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HOS PITABLE, adj.) Fr. hospital, hospite
I'm your host :
With robbers' hand my huspituile favour
Id. Hos'PITAL, N.ß. Lat. hospitabilis, hospi
Fair and noble hostess,
We are your gucsts to-night. Id. Macbeth.
Here, father, take the shadow of this tree Hos'PITATE, v.a. places and persons,
For your good host.
Id. King Lur. Host, n. s. & v.a. >where and by whom
Homer never entertained either guests or hosts Hos'tel, n. s. kindness and enter
with long speeches, till the mouth of hunger bu HOSTELRY, n. s. tainment are given to
Sidney. Hos'tess, n. s. strangers, or relief
Undistinguished civility is like a whore or a hostess. Hostess.SHIP, n. S. to the sick; together
Temple. Hos'tler, n. s. with the correspond Swift rivers are with sudden ice constrained, Hos'try, n. s.
ing dispositions of And studded wheels are on its back sustained; generosity and liberality, as hospitable, hospital, An hostry now for waggons, which before hospitality: host has not only this meaning, but is Tall ships of burden on its bosom bore. also the landlord of an inn. Hostel, hostelry, an
Receive the shipwrecked on your friendly shore ; inn. Hostess-ship, a landlady of an inn. Hostler,
Drydere one who takes care of horses at an inn. Hostelry, With hospitable rites relieve the poor.
Be as kind an hostess as you have been to me, and and hostry, the place where the horses of guests
you can never fail of another husband.
Id. were kept. These words were formerly applied
That always chuses an empty shell, and thus hosto gratuitous liberality shown to strangers and pitates with the living animal in the same shell. others by persons of opulence; but, with the
Grew's Museum. exception of hospitality, are now generally used I am about to build an hospital, which I will endow in reference to inns, where accommodations are handsomely for twelve old husbandmen. Addison. purchased by the traveller. Hospitallers are Ye thus hospitably live, religious persons of both sexes, who attended And strangers with good cheer receive. Prior. the sick in hospitals.'--Chaucer's Glossary.
They who were so careful to bestow them in a col
lege when they were young, would be so good as to And bade our Hoste he shulde to him say,
provide for them in some hospital when they are old. That alle we, to tell his tale him pray.
Wotton. Our Hoste bad the wordes for us allc;
The first they reckon such as were granted to the Sire Preest, quod he, now faire you befalle
hospitallers in tituluin beneficii. Ayliffe's Parergon. Say what you list and we shul gladly here.
The former liveth as piously and hospitably as the Chaucer. Pro'ogue to the Persones Tale. other.
Swift. But ley as still as any stone, reinembryng his foly How has this spirit of faction broke all the laws of That he wol? trust a Tapster of a common hostry. charity, neighbourhood, aliiance, and hospitality. Id.
Chaucer. The Purdonere and Tapstere. Hospital, or spital, is formed of the Latin Saint Austin saith a man may be
hospes, a host or stranger. See Host. In the In houses that han properte,
first ages of the church the bishop had the imAs Templars and Hospitelers.
mediate charge of all the poor, also of the Id. Romaunt of the Rose.
widows, orphans, strangers, &c. When the They spyed a goodly castle, placed
churches came to have fixed revenues, it was deForeby a river in a pleasant dale,
creed that at least one-fourth part thereof should Which chusing for that evening's hospital,
go to the relief of the poor; and, to provide for They thither marched.
them the more commodiously, divers houses of The cause why they are now to be permitted is charity were built, since denominated hospitals. want of convenient inns for lodging travellers on They were governed wholly by the priests and horschack, and hostlers to tend their horses by the deacons, under the inspection of the bishop. In way.
Spenser on Ireland.
course of time separate revenues were assigned The Lacedemonians, forbidding all access of strangers into their coasts, are, in that respect, deservedly piety and charity, gave lands and money for
for the hospitals; and many, from motives of blained, as being enemies to that hospitality which, erecting hospitals. When the church discipline for common humanity's sake, all the nations on the began to relax, the priests, who till then had earth should embrace.
been the administrators of hospitals, converted Go, hear it to the centaur, where we host;
them into a sort of benefices, which they held And stay there, Dromio, till I come to thee,
at pleasure, reserving the greatest part of the in
come to their own use; so that the intentions of My master is of a churlish disposition,
the founders were frustrated. To remove this And little recks to find the way to heaven By doing deeds of hospitality.
abuse, the council of Vienne expressly prohiId. As You Like It.
bited the giving any hospital to secular priests in It is my father's will I should take on me
the way of a benefice; and directed the adminisThe hostess-ship o'the' day : you're welcome, sirs.
tration thereof to be given to sufficient and reShakspeare.
sponsible laymen, who should take an oath for Time's like a fashionable host,
the faithful discharge thereof, and be accountable That slightly shakes his parting guest by the hand;
to the ordinaries. This decree was confirmed But with his arms out-stretched, as he would fly, by the council of Trent. In Britain hospitals Grasps in the comer. Id. Troilus and Cressida, are buildings properly endowed, or otherwise Ye were beaten out of door,
supported by charitable contributions, for the And railed upon the hostess of the house. reception and support of the poor, aged, infirm,
Shakspeare. sick, or helpless. A charitable foundation, laid
thus for the sustenance of the poor, is to continue HOSPODAR, a title borne by the princes of for ever. Any person seised of an estate in fee, Walachia and Moldavia, who receive the investimay, by deed enrolled in chancery, erect and ture of their principa'ities from the grand seignior. found an hospital, and nominate such heads and HOST, n. s. & v. n. Fr. hostilité; Lat. hosgovernors therein as he shall think fit; and this Hos'TAGE, n. s. tis, hostilis. An army ; shall be incorporated, and subject to the inspec llos'tile, adj. numbers assembled in tion and guidance of the heads and visitors Hostil'ITY, n. s. war; any great number. nominated by the founder. Likewise such cor Hos'tings, n. s. Ilost, to encounter in porations shall have, take, and purchase lands, battle; to review or muster. Hostage, one left so as not to exceed £200 a year, provided the in pled ye for security of performance of condisame be not held of the king; and to make tions. Hostile, adverse ; opposite. Hostility, leases, reserving the accustomed yearly rent. For the practices of an open enemy; open war; opa list of the principal hospitals in this country, position in war. see ENGLAND.
Octavian, that wode was of this dede, HOSPITAL (Michael de l'), chancellor of Shope him-an hoste on Anthony to lede, France in the sixteenth century, was born at
Al utterly for his destruction,
With stoute Romaines, cruel as lion. Auvergne in 1505. Although, from political
Chaucer. Legende of Good Women. motives, he opposed all severe measures against
Therfor he made his chalenge his yen for to have the Protestants, yet, to prevent the introduction
Or els he shuld for them fyne yf he wold them have, of the inquisition, he agreed to the edict of Ro- And ligg for them in hostage till the fynaunce came, morantin. The spirit of toleration he evinced This was the soalte of the blynde man. made him much suspected by the Roman Catho
Id. The Merchantes Second Tule. lics, and extremely odious to the court of Rome. Lords have had the leading of their own followers His pacific views being disliked by Catharine to the general hostings. Spenser on Ireland. de Medicis, who had contributed to his advance
He has now at last ment, she excluded him from the council of war.
Given hostile strokes, and that not in the presence He retired in 1568 to his country seat at Vignia,
Of dreaded justice, but on the ministers but his privacy was cruelly interrupted by the
That do distribute it.
Shakspeare. massacre of St. Bartholomew.
When a troop of
Give to a gracious message horse approached his house he was asked if he
An host of tongues ; but let ill tidings tell
Id. would defend himself by fire-arms; “ By no
Let every soldier hew him down a bough, means,' said he, if the wicket is not wide enough
And bear't before him; thereby shall we shadow to admit the assassins, set open the great gates.' The numbers of our host.
Id. Dlacbe:h. The men, however, who were sent on the bloody Your hostages I have, so have you mine ; errand, were overtaken by a message from the And we shall talk before we fight. Shak
speare. king, announcing that l'Hospital was not among
Do this message honourably; the proscribed, and he was told that the authors And, if he stand on bostage for his safety, of the deed had pardoned him his constant oppo
Bid him demand what pledge will please him best.
Jl. sition to their plans; ‘I did not indeed know,' said the old chancellor, “that I had merited either
Neither by treason nor hostility
To seek to put me down, and reign thyself. I. death or pardon. He died in 1573, aged sixty
He that liath wife and children, hath given hostages eight. He published some excellent speeches,
to fortune ; for they are impediments to great entermemoirs, and poems.
prises, either of virtue or mischief.
Bacon. HOSPITAL (William Francis Antony), marquis
Hostility being thus suspended with France, prepade St. Merne, a celebrated mathematician, born ration was made for war against Scotland. Hayward. in 1661. He was geometrician almost from
What peace can we return, his infancy; but, at the age of nineteen, entered But, to our power, hostility and hate, the army, and was made a captain of horse. He Untamed reluctance and revenge ? Milton. however soon gave up his commission, in order
Strange to us it seemed more closely to follow his favorite pursuit. In
At first, that angel should with angel war,
Id. 1693 he was made an honorary member of the academy of sciences at Paris ; and he published a dreadful interval, and front to front
"Twixt host and host but narrow space was left a work upon Sir Isaac Newton's calculations, Presented stood in terrible array entitled, L'Analyse des Infinimens Petits. He
Of hideous length.
Id. engaged afterwards in another work, in which
Fierce Juno's hate, he included Les Sections Coniques, les Lieux
Added to a hostile force, shall urge thy fate. Geometriques, la Constructions des Equations,
Dryden. et Une Theorie des Courbes Mechaniques : but After these came, armed with spear and shield, a little before he finished it he was seized with a An host so great as covered all the field.
Id. fever, of which he died, February 2d, 1704, aged New authors of dissension spring from him, forty-three. It was published after his death. Two branches, that in hosting long contend Hospitallers, an order of religious knights,
For sovereign sway.
We have shewed ourselves fair, nay, generous adwho built an hospital at Jerusalem, wherein pilgrims were received. To these pope Clement versaries; and have carried on even our hostilities V. transferred the effects and revenues of the
They who marry give hostages to the publick, that templars; whom, by a council held at Vienne, they will not attempt to ruin or disturb the peace of it. he suppressed for their misdemeanours. These
Id. hospitallers were called knights of St. John at
The Romans, baving seized a great number of hosJerusalem; and are now called knights of Malta. tages, acquainted them with their resolution. See Malta.
Arbuthnot on Cuins.
Blast their design
every priest, indifferently, might sacrifice the Great God of Hosts ! nor let thy creatures fall hostia, but that the victima could be offered by Unpitied victims at ambition's shrine.
none but the conqueror himself. But we find Porteus's Death.
these two words promiscuously used by ancient One effort more to break the circling host ! writers. We read of many kinds of hostiæ : They form-unite-charge—waver-all is lost !
as H. ambarvales, victims sacrificed after having Byron. Corsair.
been solemnly led round the fields at the ambarBut Hassan's frown and furious word
valia : H. ambegnæ, or ambiegne, sacrifices of Are dreaded more than hostile sword.
cows or sheep that had brought forth twins : H. Id. Giaour.
amburbiales, victims slain after the amburbium : The question was this—is there less hostility in a
H. bidentes, animals of two years old: H. caviPortuguese army crossing the frontier, when avowedly ares, or caneares, victims sacrificed every fifth in the pay and service of Spain?
year by the pontiffs, in which they offered the Host, n. s. Fr. hostre ; Lat. hostia. The sa- part of the tail called caviar: H. harugæ, viccrifice of the mass in the Romish church; the tims offered to predict future events from: H. consecrated wafer.
mediales, black victims offered at noon : II. Pope Gregory IX. first decreed a bell to be rung, as prodigæ, sacrifices in which the fire consumed the signal for the people to betake themselves to the all, and left nothing for the priests : H. puræ, adoration of the host
. The vessel wherein the hosts are pigs or lambs ten days old : H. succedaneæ, kept is called the cibory ; being a large kind of co
sacrifices offered after others which had exhivered chalice.
Dr. A. Rees.
bited some ill omen. Host is a term of mutual relation, applied
Sax. þar; Scot. hat ; both to a person who entertains another, and to
Hotly, adv. Heb. wx, fire; Germ. the person thus lodged. It is formed of the
Hot'NESS, n. s. heiss; Lat. cestus. HavLatin hospes, thus called quasi hostium, or osti
Hot'BRAINED, adj. ing the power to excite um petens; for ostium was anciently written
HOT'HEADED, adj. the sense of heat; conwith the aspirate. It was a custom among the Hot'House, n. s. ancients, when any stranger asked for lodging,
trary to cold; fiery:
Hot'MOUTHED, adj. applied figuratively to for the master of the house and the stranger, each
HOT'SPUR, n. S. temper and disposition, of them to set a foot on their own side of the
HOT'SPURRED, adj. as ardeat; zealous; eathreshold, and swear they would neither of them
Hor'BED, n. S. do any harm to the other. It was this ceremony lustful; piquant; acrid : as applied to sub
ger; violent; vehement; that raised so much horror against those who violated the law of hospitality on either side; as
stances, most of the compounds are sufficiently they were considered as perjured.
expressive. Hot-house, a place to rear plants and Most is also used by way of abbreviation for exotics; a bagnio; á brothel
. Hot-mouthed, hostia, a victim or sacrifice offered to the deity. lent and passionate man; a pea of speedy growth.
headstrong and ungovernable. Hotspur, a vioHence host, in the church of Rome, is a name given to the elements used in the eucharist, or
Hotbed, a bed of earth made hot by the fermen
tation of dung. rather to the consecrated wafer; which they offer up every day, a new host or sacrifice for the sins But I n'ot how it happed, sodainly of mankind. They pay adoration to the host,
As, about none, the sonn so fervently upon the presuinption that the elements are no
Waxe hote that the pretty tender floures
Had lost the beauty of hir fresh collours. longer bread and wine, but transubstantiated
Chaucer. The Floure and the Leafe. into the real body and blood of Christ. See TRANSUBTANTIATION. The vessel wherein the in divers places with the Christians.
The enemy, now at hand, began hotly to skirmish hosts are kept is called the cibory; being a large
Knolles's History. kind of covered chalice.
Now she professes a hothouse, which is a very ill HOSTE (Paul 1'), an eminent French ma
Shakspeare. Measure for MEUSUTC. thematician, born in 1652. He was a Jesuit, My nephew's trespass may be well forgot ; and professor of mathematics at Toulon. He It hath the excuse of youth and heat of blood, wrote, 1. Traité des Evolutions Navales, folio, A harebrained hotspur governed by a spleen. 1727. Traités des Mathematiques les plus ne
Shakspeare. cessaires à un Officier, 3 vols. 12mo. He died What is thy name? at Toulon, in 1700.
-Thou'lt be afraid to hear it. HOSTIA, Host, in antiquity, a victim offered
—No, though thou call'st thyself a hotter name in sacrifice to a deity. The word is formed
Than any is in hell.
I do contest from hostis, an enemy; it being the custom to
As hotly and as nobly with thy love, offer up a sacrifice before they joined battle, to
As ever in ambitious strength I did render the gods propitious; or, after the battle
Contend against thy valour. [d. Coriolanus. was over, to give them thanks. Some derive the word from hostio, q. d. ferio, I strike. Isidore As hot lord Percy is on fire to go.
Come, come, lord Mortimer, you are as slow,
Shakspeare. remarks, that the name hostia was given to those sacrifices which they offered before they marched great circles, such as are under the girdle of the world,
The great breezes which the motion of the air in to attack an enemy, antequam ad hostem per- produceth, do refrigerate ; and therefore, in those gerent, in contradistinction from victima, which parts, noon is nothing so hot as about nine in the fore. were properly those offered after the victory. noon. Hostia also signified the less sorts of sacrifice, The bed we call a hotbed is this : there was taken and victima the larger. A. Gellius says, that horsedung, old and well rotted; this was laid upoz a
bank half a foot high, and supported round about with six days longer, by which time it will have acplanks, and upon the top was cast sifted earth two , quired a due heat. The hot-beds are thus made: fingers deep.
- In some sheltered part of the garden dig out a Where lately harboured many a famous whore, trench of a length and width proportionable to A purging bill, now fixed upon the door,
the frames you intend it for; and, if the ground Tells you it is a hothouse ; so it may, And still be a whorehouse : th' are synonyma.
be dry, about a foot, or a foot and a half deep; Ben Jonson,
but, if it be wet, not above six inches; then Wars are begun by hairbrained dissolute captains, wheel the dung into the opening, stirring every parasitical fawners, unquiet hotspurs, and restless in. part of it with a fork, and laying it exactly even novators.
Burton. and smooth on every part of the bed, with the To draw Mars like a young Hippolytus, with an bottom part of the heap, which is commonly free effeminate countenance, or Venus like that hotspurred from litter, upon the surface. If it be designed Harpalice in Virgil, this proceedeth from a senseless for a bed to plant out cucumbers to remain, judgment.
Peacham. make a hole in the middle of the place designed Nature to youth hot rashness doth dispense, for each light about ten inches over and six deep, But with cold prudence age doth recompense. which should be filled with good fresh earth,
thrusting in a stick to show the places where the She has, quoth Ralph, a jointure,
holes are; then cover the bed all over with the Which makes him have so hot a mind t'her.
earth that was taken out of the trench, about The stag was in the end so hotly pursued, that he four inches thick, and put on the frame, letting was driven to make courage of despair. Sidney.
it remain till the earth be warm, which comThough this controversy be revived, and hotly agi. monly happens in three or four days after the tated, I doubt whether it be not a nominal dispute. bed is made, and then the plants may be placed
Boyle. in it. If the hot-bed be designed for other I fear my people's faith,
plants, there need be no holes made in the dung; That hotmouthed beast that bears against the curb, but, after having smoothed the surface with a Hard to be broken. Dryden's Spanish Friar.
spade, cover the dung about three or four inches You shall find 'em either hotbrained youth,
thick with good earth, putting on the frames and Or needy bankrupts.
glasses as before. Setile the dung close with a Is now in hot engagement with the Moors.
fork, and, if it be pretty full of long litter, it
should be trod down equally of every part,
Dryden. Voracious birds, that hotly bill and breed,
During the first eight or ten days after the bed And largely drink, because on salt they feed. Id. is made, cover the glasses slightly in the night, Hot and cold were in one body fixt;
and in the day-time carefully raise them, to let And soft with bard, and light with heavy mixt. out the steam. As the heat abates the covering
Id. should be increased; and, as the bed grows cold, It is no wonder that men, either perplexed in the new hot dung should be added round the sides necessary affairs of life, or hot in the pursuit of plea. of it. The hot-bed made with tanners' bark is, should not seriously examine their tenets.
however, much preferable to that described
Locke. of such peas as are planted or sown in gardens, fruits, which require an equal degree of warmth
above, especially for all tender exotic plants and the hotspur is the specdiest of any in growth.
for several months, which cannot be effected Preserve the hotbed as much as possible from rain.
with horse-dung. They are thus made :-Dig a Evelyn.
trench about three feet deep, if the ground be Black substances do soonest of all others become dry; but, if wet, it must not be above a foot hot in the sun's light, and burn; which effect may deep at most, and must be raised two feet above proceed partly from the multitude of refractions in a the ground. The length must be proportioned little room, and partly from easy coinmotion of so to the frames intended to cover it; but it should very small corpuscles.
Newton. never be less than ten or twelve feet, and the One would not make the same person zealous for a width not less than six. The trench should be standing army and publick liberty ; nor a hotheaded bricked up round the sides to the height of three crackbrained coxcomb forward for a scheme of mode- feet, and filled in the spring with fresh tanners' ration.
bark that has been lately drawn out of their vats, Hotbeds, in gardening, are made with fresh and has lain in a round heap, for the moisture horse-dung, or tanners' bark, and covered with to drain out of it, only three or four days. As glasses to defend them from cold winds. By the it is put in, gently beat it down equally with a skilful managemeut of hot-beds, we may imitate dung-fork; but it must not be trodden, which the temperature of warmer climates; by which would prevent its heating, by settling it too means the seeds of plants brought from any of close; then put on the frame, covering it with the countries within the torrid zone may be made glasses; and in about ten or fourteen days it to flourish even under the poles. The bot-beds will begin to heat; at which time plunge your commonly used in kitchen-gardens are made pots of plants or seed into it, observing not to with new horse-dung mixed with the litter of a tread down the bark in doing it. These beds stable, and a few sea-coal ashes, wbich last are will continue three or four months in a good of great service in retaining the heat of the temper of heat; and if you stir up the bark dung. This should remain six or seven days in pretty deep, and mix a load or two of fresh bark a heap; and being then turned over, and the with the old when you find the warmth decline, parts mixed well together, it should be again you will preserve its heat two or three months cast into a heap; where it may continue five or longer. Many lay hot horse-dung in the bottom
of the trench under the bark; but this ought steam consists in this, that an equable high temnever to be done unless the bed is wanted sooner . perature can thus be maintained for a length of than the bark would heat of itself, and even time with great ease and certainty, and the plants then there ought only to be a small quantity of can scarcely ever be liable to suffer a scorching dung at the bottom. The frames which cover heat; ladies and gentlemen visiting the house are these beds should be proportioned to the several also much less apt to be annoyed with the smoke. plants they are designed to contain. If they It has been found also that seven bushels of are to cover the ananas or pine-apple, the back coal go as far in keeping up steam heat, as ten part should be three feet high, and the lower bushels do in maintaining an equal temperature part fifteen inches; if the bed be intended for the other way. It fortunately happens too, that taller plants, the frame must be made of a depth steam may very advantageously be resorted to proportionable to them; but, if it be for sowing in aid of the common flues conveying smoke of seeds, the frame need not be above four- and heated air. A steam-apparatus may be apteen inches high at the back, and seven in the pended to any ordinary hot-house, without infront; by which means the heat will be much curring any material expense, or any considerable greater.
alteration in structure, thus: a boiler is erected Hot-Houses. The changes that have of late over the usual furnace, the smoke of which pasyears taken place in these important adjuncts to ses through the fues as formerly. Metal, genescientific gardening it will be impossible to enu- rally copper, pipes are laid along the top of the merate in the compass of this article. Their brick-flues. A square shape is sometimes preform and general structure have been much ferred ; and the pipes are set on edge, so that any varied and the spherical shape largely introduced. condensed vapor trickling to the bottom may A considerable improvement in the mode of glaz- occupy little room, or present only a small suring hot-houses deserves also to be mentioned. It face, till it make its way back to the boiler, to consists in making the upper and lower edges of which a gentle inclination is given. The boiler the panes segments of a circle, instead of being as in the common steam-engine, is supplied rectilinear or horizontal; the upper edge being from a cistern above, and is made to regulate made concave, the lower convex. For a pane eight itself by a simple contrivance ; in the feed-head inches wide, a curvature five-eighths of an inch is a valve which is opened by the sinking of a deep in the centre is sufficient. The advantages float, which descends in proportion as the water of this circular form must be evident. The rain is dissipated in steam; and being balanced by a which falls, or moisture which collects on the weight, whenever a sufficient quantity of water exterior of the glass, gravitaies to the centre of is admitted, rises again and shuts the valve. A the pane, and runs down in a continued line, safety-valve is added, loaded according to the instead of passing along the sides of the bars, strength of the boiler; and there is another valve and being partly detained by the capillary at- for admitting atmospheric air, in case of the contraction of the two surfaces, at the overlapping of densation of the steam causing a vacuum in the the panes. The extent to which one pane over- boiler. Instead of these steam operations relaps another can, at the same time, therefore, be quiring more of the time and attention of the much lessened ; one-eighth of an inch is found gardener, he will be greatly relieved, and have sufficient. This narrowness of the lap, again, several additional hours a day which he may prevents breakage from the lodging of moisture, devote to other concerns. If the furnace be duly and the sudden expansion produced by freezing charged, and the boiler properly prepared, the during the variable weather of winter. When bot-house may be left with confidence for eight these circular panes are cut from whole sheets of or even ten hours together, the temperature conglass, the expense is scarcely greater than for tinuing equal for that length of time. Where oblong squares.
It is proper that the glass forcing is practised, the gardener is thus also reshould be flat or equal; and the kind known by lieved from much anxiety and night-watching. the name of patent crown glass is preferred. In For heating stoves, conservatories, and greenstoves or hot-houses, where a high temperature houses, steam is likewise well adapted. The must be maintained, the laps are puttied. In difficulty of maintaining continually a high temthis case, a small central opening is left in the perature in a large stove has, no doubt, been one putty, by inserting a slip of wood at first, and cause of the comparative neglect into which the withdrawing it when the pane is pressed down cultivation of fine tropical plants has fallen. By to its bearing; by this little aperture the con means of steam, this is most effectually removed. densed vapor generated within escapes without For the conservatory and green-house, if the dropping on the plants. Mr. Loudon uses thin steam be in action from three to nine o'clock sheet lead in place of putty for closing the laps; P. M. the temperature will be kept constantly he thus avoids all risk of expansion from frost, within a proper range, in ordinary winter weather. and the lap car thus be made exceedingly In severe frosts the steam must, of course, be
longer applied. The most extensive steam apHeating of hot-nouses oy steam.—But 3f all the paratus for the heating of plant-houses is to be seen recent improvements in gardening, the most im- at the grounds of Messrs. Loddiges, near Hackportant, perhaps, is the use of steam for com- ney, where glazed houses to the extent of almost municating the artificial heat, in place of de- 1000 feet in length, and forming three sides of a pending, as formerly, on the passage of heated square, are heated solely by steam from a single air through flues, aided in particular houses, boiler, of an oblong shape, measuring eleven feet called stoves, by the fermentation of tanner's by four, and made of malleable iron. In narrow paik. The advantage arising from the use of houses, intended for green-house plants, a single