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him not only his court and seraglio, but a great broke one of his tusks, and the broken piece part of the inhabitants of his capital, he was also which was upwards of two inches in diameter, o followed by 500 or 600 horse, and several batta- solid ivory, flew up into the air several yard: lions of regular sepoys with their field pieces: above their heads. Orders were now given to 400 or 500 elephants also accompanied him; of kill him, as it appeared impossible to take him which some were used for riding, others for fight- alive; but even this was not accomplisbed withing, and some for clearing the jungles and forests out the greatest difficulty. He twice turned and of the game. A great number of wheel carriages, attacked the party who pursued him; and in one drawn by bullocks, likewise attended for the con- of these attacks struck the elephant obliquely on venience of the women. The animals used in which the prince rode, threw him upon his side, the sport were principally about 300 greyhounds, but then passed on without offering further in200 hawks, and a few trained leopards for hunt- jury. At last he fell dead, after having received, ing deer. A vast number of matchlocks were as was supposed, upwards of 1000 balls into his carried along with the company, with many Eng- body. lish pieces of various kinds; and every article that Among the Mexicans also were similar huntcould contribute to luxury or pleasure was likewise ing-matches, sometimes appointed by the king; carried along with the army. Wild boars were at others to provide victims for sacrifices. A sometimes started, and either shot, or run down large wood, generally that of Zacatapec, near the by the dogs and horsemen. Hunting the tiger, capital, was pitched upon as the scene of these however, was looked upon as the principal diver- grand hunting-matches. Here they chose the sion, and the discovery of one of these animals place best adapted for setting a number of snares was accounted a matter of great joy. The cover and nets. The wood was enclosed by some in which he is found is commonly long grass, or thousands of hunters, forming a circle of six, reeds of such a height as frequently to reach seven, or eight miles, according to the number above the elephants; and it is difficult to find of animals they intended to take. Fire was then him in such a place, as he commonly endeavours set to the grass in a great number of places, and either to steal off, or lies so close to the ground a terrible noise made with drums, horns, shoutthat he cannot be roused till the elephants are ing, and whistling. The hunters gradually conalmost upon him. He then roars and skulks tracted their circle, continuing the noise till the away, but is shot at as soon as he can be seen. game were enclosed in a very small space. If he be not disabled, he continues to sculk They were then killed or taken in snares, or with along, followed by the elephants. The elephants the hands of the hunters. The first Spanish vicethemselves are very much afraid of this terrible rey of Mexico, resolving to hunt in this manner, animal, and discover their apprehensions by chose out a great plain in the country of the shrieking and roaring as soon as they begin to Otomies, lying between the villages of Xilotepec smell him or hear him growl; generally attempt- and S. Giovani del Rio ; the Indians being or. ing to turn away from the place where he is. dered to proceed according to their usual cusWhen the tiger can be traced to a particular tom. The viceroy, attended by a vast retinue spot, the elephants are disposed of in a circle of Spaniards, repaired to the place appointed, round him; in which case he will at last make a where accommodations were prepared for them in desperate attack, springing upon the elephant houses of wood erected for the purpose. A cirthat is nearest, and attempting to tear him with cle of more than fifteen miles was formed by his teeth or claws. Some, but very few, of the 11,000-Otomies, who started such a quantity of elephants, can be brought to attack the tiger; game on the plain, that the viceroy was quite asand this they do by curling up their trunks un- tonished, and commanded the greater part of der their mouths, and then attempting to toss, or them to be set at liberty, which was accordingly otherwise destroy him with their tusks, or to crush done. The number retained, however, consisted him with their feet and knees. It is considered of upwards of 600 deer and wild goats, 100 caas good sport to kill one tiger in a day; though jotes, with an innumerable number of bares, sometimes, when a female is met with her young rabbits, and other smaller animals. The plain ones, two or three will be killed. The other ob- still retains the Spanish name Cazadero (the jects of pursuit in these excursions are wild ele- place of the chase). phants, buffaloes, and rhinoceroses. An Eng Chamois Hunting is carried on principally - lish traveller was present at the hunting of a wild for the sake of the leather formed from the bide elephant of vast size and strength. An attempt of the chamois (oervus rupicapra of Linné); was first made to take him alive by surrounding which is only found on the high peaks of the him with tame elephants, while he was kept at Alps. The chamois hunter generally sets out in bay by crackers and other fire-works; but he the night, that he may reach by break of day constantly eluded every effort of this kind. the most elevated pastures where the goats Sometimes the drivers of the tame elephants got come to feed before they arrive. As soon as he so near him, that they threw strong ropes over discovers the piace where he hopes to find them, his bead, and endeavoured to detain him by fast- he surveys it with his glass. If he finds none ening them around trees; but he constantly of them there, he proceeds always ascending: snapped the
ropes like pack-threads, and pursu- whenever he descries any, he endeavours to get ed his way to the forest. Some of the strongest above them, either by stealing along some gully, and most furious of the fighting elephants were or getting behind some rock or eminence. When then brought up to engage him; but he attacked he is near enough to distinguish their horns, them with such fury that they were all obliged which is the mark by which he judges of the to desist. In his struggle with one of them he distance, he rests his piece on a rock, takes his
aim with great composure, and rarely misses. and I am persuaded, that I too shall die in the This piece is a rifle-barrelled carabine, into same manner : this bag which I carry with me which the ball is thrust. If he has wounded when I hunt I call my grave-cloaths, for I am the chamois, he runs to his prey, and for secu. sure I shall have no other; yet if you should rity hamstrings it; if the road home is difficult, offer to make my fortune on condition of abanhe skins the chamois, and leaves the carcase; doning the chase of the chamois, I could not but, if it is practicable, he throws the animal consent.' I made some excursions on the Alps on his shoulders, and bears him to his village, with this man: his strength and address were though at a great distance, and often over fright- astonishing; but his temerity was greater than ful precipices: he feeds his family with the flesh, his strength; and I have heard, that, two years which is excellent, especially when the creature afterwards, he missed a step on the brink of a is young, and he dries the skins for sale.
But precipice, and met with the fate he had exif, as is the most common case, the vigilant cha- pected. mois perceives the approach of the hunter, he HUNTING THE Fox makes a very pleasant eximmediately takes Aight among the glaciers, ercise, and is either above or below ground. To through the snows, and over the most precipitous hunt a fox with hounds, you must draw about rocks. It is particularly difficult to get near groves, thickets, and bushes near villages. When these animals when there are several together; you find one, stop up his earth the night before for then one of them, while the rest are feeding, you design to hunt, about midnight; while he is stands as sentinel on the point of some rock that out to prey. This may be done by laying two commands a view of the avenues leading to the white sticks across in his way, which he will pasture; and, as soon as he perceives any ob- imagine to be some trap laid for him; or they ject of alarm, he utters a sort of hiss, at which may be stopped up with black thorns and earth the others instantly gather round him to judge mixed. The pack should consist of twenty-five for themselves of the nature of the danger; if couple. The hounds should be at the cover at it is a wild beast, or hunter, the older ones sun-rising. The huntsman should then throw in put themselves at the head of the flock, and his hounds as quietly as he can, and let the two away they fly, ranged in a line, to the most inac. whippers-in keep wide of him on either hand; cessible retreats. It is here that the fatigues of so that a single hound may not escape them; let the hunter begin : instigated by his passion for them be attentive to his halloo, and let the the chase, he is insensible to danger; he passes sportsmen be ready to encourage or rate as that over snows, without thinking of the horiä pre- directs. The fox ought on no account to be halcipices they conceal; he entangles himself among looed too soon, as in that case he would most the most dangerous paths, and bounds from rock certainly turn back, and spoil all the sport. Two to rock, without knowing how he is to return. things Mr. Beckford particularly recommends, Night often surprises him in the midst of his viz. the keeping all the hounds steady, and pursuit; but he does not for that reason abandon making them all draw. Many huntsmen, says he, it; he hopes that the same cause will arrest the are fond of having them at their horse's heels; Alight of the chamois, and that he shall next but they never can get so well or soon together morning overtake them. Thus he passes the as when they spread the cover ; besides, I have night, not at the foot of a tree, like the hunter of often known, when there have been only a few the plain, por in a grotto, softly reclined on a finders, that they have found their fox gone down bed of moss, but at the foot of a rock, and often the wind, and been heard of no more that day. on the bare points of shattered fragments, with- Much depends upon the first finding of your out the smallest shelter. There, alone, without fox : for I look upon a fox well found to be half fire, without light, he draws from his bag a bit killed. People are generally in too great a of cheese, with a morsel of oaten bread, which hurry on this occasion. There are but few inmake his common food : bread so dry, that he stances where sportsmen are not too noisy, and is sometimes obliged to break it between two too fond of encouraging their hounds, which stones, or with the hatchet he carries with him to seldom do their business so well as when little cut out steps in the ice. Having thus made his so- is said to them. The huntsman ought to begin litary and frugal repast, he puts a stone below his with his foremost hounds, and keep as close to head for a pillow, and goes to sleep, dreaming on them as he can. No hounds can then slip down the route which the chamois may have taken. the wind and get out of his hearing; he will But soon he is awakened by the freshness of the also see how far they carry the scent, a necessary morning; he gets up, benumbed with cold; requisite; for without it he never can make a surveys the precipices which he must traverse to cast with any certainty. You will find it not overtake his game; drinks a little brandy, of less necessary for your huntsman to be active in which he is always provided with a small por- pressing his hounds forward when the scent is tion, and sets out to encounter new dangers. good, than to be prudent in not hurrying them Hunters sometimes remain in these solitudes for beyond it when it is bad. It is his business to several days together, during which time their be ready at all times to lend them that assistance families, their unhappy wives in particular, ex- which they so frequently need, and which, when perience a state of the most dreadful anxiety: they are first at a fault, is the most critical. A and yet the hunters are much attached to this hound at that time will exert himself most; he kind of life. I knew, says M. Saussure, a well- afterwards cools, and becomes more indifferent. made, handsome man, who had just married a about his game. Those huntsmen who do not beautiful woman :— My grandfather,' said he to get forward enough to take advantage of this, me, 'lost his life in the chase ; so did my father ; eagerness and impetuosity, and direct it pro
perly, seldom know enough of hunting to be of seldom or never do that when they have been much use to them afterwards. Though a hunts- long hunted and grow weak; and when they man cannot be too fond of hunting, a whipper-in run their foil, that also may direct him. All this easily may. His business will seldom allow requires a good ear and nice observation; and him to be forward enough with the hounds to indeed in that consists the chief excellence of see much of the sport. His only thought there- huntsmen. When the hounds divide in two fore should be to keep the hounds together, and parts, the whipper-in, stopping, must attend to to contribute as much as he can to the killing of the huntsman and wait for his halloo, before he the fox : keeping the hounds together is the attempts to stop either : for want of proper masurest means to make them steady. When left nagement in this, I have known the hounds to themselves they seldom refuse any blood they stopped at both places, and both foxes lost. If can get; they become conceited ; learn to tie upon they have many scents, and it is uncertain which the scent; and besides this they frequently get is the hunted fox, let him stop those that are fara trick of hunting by themselves, and are seldom thest down the wind; as they can hear the others, good for much afterwards. Every country is and will reach them soonest : in such a case soon known; and nine foxes out of ten, with the there will be little use in stopping those that are wind in the same quarter, will follow the same up the wind. When hounds are a: a check, let track. It is easy therefore for the whipper-in to every one be silent and stand still. Whippers-in cut short and catch the hounds again." With a are frequently at this time coming on with the high scent you cannot push on hounds too much. tail-hounds. They should never halloo to them Screams keep the fox forward, at the same time when the hounds are at fault; the least thing that they keep the hounds together, or let in the does them harm at such a time, but a halloo tail hounds : they also enliven the sport; and, more than any other. The huntsman, at a check, if discreetly used, are always of service; but in had better let his hounds alone, or coutent himcover they should be given with the greatest self with holding them forward, without taking caution. Halloos seldom do any hurt when you them off their noses. Should they be at a fault, are running up the wind, for then none but the after having made their own cast (which the tail bounds can hear you : when you are run- huntsman should always first encourage them to ning down the wind, you should halloo no more do), it is then his business to assist them farther; than
may be necessary to bring the tail-hounds but, except in some particular instances, I never forward; for a hound that knows his business approve of their being cast as long as they are seldom wants encouragement when he is upon a inclined to hunt. Gentlemen, when hounds are scent. Most fox hunters wish to see their hounds at fault, are too apt themselves to prolong it. run in a good style. A pack of harriers, if they They should always stop their horses some dishave time, may kill a fox, but I defy them to tance behind the hounds; and, if it be possible kill him in thie style in which he ought to be to remain silent, this is the time. They should killed ; they must hunt him down. If you intend be careful not to ride before the hounds or over to tire him out, you must expect to be tired also the scent; nor should they ever meet a hound yourself; I never wish a chase to be less than in the face unless to stop him. Should you at one hour, or to exceed two : it is sufficiently any time be before the hounds, turn your horse's long if properly followed, it will seldom be head the way they are going, get out of their longer unless there be a fault somewhere, either track, and let them pass by you. In dry weather, in the day, the huntsman, or the hounds. and particularly in beathy countries, foxes will Changing from the hunted fox to a fresh one is run the roads. If gentlemen at such times will as bad an accident as can happen to a pack of ride close upon the hounds, they may drive them fox-bounds, and requires all the ingenuity and miles without any scent. High-mettled foxobservation that man is capable of to guard hounds are seldom inclined to stop whilst horses against it. Could a fox-hound distinguish a are close at their heels. No one should ever hunted 'fox as the deer hound does the deer that ride in a direction which, if persisted in, would is blown, fox-hunting would then be perfect. A carry him amongst the hounds, unless he be at a huntsman should always listen to his hounds great distance behind them. The first moment while they are running in cover; he should be that hounds are at fault is a critical one. Those particularly attentive to the headmost hounds, who look forward may perhaps see the fox; or and he should be constantly on his guard against the running of sheep, or the pursuit of crows, a skirter; for, if there be two scents, he must be may give them some tidings of him. Those wrong. Generally speaking, the best scent is who listen may sometimes take a hint which least likely to be that of the hunted fox : and, as way be is gone from the chattering of a magpie; a fox seldom suffers hounds to run up to him as or perhaps be at a certainty from a distant long as he is able to prevent it, so, nine times halloo: nothing that can give any intelligence out of ten, when foxes are hallooed early in the at such a time ought to be neglected. Gentlemen day, they are all fresh foxes. The hounds most are too apt to ride all together : were they to likely to be right are the hard-running line- spread more, they might sometimes be of serhunting ones; or such as the huntsman knows vice; particularly those who, from a knowledge had the lead before there arose any doubt of of the sport, keep down the wind : it would then changing. With regard to the fox, if he break be difficult for either hounds or fox to escape over an open country, it is no sign that he is their observation. You should, however, be hard run; for they seldom at any time will do cautious how you go to a halloo. The halloo that unless they are a great way before the itself must in a great measure direct you; and, hounds. Also, if he run up the wind ; they though it afford no certain rule, yet you may
frequently guess whether it can be depended no little pleasure to see the craft of this small upon or not. At the sowing time, when boys animal for her self-preservation. If it be rainy, are keeping off the birds, you will sometimes be the hare usually takes to the highways; and if deceived by their halloo; so that it is best, when she come to the side of a young grove, or you are in doubt, to send a whipper-in to know spring, she seldom enters, but squats down till the certainty of the matter. Hounds ought not the hounds have overshot her; and then she will to be cast as long as they are able to hunt. It is return the way she came, for fear of the wet and a common idea, that a hunted fox never stops; dew that hangs on the boughs. In this case the but Mr. Beckford informs us that he has known huntsman ought to stay 100 paces before he them stop even in wheel ruts in the middle of a comes to the wood side, by which means he will down, and get up in the middle of the hounds. perceive whether she return as aforesaid ; which The greatest danger of losing a fox is at the first if she do, he must halloo in his hounds, and call finding him, and when he is sinking; at both them back; and that presently, that the hounds which times he will frequently run short, and may not think it the counter she came first. The the eagerness of the hounds will frequently carry next thing to be observed is the place where the them beyond the scent. When the fox is first hare sits, and upon what wind she makes her found, every one ought to keep behind the hounds form, either upon the north or south wind : she till they are well settled to the scent; and, when will not willingly run into the wind, but upon, the hounds are catching him, they ought to be aside, or dowu the wind; but if she form in the as silent as possible; and eat him eagerly after water, it is a sign she is foul and measled; if he is caught. In some places they have a method you hunt such a one, have a special regard all of treeing him; that is, throwing him across the the day to the brook sides; for there and near branch of a tree, and suffering the hounds to plashes, she will make all her crossings, doubay at him for some minutes before he is thrown blings, &c. Some hares are so crafty that as among them : the intention of which is to make soon as they hear the sound of a horn they inthem more eager, and to let in the tail-hounds; stantly start out of their form, though it were at during this interval also they recover their wind, the distance of a quarter of a mile, and go and and are apt to eat him more readily. Our author, swim in some pool, and rest upon some rushhowever, advises not to keep him too long, as he bed in the midst of it. Such will not stir thence supposés that the hounds have not any appetite till they hear the sound of the horn, and then to eat him longer than while they are angry with they start out again, swim to land, and stand him.
up before the hounds for hours before they In case a fox escape so as to earth, countrymen can kill them, swimming and using all subtlemust be got together with shovels, spades, pick- ties and crossings in the water. Nay, such is axes, &c., to dig him out, if they think the earth the subtlety of a hare, that sometimes, after she not too great. They make their earths as near has been hunted three hours, she will start a fresh as they can in ground that is hard to dig, as in hare, and squat in the same form. Others, after člay, stony ground, or amongst the roots of trees; being hunted a considerable time, will creep and their earths have commonly but one hole, under the door of a sheep-cot, and hide themand that is straight and a long way in before you selves among the sheep; or, when they have come at their couch. Sometimes they take pos- been hard hunted, will run in among a flock of session of a badger's old burrow, which has a sheep, and will by no means be gotten out till variety of chambers, holes, and angles. To fa- the hounds are coupled up, and the sheep driven cilitate this way of hunting the fox, the huntsman into their pens. Some of them will take the must be provided with one or two terriers to put ground like a coney, which is called going to into the earth after him, that is, to fix him into the vault. Some will go up one side of the hedge an angle ; for the earth often consists of many and come down the other, the thickness of the angles : the use of the terrier is to know where hedge being the only distance between the he lies; for as soon as he finds him, he continues courses. A hare that has been sorely hunted, baying or barking, so that which way the noise has got upon a quickset hedge, and ran a good is heard that way dig to him. Your terriers way upon the top thereof, and then leapt off upon must be garnished with bells hung in collars, to the ground; and they frequently betake themmake the fox bolt the sooner; besides, the collars selves to furze bushes, and leap from one to the will be some small defence to the terriers. The other, whereby the hounds are frequently in deinstruments to dig with are, a sharp-pointed fault. Having found where a large hare has respade, which serves to begin the trench where the lieved in some pasture or corn field, you must ground is hardest, and broader tools will not so then consider the season of the year, and the well enter; the round hollowed spade, which is weather: for, if it be in spring or summer, a useful to dig among roots, having very sharp hare will not then set in bushes, because they edges; the broad Aat spade to dig with, when the are often infested with pismir-s, snakes, and trench has been pretty well opened, and the adders; but will set in corn fields and open ground softer; mattocks and pickaxes to dig places. In winter, they seat near towns and vil. in bard ground, where a spade will do but lages, in tufts of thorns and brambles, especially little service; the coal-rake to cleanse the when the wind is northerly or southerly. Achole, and to keep it from stopping up; clamps, cording to the season and nature of the place wherewith you may take either fox or badger where the hare is accustomed to seat, there beat out alive to make sport with afterwards. with your hounds, and start her; which is better
HUNTING THE HARE.. As of all chases the sport than trailing her from her relief to her hare makes the greatest pastime, so it gives form. After the hare has been started, and is on
foot, step, in where you saw her pass, and halloo far off or near. But being again discovered by in your hounds, until they have all undertaken iné hunters, and the sagacious scent of the dogs, it and go on with it in full cry; then recheat to be flies'into herds of cattle, as cows, sheep, &c., them with your horn, following fair and softly at leaping on a cow or ox, laying the fore-parts of first, making not too much noise either with horn his body thereon, so that touching the earth only or voice; for at the first hounds are apt to over- with hiš hinder feet, he may leare very little or shoot the chase through too much heat. But no scent behind. But their usual manner is, when they have run an hour, and you see the when they see themselves hard beset, and every hounds are well in with it, and stick well upon way intercepted, to make force with their horns it, then you may come in nearer with them, be- at the enemy who first comes upon them, uncause their heat will then be cooled, and they less they be prevented by spear or swoid. When will hunt more soberly. But above all things, the beast is slain, the huntsman winds the fall mark the first doubling, which must be your di- of the beast; and then the whole company come rection for the whole day; for all the doublings up, blowing their horns in triumph for such a that she will make afterwards will be like the conquest; among whom, the skilfullest opens former; and according to the policies that you the beast, and rewards the hounds with what shall see her use, and the place where you hunt, properly belongs to them, for their future enyou must make your compasses great or small
, couragement, for which purpose the huntsmen dip long or short, to help the defaults, always seeking bread in the blood of the beast to give to the the moistest and most commodious places for the hounds. It is very dangerous to go in to a hart hounds to scent in.
at bay; of which there are two sorts, one on land HUNTING THE HART OR STAG. Gesner, speak- and the other in water. If the hart be in deep ing of hart-hunting, observes, that this wild and water, where you can not well come at him, couple subtle beast frequently deceives its hunter by up your dogs; for, should they continue long in windings and turnings. Wherefore the prudent the water, it would endagger their surbating or hunter must train his dogs with words of art, foundering. In this case get a boat and swim that he may be able to set them on and take to him, with drawn dagger, or else with a rope them off at pleasure. First he should encom- that has a noose, and throw it over his horns; pass the beast in her own layer, and so unhar- for, if the water be so deep that the hart swims, bour ber in the view of the dogs, that so they may there is no danger in approaching him; othernever lose her slot or footing. Neither must he wise you must be very cautious. As to the land set upon every one, either of the herd or those bay, if a hart be burnished, consider the place; that wander solitarily, or a little one ; but for if it be in a plain and open place, where there partly by sight, and partly by the footing and is no wood or covert, it is dangerous and difficult fumets, make a judgment of the game, and also to come in to him; but if he be on a hedge-side, observe the largeness of his layer. The hunts- or in a thicket, then, while the hart is staring on man, having made these discoveries in order to the hounds, you may come softly and cuvertly the chase, takes off the couplings of the dogs; behind him, and cut his throat. If you miss and some on horseback, others on foot; follow the your aim, and the hart turn head upon you, then cry with the greatest art, observation, and speed; take refuge at some tree; and, when the hart is remembering and intercepting him in his subo at bay, couple up your hounds; and when you tle turnings and headings; with all agility leap- see the hart turn head to fly, gallop in roundly. ing hedges, gates, pales, ditches: neither fearing to him, and kill him with your sword. The first thorns, down-hills, nor woods, but mounting a ceremony, when the huntsman comes in to the fresh horse if the first tire. Follow the largest death of a deer, is to cry ware haunch,' that the head of the whole herd, which must be singled hounds may not break in to the deer; which out of the chase; which the dogs perceiving being done, the next is the cutting his throat, must follow, not following any other. The dogs and blooding the youngest hounds, that they are animated to the sport by the winding of may the better love a deer, and learn to leap at horns, and the voices of the huntsmen. But his throat: then the mort having been blown, sometimes the crafty beast sends forth his little and all the company come in, the best person, squire to be sacrificed to the dogs and hunters, who hath not taken say before, is to take up the instead of himself, lying close the mean time. In knife that the keeper or huntsman is to lay across this case the huntsman must sound a retreat, the belly of the deer, some holding by the fore break off the dogs and take them in, that is, leam legs, and the keeper ot huntsman drawing down them again, until they be brought to the fairer the pizzle, the person who takes say, is to draw game; which rises with fear, yet still strives the edge of the knife leisurely along the middle by flight, until he is wearied and breathless. of the belly, beginning near the brisket, and The nobles call the beast a wise batt, who, to drawing a little upon it
, enough in the length avoid all his enemies, runs into the greatest and depth to discover how fat the deer is; then herds, and so brings a cloud or error on he that is to break up the deer, first slits the skin the dogs, to obstruct their farther pursuit; from the cutting of the throat downwards, maksometimes also bearing some of the herd ing the arber, that so the ordure may not break into his footings, that so he may the more easily forth, and then he paunches him, rewarding the escape by amusing the dogs. Afterwards he hounds with it. In the next place, he is to prebetakes himself to his heels again, still running sent the same person who took say, with a drawn with the wind, not only for the sake of refresh- hanger, to cut off the head of the deer. Which ment, but also because he can thus more easily being done, and the hounds rewarded, the conhear the voice of his pursuers, whether they be cluding ceremony is, if it be a stag, to draw a