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phial; it is then to be wiped clean and dry, and The following table is given by Mr. Gilpin, again carefully weighed, by which the quantity in the eighty-fourth volume of the Philosophical of water it contains is ascertained; the water Transactions, and is of essential use for taking being poured out it is next filled with the liquid the specific gravities both of solids and fluids, whose specific gravity is required, taking care by enabling the operator to reduce the weight or that it is of the same temperature as the water; bulk of the distilled water, employed in any we then weigh as before, and divide the welght case, to that which it would have at any other by the foriner weight of water, the product gives common temperature, and particularly to 60°, the specific gravity required. Thus, suppose which is the usual standard. the phial to contain 425 grains of water at the Thus, for example, since the specific gravity temperature of 450, it will be found to hold of water at 47° is 1.0008 grains, and at 60° is 5737·5 grains of pure mercury of the same tem- 1.00000, (and consequently 1.0008 grains, at 47°, perature; and 5737.5 • 425 = 13.5 the speci- are equal in bulk to 1.00000 grains at 60°), it fic gravity of mercury. Or, supposing the follows that it would require 252-708 grains at liquid lighter than water, such as alcohol, of 47°, to equal the space of a cubic inch; for which we may assume the pnial to contain 350-5; 1.00000 : 1.0008 :: 252.506 (the weight of a then 350-5 = 425 = 0·824, the specific gravity cubic inch at 60°), : 252·708. of the alcohol under trial.

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60

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Table of the Specific Gravity of Water, at every Degree of Temperature, from 30° to

80° Fahrenheit.
Fahr.
Specific Gravity.
Fahr.

Specific Gravity. 30°

1.00074
56°

1.00031
1.00078

1.00024
32

1.00082
58

1.00016
33

1.00085
59

100008
34
1.00088

1.00000
35

1.00090
61

0.99991
36

1.00092
62

0.99981
37
1.00093

0.99971 38

1.00094
64

0 99961
39

1.00094
65

0.99950
40

1.00094
66

0.99939
1.00093
67

0.99928
42

1.00092
68

0.99917
43

1.00090
69

0.99906
44

1.00088
70

0.99894 45

1.00086
71

0.99882 46

1.00083
72

0-99869 47

1.00080
73

0.99856 48

1.00076
74

0.99843
1'00072
75

0.99830 50

1.00068
76

0.99816 51

1.00063
77

0.99802
52

1.00057
78

0.99788
53

1.00051
79

0.99774 54

1.00045
80

0.99759
55

1.00038

41

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The above particulars are essential to a right cerned; but we must not close this view of hyunderstanding of our subject, as far as water, drostatic equilibrium without furnishing a more which is the standard of comparison, is con- general table.

TABLE OF SPECIFIC GRAVITIES.
Acid, Acetic

1.062 Do. solid 2.800 Barytes, sulphate of, from
Arsenic
3.391 Sulphuric

1.8501

4.000 to 4.865
Arsenious
3.728 Agate

2.590 Do. carbonate of, from
Benzoic
0.667 Alcohol, absolute . 0.797

4.100 to 4.600 Boracic, crystallised 1.479 Do. highly rectified 0.809 Basaltes, from 2.421 to 3.000 Do. fused

1.803
Do. of commerce 0·835 Beryl, oriental

3.549
Citric
1.034 Alum

1.714 Do. occidental. 2.723 Formic 1.116 Amber from 1.065 to 1.100 Blood, human

1.053 Fluoric

1.060 Ambergris from 0-780 to 0.926 Do. crassamentum of 1.245 Molybdic 3.460 Amethyst, common 2.750) Do.

serum of

1.030 Muriatic

1.200
oriental
3:391 Borax

1.714
Nitric
1.271 Amianthus from 1.000 to 2:313 Butter

0.942 Do. highly concen Ammonia, aqueous

0.875 Camphor

0.988 trated 1.583 Arragonite

2.900|Caoutchouc, or Indian Phosphoric, liquid 1.558 Azure-stone

2.850 rubber

0.933

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TABLE OF Specific GRAVITIES.--Continuea Cornelian, speckled 2.613 Sulphureted do. 1.180

or not

7.788 Chalcedony, common, from

Sulphurous acid
2.222 Lead

11.38 2.600 to 2.65 Glass, crown

2.520 Manganese 8.000 Chalk . from 2.252 to 2.657 green

2.642

Mercury, solid, 30 Chrysolite 3.400 Aint from 2.760 to 3.000

below () of Fahr. 15.61 Chrystalline lens of the eye 1.100 plate

2.942 Do. at 32° of Fahr. 13.61 Cinnabar, from Almaden 6.902 Granite from 2:613 to 2.956 Do. at 60° of Fahr. 13:58 Coals from 1.020 to 1.300 Gum arabic .

1.452 Do.at 212° of Fahr. 13.37 Copal 1.045 cherry-tree

1.481 Molybdenum 8.600 Coral, red, from 2.630 to 2.857 Gunpowder, loose 0.836 Nickel, cast

8.279 white, from 2:540 to 2.570

shaken 0.932

forged

3.666 Corundum

3.710

solid . 1.745 Osmium and RhodiCyder, 1:018 Gypsum, compact, from

um, alloy of

19:50 Diamond, oriental, color

1.872 to 2.288 Palladium

11.80 less

3.521.
crystallised, from

Platinum. 21.47 Do. colored varieties, from

2.311 to 3.000| Potassium at 59° 3.523 to 3.550/ Heliotrope, or bloodstone

Fahr.

0.865 Do. Brasilian

3.444
from 2.629 to 2:700 Rhodium

10.65 Do. colored varieties, from Honey .

1.450 Selenium

4.300 3.518 to 3.550 Honeystone, or mellite, from

Silver

10:47 Dolomite from 2.540 to 2.830

1.560 to 1.666

hammered 10.51 Dragon's blood (a resin) 1.204 Hornblende, common, from

Sodium at 59° Fahr, 0.972 * Ether, Acetic

0.866
3.250 to 3.830 Steel, soft

7.833 Muriatic

0.729
basaltic, from

tempered 7.816
Ni:ric
0.908
3:160 to 3:333 Steel, hardened

7.840 Sulphuric . from Hornstone from 2.533 to 2.810

tempered and 0 632 to 0.775 Hyacinth from 4.000 to 4:780

hardened 7.818 Emerald from 2.600 to 2770 Jasper from 2:358 to 2.816 Tellurium, from Euclase from 2.900 to 3.300 Jet

1.300

5•700 to 6:115 Fat of Beef 0.923 Indigo

1.009 Tin, Cornish 7.291 Hogs

0.936 Ironstone from Carron. 3.281 Do. hardened 7.299 Mutton

0.923
Do. Lancashire 3.573 Tungsten

17.40
Veal
0.934 Isinglass
1.111 Uranium

9.000 Felspar from 2:438 to 2.700 Ivory

1.825 Zinc from 6.900 to 7.191 Flint, black 2-582 Lapis Nephriticus

from 2.650 to 2.934 Gamboge 1.222 Lard

1.032 Garnet, precious, from Lead, glance or galena from Mineral pitch, or asphal4.000 to 4.230 Derbyshire, from 6:565

tum, from 0.905 to 1.650 Do.common, from 3.576 to 3.700

to 7.786 Mineral tallow

0.770 Gases,-Atmospheric air 1.000 Limestone, compact, from Myrrh (a resin)

1.360 Ammoniacal 0.590

. 2.386 to 3.000 Naphtha from 0.700 to 0.847 Carbonic acid 1.527 Magnesia, native, hydrate Nitre

1.900 Carbonic oxide 0.972

of

2.330 Obsidianum from 2.348 to 2.370 Carbureted hydro

Do. carbonate of, Oils, Essential-Amber 0.868 gen 0.972 from 2-220 to 2:612

Anise-seed 0.986 Chlorine 2.500 Malachite, compact, from

Carraway-seed O-904 Chlorocarbonous

3:572 to 3.994

Cinnamon 1.043 acid 3.472 Marble, Carrara

2:716

Cloves

1.036 Chloroprussic acid 2.152 white, Italian 2.707

Fennel 0-929
Cyanogen

1.805
black veined 2:704

Lavender 0.894
Euchlorine 2.440

Parian
2.560

Mint, common 0.898
Fluoboric acid 2.371 Mastick (a resin). 1.074

Turpentine 0.870 Fluosilicic acid 3.632 Melanite, or black garnet,

Wormwood 0.907 Hydriodic acid 4.340

from 3.691 to 3.800 Expressed Sweet alHydrogen, 0.069 Metals, Antimony 6.702 monds

0.932 Muriatic acid

Arsenic 1.284

Codfish 5.763

0.923 Nitric oxide 1.041 Bismuth

9.880

Filberts 0-916 Nitrogen 0.972 Brass, from 7-824 to 8.396

Hempseed

0.926 Nitrous acid 2.638 Cadmium

8.600

Linseed 0.940
Nitrous oxide 1.527

Chromium
5-9001

Olives

0.915 Oxygen

1•111
Cobalt

8.600

Poppyseed 0.939
Columbium
Phospbureted hy-

: 5-600

Rapeseed 0.913 drogen 0-902 Copper

8.900

Walnuts from
Prussic acid 0.937 Gold, cast

19.25

0.923 to 0.947 Sub-carbureted hyDo. hammered 19-35

Whale . 0.923 drogen. 0-555 Iridium, hammered 23:09 Opal, precious

2:114 Sub-phosphureted

Iron, cast at Carron 76248 Do.common, from 1.958 to 2.114 ditto 0.972 Du, bar-hardened, Opium

1.336

2.894 Mica
0.947 Milk

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TABLE OF SPECIFIC GRAVITIES.—Continued. Orpiment from 3.048 to 3.500) Do. carbonate of,

Cedar, Indian

1.315 Oyster-shell

2.092
from 3.658 to 3.675

American

0-561 Pearl, oriental, from 2.510 Stone, Bristol, from 2.510

Cherry-tree 0-715 to 2.750 to 2.640 Citron

0.726 Pearlstone 2.340 cutlers'

2.111 Cocoa-wood 1.040 Peat from 0.600 to 1.329 grinding

2:142 Crab-tree

0.765 Peruvian bark 0.784 hard

2:460
Cork

0-240 Phosphorus 1.770 paving, from 2:415

Cypress, Spanish 0.644 Pitchstone from 1.970 to 2.720

to 2.708 Ebony, American 1.331 Plumbago, or graphite,

Portland

2.496

Do. Indian 1.209 from 1.987 to 2.400 Rotten

1.981 Elder-tree

0.695 Porcelain from China 2:384 Sugar

1.606
Elm-tree

0.671 Sèvres 2 145 Sulphur, native

2:033 Filbert-tree

0.600 Porphyry from 2:452 to 2:972 fused

1.990 Fir, male

0.550 Porphyry, Seltzer

1.003 Talc
from 2:080 to 3.000 Do. female

0-498 Proof-spirit 0.923 Tallow 0.941 Hazel

0-600 Pumice-stone from 0.752 to 0.914 Topaz from 4.010 to 4.061 Jasmin, Spanish 0.770 Quartz from 2.624 to 3.750 Tourmaline from 3.086 to 3.362 Juniper-tree 0:556 Realgar from 3.225 to 3-338 Turquoise, from 2.500 to 3.000 Lemon-tree 0.703 Rock-crystal from 2.581 to 2.888 Ultramarine

2.3601 Lignum vitæ 1.333 Ruby, oriental 4.283 Uranite 2:190 Linden-tree

0-604 2.143 Vesuvian from 3.300 to 3.575 Mastick-tree 0.849 Sapphire, oriental, from Vinegar from 1.013 to 1.080 Mahogany

1.063 4.000 to 4.200 Water, distilled

1.000 Maple-tree 0.750 Sardonyx from 2.602 to 2.628

1.028 Medlar

0.944 Scammony of Smyrna 1.274 Water, of Dead Sea

1.240 Mulberry, Spanish 0.897 Aleppo 1-235 Wax, bees'

0.964

Oak-heart, 60 yrs.
Schor! from 2.922 to 3:452) white

0-968
old

1.170 Serpentine from 2.264 to 2.999 shoemakers'

0.897 Olive-tree

0.927 Shale 2.600 Whey, cows'

1.019 Orange-tree 0.705 Silver glance, from 5:300 to 7.208 Wine, Bourdeaux

0.9931 Pear-tree

0.166 Slate (drawing) 2:110 Burgundy 0.991 Pluin-tree

0.785 Smalt 2.440 Constance

1.081 Pomegranate-tree 1.351 Spar, fluor, from 3.094 to 3.791

Malaga

1.022 Poplar-tree 0.383 Do. calcareous, from 2:620

Port

0.997 Do. White Spanish 0:529 to 2.837 White Champagne 0.997 Quince-tree 0.705 Do. double refrg. from Wood, Alder

0.800 Sassafras

0482 Castleton

2:724
Apple-tree
0.793 Vine

1.327 Spermaceti 0.943 Ash 0.845 Walnut

0.681 Spodumene or triphane,

Bay-tree
0.822 Willow

0-585 from 3.000 to 3.218 Beech

0-852 Yew, Dutch 0.788 Stalactite from 2:323 to 2.546 Box, French 0.912 Spanish

0.807 Steam of water

0.481

Dutch

1.328 Knot of 16 yrs. old 1.760 Steatite from 2.400 to 2-665 Brasilian, Red 1.031 Woodstone from 2.045 to 2.675 Stilbite from 2.140 to 2.500 Campeachy 0.913 Zeolite from 2:073 to 2.718 Strontian, sulphate of, from

Cedar, wild 0.596 Zircon from 4:385 to 4.700* 3.583 to 3.958

Palest 0.613 * It may be proper to add, that Mr. S. L. Kent, to whom we are indebted for much valuable information on this subject, has nearly completed the most extensive and accurate series of observations on the specific gravity of mineral bodies that has ever been attempted.

Having in the preceding portion of our follow, it will continue to flow out of the vessel, article examined the nature of hydrostatic through the tube B C, as long as the aperture A pressure, we may now proceed to treat of fluids is under the surface of the liquor. Or if the in motion, and the structure of hydraulic ma- syphon be at first filled with the fluid, and the chines.

aperture C stopped with the finger until the One of the most simple instruments for rais- aperture A is immersed, the event will be preing water is the syphon; a bent tube which cisely the same. During the process of sucking, owes its operation to the pressure of the atmo- the air in the tube is rarefied, and the equilibrium sphere. The ordinary syphon is represented at destroyed; consequently the water must be fig. 1, plate II., Hydrostatics and HYDRAU- raised into the less leg A B, by the preponderLics; and consists of a crooked tube A BC, ating pressure of the atmosphere. The syphon of such a length, and with such an angle, or so being thus filled, the atmosphere presses equally bent at the vertex, as that, when the orifice A is on each extremity, so as to sustain any equal placed on a horizontal plane, the height of A B quantity of water in each leg; but the air not may not exceed thirty-two or thirty-three feet. being able to sustain all the water in the longer For common uses a foot or half a foot high leg, and being more than able to sustain that in suffices. If now the less arm A B be immersed the shorter leg, with the excess of force, therein water, or any other liquid, and the air be fore, it will raise new water into the shortes sucked out of it by the aperture C till the liquor leg; and this new water cannot make its way

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