded hy the Greeks as the them. Alexius assembled a council at Constanseventh æcumenical council, which solemnly tinople, which determined, that the images of



Christ and the saints were to be honored only Our Saviour himself, being to set down the perfect with a relative worship; and that invocation and idea of that which we are to pray and wish for on worship were to be addressed to the saints only earth, did not teach to pray or wish for more than as the servants of Christ. In the western church only that here it might be with us, as with them it is the worship of images was opposed by several in heaven.

Hooker. considerable parties, as the Petrobrussians, Albi

I did infer your lineaments, genses, Waldenses, &c., till at length this

Being the right idea of your father;

Both in your form and nobleness of mind. idolatrous practice was entirely abolished in

Shakspeare. many parts of the Christian world by the Re

Her sweet idea wandered through his thoughts. formation.

Fairfax. ICONOGRAPHIA, or Iconography, from

How good, how fair, Elxov, and ypapw, I describe. The description Answering his great idea! Milton's Puradise Lost, of images or ancient statues of marble and cop A transmission is made materially from some parts, per; also of busts and semi-busts, penates, paint- and ideally from every one. Browne’s Vulgur Errours. ings in fresco, mosaic works, and ancient pieces

Happy you

may to the saint, your only idea of miniature.

Although simply attired, your manly affectiou utter. ICONOLATRÆ, or Iconolatres, from Eurov,

Sidney. and Xatpevw, I worship, or Iconoduli

, those who

If Chaucer by the best idea wrought,

The fairest nymph before his eyes he set. Dryden. worship images : a name which the Iconoclastæ

Whatsoever the mind perceives in itself, or is the give to those of the Romish communion on account of their adoring images. See Icono- standing, that I call idea.

immediate object of perception, thought, or under.


There is a two-fold knowledge of material things; ICOSAHEDRON, in geometry, a regular one real, when the thing, and real impression of solidl, consisting of twenty triangular pyramids, things on our senses, is perceived; the other ideal, whose vertexes meet in the centre of a sphere when the image or idea of a thing, absent in itself, is supposed to circumscribe it; and therefore have represented to and considered on the imagination. their height and bases equal: wherefore the soli

Cheyne's Philosophical Principles. dity of one of these pyramids multiplied by

The form under which these things appear to the twenty, the number of bases, gives the solid mind, or the result of our apprehension, is called an


Watts. contents of the icosahedron. ICOSANDRIA, from alkool, twenty, and avno,

Delightful task! to rear the tender thought,

To teach the young idea how to shoot, a husband, the name of the twelfth class in Lin

To pour the fresh instruction o'er the mind, næus's sexual method, consisting of plants with

To breathe the enlivening spirit, and to fix hermaphrodite flowers, which are furnished with

The generous purpose, in the glowing breast. twenty or more stamina, inserted into the inner

Thomson. side of the calyx or petals. See Botany.

IDEN’TITY, 1. s. Fr. identité ; Lat. idem. ICTER’ICÁL, n. s. Fr. icterique ; Lat. icte

IDEN’TICAL, adj. Sameness, as opposed to rus. Afflicted with the jaundice: a ierm applied

IDENTIC, adj. Sdiversity, whether apto remedies for the cure of jaundice.

plied to persons or things; comprising the saine In the jaundice the choler is wanting, and the icte. idea. rioal have a great sourness, and gripes with windiness.

Their majus is identical with magis.

Hale. Floyer. The beard's the identick beard you knew, ICTERUS, the jaundice. See Medicine. The same numerically true.

Hudibras. Icy Cape, the most north-western head-land There is fallacy of equivocation from a society in of North America, opposite to Cape North in name, inferring an identity in nature : by this fallacy Asia. The opening into Bhering's Straits runs

was he deceived that drank aqua-fortis for strong between them.

Browne's Vulgar Errours. IDA, in ancient geography, a mountain in the

Those ridiculous idèntical propositions, that faith is heart of Crete, the highest in the island ; sixty faith, and rule is a rule, are first principles in this stadia in compass; the nursing place of Jupiter. controversy of the rule of faith, without which nothing

can be solidly concluded either about rule or faith, Also the name of the mountain of Mysia, or

Tillotson's Sermons. rather a chain of mountains, extending from Considering any thing as existing, at any deterZeleia, on the south of the territory of Cyzicus, mined time and place, we compare it with self existto Lectum, the utmost promontory of Troas, &c. ing at another time, and thereon form the ideas of It was covered with green wood, and the eleva- identity and diversity.

Loche. tion of its top opened a fine extensive view of Certainly those actions must needs be regular, where the Hellespont and the adjacent countries; for there is an identity between the rule and the faculty.

South's Sermons. which reason it was frequented by the gods during the Trojan war, according to Homer. The By cutting off the sense at the end of every first line top was called Gangara, and celebrated by the which must always rhime to the next following, is

produced too frequent an identity in sound, and brings poets for the judgment of Paris. See Paris.

every couplet to the point of an epigrain. Prior. IDALIUM, in ancient geography, a promon

If this pre-existent eternity is not compatible with a tory on the east side of Cyprus, now called Capo successive duration, as we clearly and distinctly perdi Griego; with a high rugged eminence rising ceive that it is not, then it romains, that some being, over it, in the form of a table; sacred to Venus though infinitely above our finite comprehensions, The eminence was covered with a grove.

must have had an identical, invariable contįnuance IDE'A, n. s. Fr. idée; Gr. doea. Mental from all eternity, which being is no other than God. IDE'al, adj. image: ideal, pertaining to

Bentley's Sermons I DE'ALLY, udv. Smind; mental ; intellectual; IDES, n s. Fr. ides ; Lat. idus. A term fanciful; not perceived by the senses.

anciently used among the Romans, and still re


tained in the Romish kalendar. It is the 13th

Life is a tale, day of each month, except in the months of Told by an ideot, full of sound and fury, March, May, July and October, in which it is Signifying nothing. Shakspeare. Maciets. the 15th day, because in these four months it was What else doth he herein, than by a kind of cireas. six days before the nones, and in the others four locution tell his humble suppliants ihat he bolds then days.

ideots, or base wretches, not able to get relief? A soothsayer bids you beware of the ides of March.

Raleigh's Escy. Shakspeare.

I stand not upon their idiocy in thioking that herses did eat their bits.

Bacs. Ides, in the ancient Roman kalendar, the

Embryos and idiots, eremites and friars, name given to the thirteenth day of the month,

White, black and grey, with all their trumpery. except in March, May, July, and October, in which it fell on the fifteenth. The origin of the Scholars sometimes in common speech, or writias, word is contested. Some will have it formed in their native language, give terminations and siste from wery, to see; because the full moon was com isms suitable to their native language unto words sewly monly seen on the days of the ides : others from invented.

Hale. Elồos, figure, from the image of the full moon then Many idiots will believe that they see what they visible: others from the Hetrurian word iduo, only hear.

Densis. i. e. I divide, because the ides divided the moon Idiocy, and Lunacy, in law, excuse from the into two nearly equal parts. The ides came guilt of crimes. See CRIME. • For the rule of between the kalends and the nones; and, like law,' says Blackstone, as to lunatics, which them, were reckoned backwards. Thus they also may be easily adapted to idiots, is, that called the fourteenth day of March, May, July, furiosus furore solum punitur. In criminal and October, and the twelfth of the other months, cases, therefore, idiots and lunatics are not pridie idus, or the day before the ides; the next chargeable for their own acts, if committer when preceding day they called the tertia idus; the under these incapacities; no, not even for treanext quarta, and so on, reckoning always back- son itself.' wards till they came to the nones. This method ID'IOM, n.s.

Fr. idiome ; Gr. id.wpa. of reckoning time is still retained in the chancery IdiomaT'ICAL, adj. SA mode of speaking peof Rome, and in the kalendar of the breviary.

IDIOMAT’ic, adj. "Sculiar to a language or The ides of May were consecrated to Mercury: dialect; the particular cast of a tongue; a phrase; the ides of March were esteemed unhappy, after phraseology. the murder of Cæsar on that day; the ides of He did Romanize our tongue, leaving the words August were consecrated to Diana, and were ob- translated as much Latin as he found them; wherein served as a feast-day by the slaves. On the ides he followed their language, but did not comply with of September, auguries were taken for appoint- the idiom of ours.

Dryden. ing the magistrates, who formerly entered into Some that with care true eloquence shall teach, their offices on the ides of May, afterwards on

And to just idioms fix our doubtful speech. Prior. those of March.

Since phrases used in conversation contract meanIdes (Evert Ysbrant), a Russian traveller ness by passing through the mouths of the vulgar, a employed by Peter the Great, was a native of poet should guard himself against idiomatick ways of

Spectator. Gluckstadt in Holstein, and, entering into the speaking. service of the czar, was in 1692 sent on an em

IDIOPATHY, n. s. Fr. idiopathie ; Gr. ilmos bassy to China. After his return to Europe he and natos. A primary disease that neither de published the Travels of Ysbrant Ides from Mos- pends on nor proceeds from another. cow to China, which were translated into English,

Idiopathy, in medicine, is opposed to symand printed in 1 vol. 4to. in 1706.

pathy. Thus, an epilepsy is idiopathic when it IDIOC'RACY, n. s. Fr. idiocrase ; Greek happens merely through some injury in the brain ; IDIOCRAT'ICAL, adj. lolos, kpaois and

and sympathetic when it is the consequence of IdiosynʼCrasy, n. s. S Peculiarity of constitu- some other disorder. tion; peculiar temperament or disposition of Idiot, or Jdeot, in law, denotes a fool from

his birth. See Idiocy and Lunacy. A person Whether quails, from any idiosyncrasy or peculiarity who has understanding enough to measure a yard of constitution, do innocuously feed upon hellebore, of cloth, number twenty rightly, and tell tie or rather sometimes but medicinally use the same. days of the week, &c., is not an idiot in the eye

Browne's Vulgar Erruurs. of the law. But a man who is born deaf, dumb, The understanding also hath its idiosyncrasies, as and blind, is considered by the law in the same well as other faculties.

Glanville's Scepsis. state as an idiot. Indeed it is doubted, if ever ID’IOCY, n. s. Fr. idiot; Latin idiota; such an unfortunate human being has existed. IDʻiot, n. s.

Gr. ιδιωτια, ιδιωτης, ιδιωτ- See ANATOMY. ID'IOTISM, n. s. ισμος. .

Idiot is a fool; a I'DLE, adj. & v.n. Sax. ydel; Goth. odæll. Idiot'ic, adj.

natural : an imbecile person I'DLE-HEADED, adj. Lazy; averse from labor; without the powers of reason: idiocy want of I'DLENESS, n. s. disengaged; useless; understanding : idiotism, folly; mental imbe I'DLER, n. s. vain; unfruitful; bar. cility; also peculiarity of expression; more I'dly, adv.

ren; trifling; unimporproperly called idiom: idiotic, foolish; weak; tant: idle, to lose time in laziness or inactivity: senseless; like an idiotic. This word is often idleheaded, foolish ; unreasonable; delirious; used in a meaning inferior to its full import. infatuated : idleness, laziness; want of emBy idle boys and idents vilified,

ployment; omission of business; unimportWho me and my calamities deride. Sundys. ance; inefficacy; uselessness; foolishness; mad




ness: idly, lazily; foolishly; carelessly: idler, a Nor is excess the only thing by which sin breaks sluggard ; a lazy person.

men in their health, and the comfortable enjoyment A few sheep, spinning on the feld she kept;

of themselves ; but many are also brought to a very

ill and languishing habit of body by mere idleness, She woulde not ben idel til sbe slept. Chaucer. The Clerkes Tale.

and idleness is both itself a great sin, and the cause of many more.

South'. Sermons.
And as for hire that crouned is in grene,
It is Flora, of these foures goddesse.

And modera Asgil, whose capricious thought
And all that bire, on hire awaiting, bene, - Is yet with stores of wilder notions fraught,
It are such folke that loved idelnesse,

Too soon convinced shall yield that feeting breath, And not delite in no kind besinesse.

Which played so idly with the darts of death.
Id. The Flowre and the Leafe.

Prior Suffice it then, thou money god, quoth he,

Yet free from this poetic madness, That all thine idle offers I refuse;

Next page he says, in sober sadness, All that I need I have : what needeth me

That she, and all her fellow-gods, To covet more than I have cause to use?

Sit idling in their high abodes.

Id. Faerie Queene.

But shall we take the muse abroad,
Let this and other allegations, suitable unto it, To drop her idly on the road ?
cease to bark any longer idly against the truth, the And leave our subject in the middle,
course and passage whereof it is not in them to hinder.

As Butler did his bear and fiddle ?

He wishes to recal the precious hours he has spent For often have you writ to her; and she in mo

in trifles, and loitered away in idle and unprofitable di. desty,


Rogers. Or else for want of idle time, could not again reply.


An idle reason lessens the weight of the good oncs Of antres vast, and desarts idle, you gave before.

Swift. It was my hent to speak.

Id. Othello. Now every splendid object of ambition
He was met even now,

Which lately with their various glosses played Crowned with rank fumiter and furrow weeds, Upon my brain, and fooled my idle heart, Darnel, and all the idle weeds that grow

Are taken from me by a little mist lo our sustaining corn.

Id. King Lear.

And all the world is vanished. Young's Busiris. I will slay myself,

How various his employments, whom the world For living idly here in pomp and ease.

Calls idle, and who justly in return

Esteems that busy world an idler 100! Cowper. Ten thousand harms, more than the ills I know, For health and idleness to passion's fame are oil My idleness doth batch. Id. Antony and Cleopatra. and gunpowder.

Byron. Don Juan. Nature being liberal to all without labour, necessity IDLENESS. In China it is a maxim, that if imposing no industry or travel, idleness bringeth forth there be a man who does not work, or a woman no other fruits than vain thoughts and licentious pleasures.


that is idle, in the empire, somebody must suffer Many of these poor fishermen and idlers, that are

cold or hunger: the produce of the lands not commonly presented to his majesty's ships, are so ig- being more than sufficient, with culture, to mainnorant in sea-service, as that they know not the name

tain the inbabitants : and therefore, though the

Id. idle person may shift off the want from himself, There is no heat of affection, but is joined with some yet it must fall somewhere. The court of Areoidleness of brain.

Bacon's War with Spain. pagus at Athens punished idleness, and examined These idleheaded seekers resort thither. Carew. every citizen how he spent his time. The intenThey astonished, all resistance lost,

tion was that the Athenians, knowing they were All courage ; down their idle weapons dropped. to give an account of their occupations, should

Milton. follow only such as were laudable, and that there Thenceforth I set myse f to play

might be no room left for such as lived by unMy solitary time away;

lawful arts. The civil law expelled all vagrants With this, and very well content,

from the city: and, in the English law, all idle Could so mine idle life have spent.

persons or vagabonds, whom our ancient staMarcell.

tutes describe to be such as wake on the night, All which yet could not make us accuse her, though and sleep on the day, and haunt customable it made us pine away for spite, to lose any of our time in so troublesome an idleness.


taverns and ale-houses, and routs about; and And threatening France, placed like a painted no man wot from whence they come, ne whither Jove,

they go ;'or such as are more particularly Held idle thunder in his lifted hand. Dryden. described by stat. 17 Geo. II. c. 5, and divided

These are the effects of doting age, vain doubts, into three classes, idle and disorderly persons, and idle cares, and over caution.

Id. rogues and vagabonds, and incorrigible rogues : He, fearing idleness, the nurse of ill,

all these are offenders against the good order, In sculpture exercised his happy skill. Id. and blemishes in the government, of any kingUpon this loss she fell idleheaded, and to this very dom. They are therefore all to be punished by day stands near the place still.

L'Estrange. Children generally hate to be idle ; all the care then

the statute last mentioned. Persons harboring is, that their busy bumour should be constantly em

vagrants are liable to a fine of forty shillings and ployed in something of use to them.


to pay all expenses brought upon the parish Supposing, among a multitude embarked in the thereby; in the same manner as, by 'the ancient same vessel, there are several that in a tempest will laws, whoever barboured any stranger for more rather perish than work; would it not be madness in than two nights, was answerable to the public The rest to stand idle, and rather chuse to sink than do for any offence that such his inmate mig..i commore than comes to their share?

Addison. mit.

of a rope.

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