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wards applied. The fruits resulting from such where the fruit did not succeed, caused some artificial impregnation have been of the most branches-to be turned over to the south side, promising character. He has often remarked in and trained downwards, when they not only prothe progeny a strong prevalence of the constitu- duced fine fruit, but abundance of it. The roots tion and habits of the female parent. In this of the May-duke cherry, and some others, recountry, therefore, in experimenting on pears, quire to be in a cool soil. On the north side of the pollen of the more delicate French kinds, as a wall, therefore, such trees thrive best ; but it the crasanne, colmar, or chaumontelle, should has been found, that if their extreme branches be dusted upon the flowers (always deprived of be turned over the wall, and trained downwards stamina) of the muirfowl egg, the gray achan, on the south side, they are not only brought the green yair, or others that are hardy or of into plentiful bearing, but yield their fruit earBritish origin. By these means, it may be hoped lier. that, in the course of another generation, excel Decorticating, or cleansing the skins of trees lent winter pears may be obtained in abundance by stripping off the bark and washing them, has from our standard trees; for at present we are long been practised. Mr. Lyon, of Edinburgh, nearly destitute of hardy winter pears.

has lately invented several simple instruments We find ourselves indebted to the ingenuity for facilitating the removal of the bark, and of Mr. Knight at every step of our progress carried the practice much farther than his predethrough the nursery and fruit garden. Observ cessors. He recommends its being adopted even ing how slow some trees, as the mulberry and for young and bearing trees much more frewalnut for instance, are in bearing, he has ascer- quently, and not merely, as heretofore, in case tained, that if cions be taken from prolific of the bark appearing diseased or insect-eaten. branches of bearing trees, the young trees may The decortication of vines has been revived, be made to anticipate the course of nature many and strongly recommended of late, in a pamphlet years. If indeed the stocks be planted in pots, by Sir John Sinclair. and grafted by approach, they will generally For improvements in various horticultural afford fruit in three years.

erections, see Hot-Houses, Pine-Stoves, &c. In training young trees, of the peach and pear Sect. VI.-A Table SHOWING THE NUMBER OF kinds, Mr. Knight's plants are headed down as

CROPS REQUIRED OF EACH SORT OF VEGEusual, a year after being grafted; two shoots only are allowed to each stem, and these are

TABLES, TO HAVE A REGULAR SUCCESSION trained to an elevation of about 5°. A branch

THROUGH THE YEAR; WITH THE TIME OF trained upright, it is well known, grows much

SowING AND PLANTING. ymore luxuriantly than one confined to an hori- Kitchen Garden Plants, Seeds, and Roots. zontal position. Advantage is taken of this law

No. of Crops. Time of Sowing, &c. of vegetation, and, in order to procure the shoots Alisanders 2 March, August of equal length, the stronger is depressed and Angelica 2 March, August the weaker elevated. All lateral shoots are care- Artichoke 1 March or April fully removed. Next season as many branches Asparagus

1 March or April are encouraged as can be laid in without over forced 5 October, November, Deshading each other; and care is taken in the

cember, January, Fespring to select the strongest and earliest buds

bruary near the termination of the year-old branches, in autumn 1 July, if cut down to be trained lowest, and the weakest and latest Balm

1 March or April 'buds near the base of the branches to be trained Basil

1 March or April inclining upwards : the result is, that, at the end Beans, early 5 October, January, Februof the season, each annual shoot comes to be

ary, March, July nearly of equal vigor. In the following winter


4 February, March, April, half of the shoots are shortened, and the other

July half left at full length, one shoot being left and Beets

1 February or March the other cut alternately. In the third year, the Boorcole or kale 3 March, April, June central part of a peach-tree will consist of bear Anjou 2 May, June ing wood. The size and general health, and Borage

1 February or March equality of vigor in every part, of young trees Broccoli 4 March, April, May, June trained by these rules, evince a very regular dis- Burnet

March.or April tribution of sap; and the rules at any rate are Cabbages, early 1 August simple and of easy observance. Such trees, as

- late

4 February, March, May they advance, are trained in the fan mode, always

June preferable where the walls are of a sufficient red

3 February, March, June height.

Savoy 3 March, May, June We may here notice, as connected with this for cattle 2 May, June subject, that it has been found to promote the for seed 1 October or November growth of fruit in trees to bend the extreme .Cabbage turnips 2 May, June branches of them, in training, downwards. It Camomile 1 March or April checks the tendency to produce wood. It is Capsicums 1

March or April also a modern practice to conduct the extreme Carrots to draw branches of fruit-trees from one side of a wall

January, April, July

young to the other. Sir Joseph Banks having a Gan - principal crop 1 February or March sel's bergamot pear-tree on a north aspect, for seed

1 February




No. of Crops. Time of Sowing, &c.

No. of Crops.

Time of Sowing, &c. Cauliflowers 4 August, February, March, Rape

i June or July May

-for sallad March to September Celery

5 February, March, April, Rocambole 2 February, September May, June

Rosemary 1 May or June Chardons 1 March or April


1 March or April Chervil 2 March, August



March or April Cives 1 March or April



March or April

March or April


1 March or April Coleseed 1 June or July

Savoy cabbage 3 March, May, June Coleworts 2 February, June or July Scorzonera 1

March or April Corn sallad 2 March, August

Scotch kale 3 March, April, June Cress for seed 1 March or April

Sea kale

3 March or April for sallad March to September


1 March or April on hot-beds October to March


2 March or August Cucumbers 5 January, February, March, Spinach 6 February to July April, May

--winter 2 July, August, or September on hot-beds 3 January, February, March Tansey

1 March or September for bell glasses ! April


1 March or September - on open ground1 May or June


1 March or April Dill 1 March or April

Tomatoes 1 March or April Endives 4 April, May, June, July Turnips 6 March to August Escalions 1 January or February

for seed 1 February Eschalot 2 February, September Turnip-cabbage 2 May, June Fennel

2 February, August Turnip-radish 2 June, July Finochio 4 April, May, June, July Water-cress 2 March, September. Garlic 2 February, September

Sect. VII.--CATALOGUE OF FLOWERS, SURUBS, Horse-radish 1 February, or March


1. Tender Annual Flowers. Jerusalem arti

? chokes

February or March 1S

To be sown on a strong hot-bed the last week March, April, May, June, in February, or first in March, transplanted afKidney beans 5

terwards upon another at four inches distance; --Runners 2 April, May

then planted in small pots in May; afterwards Lavender 1 May or June

in larger, and at the end of June placed in the Leeks

1 February or March Lettuces 7 February to August

1. Amaranths 6. Humble plant Marjoram 2 March, April

2. Balsams

7. Ice plant Marygolds 1 February to April

3. Cockscombs 8. Sensitive plant Melons 3 February, March, April 4. Egg-plants

9. Stramoniums. for autumn 1 May

5. Glocest. amaranths Mint 1 March or April

2. Annual Flowers. Mushrooms 2 March, September

To be sown on a moderate hot-bed in March Mustard, for seed 1 March or April

or April, transplanted afterwards, before they are for sallad March to September

too thick, in rich light earth, and covered with -on hotbeds

October to March Nasturtiums 1 March or April

mats; and in a month or six weeks into pots, or

borders of the flower-garden. Onions to draw 4 January, April, May, July

1. African marygold 8. French marygold young -principal crop 1 February or March

2. Browallia, blue 9. Marvel of Peru -for seed February or March

3. Capsicum 10. Mignonette -Welsh 2 July, August

4. Cape marygold 11. Nolana Parsley 3 February, March, July

5. Chinese aster 12. Palma Christi -large rooted 2 February, April

6. Chinese or Indian 13. Stock Julyflower Parsnips 2 February, March or April pink

14. Sultan, yellow October, January, Febru. 7. Chrysanthemum 15. Zinnia, Peas, hotspurs 5 ary, July, August

In sowing them, fix numbers to them, corre- Marrowfats 5

February, March, April, sponding with these, to distinguish each sort
May, June

when they appear.
Pennyroyal 1 March or April
Potatoes 3 February, March, April

3. Hardy Annual Flowers. on hot-beds 1 January or February To be sown in March or April on the borders Purslane 3 March, April, May of the flower garden. Those marked thast, beRadishes

January to August, and ing very hardy, may be sown in the beginning of 9 November

February, to flower early. Hollow the earth out -on hotbeds 2 January, February

in form of a little basin, about a foot over, and -for sallad March to September two inches deep; draw a circle near the edge -for seed 1 May

ha an inch deep, and drop a few seeds in it; Rampion 1 March or April

thin them soon after they appear, and leave them

open air.



at six inches distance, but the large sorts wider. 1. Adonis flower 46. Lychnidea In dry weather they will want frequent watering. 2. Anemone

47. Madwort Gather the seeds as they ripen, and you may save

3. Asphodel 48. Marsh Marygold the expense of buying in another season.

4. Asters

49. Meadow-sweet 1. Adonis flowert 23. Mallow

5. Batchelor's button 50. Milfoil 2. Alkekengi 24. Mignonette

6. Bean-caper 51. Milk-vetch 3. Alysson 25. Nasturtiumt

7. Bear's-breech 52. Mint 4. Amaranth 26. Nigella, or devil in 8. Borage

53. Moth-mullen 5. Amethystea

a busht
9. Bugloss

54. Navelwort 6. Balm, Moldavian 27. Pansies, or hearts

10. Campanula 55. Peony 7. Belvidere

11. Campion

56. Pilewort 8. Candy-tuftt 28. Peas, sweet scent

12. Cardinal flower 57. Plantain 9. Catchfly, Lobel'st edt

13. Christmas rose 58. Primrose 10. Caterpillar trefoil 29. Persicariat

14. Cowslip

59. Ragged Robin 11. Clary,red and white 30. Poppyt

15. Cranesbill

60. Ranunculus 12. Convolvulus 31. Safflower, or bas 16. Crowfoot

61. Reed 13. Cornbottlet

tard saffron
17. Daisies

62. Rhubarb
14. Cucumber, spurt- 32. Snail trefoil 18. Dog-tooth violet 63. Saxifrage
33. Snap-dragon

19. Dragons

64. Skullcap 15. Fumitory, yellow 34. Stock Julyflowert

20. Dropwort

65. Sneezewort 16. Hedgehog trefoil 35. Sun-flower

21. Eternal flower 66. Side-saddle flower 17. Honeywort 36. Sweet sultan

22. Fennel giant 67. Soapwort 18. Indian corn 37. Tobacco

23. Feverfew

68. Solomon's seal 19. Ketmia 38. Venus's looking

24. Flag

69. Spiderwort 20. Larkspur


25. Fox-glove 70. Spurge 21. Lavaterat 39. Venus's navelwort

26. Fraxinella 71. Stonecrop 22. Lupine 40. Xeranthem

27. Fumitory

72. Sunflower In July sow again annual stock, candy-tuft,

28. Garlic

73. Swallow-wort convolvulus minor, cornbottles, Lobel's catchfly,

29. Gentianella

74. Thrift and yellow lupines, and they will flower until the

30. Golden locks 75. Throatwort frost kills them.

31. Golden rod 76. Toadflax

32. Greek valerian 77. True love 4. Biennial Flowers.


78. Valerian To be sown in March or April in beds very 34. Hepatica

79. Vervain thin; as soon as the plants touch one another 35. Herb benet

80. Veronica th in them, and leave them at four or six inches 36. Houseleek

81. Violet asunder; those drawn out, plant at the same 37. Lady's mantle 82. Viper's bug.oss distance. In July transplant them all upon beds,

38. Lady's slipper 83. Wake-robin at eight inches asunder; there to remain till the 39. Lady's smock 84. Willow-herb end of September, when they must be planted 40. Lily of the valley 85. Wolf's-bane upon the borders of the flower garden, and

41. Lion's tail

86. Wormwood and they will produce their flowers the next summer,

42. London pride

some others; but after which they will perfect their seeds and die.

43. Loose-strife

with very little 1. Canterbury bell 7. Poppy, yellow

44. Lupine

beauty to recom2. Colutea, Æthiopian 8. Rocket

mend them. [horned

45. Lychnis 3. French honeysuckle 9. Scabious

7. Bulbous and Tuberous Rooted Flowers. 4, Globe thistle 10. Stock Julyflower

i. Aconites

14. Lily 5. Honesty, or moon- 11. Sweet William 2. Amaryllis 15. Martagon wort 12. Tree Primrose

3. Anemone

16. Narcissus 6. Mallow tree 13. Wall flower

4. Bulbocodium 17. Pancratiums 5. Perennial Flowers,

5. Cornflags

18. Polyanthus Narcis

6. Crocuses Which, if sown in the same manner as the biennials, and transplanted into the borders

7. Crown imperial

19. Ranunculus of the flower garden, will continue for several

8. Cyclamen 20. Sisyrinchium 9. Daffodil

21. Snowdrop years. 1. Alysson 11. Ox-eye daisy

10. Garlic Moly 22. Star of Bethlehem 2. Auricula

23. Tuberoses 12. Pea, everlasting

11. Hyacinth 3. Bee larkspur 13. Pinks

12. Jonquille 24. Tulips 4. Campanula

13. Iris 14. Polyanthus 5. Carnation 15. Rhubarb

To be taken up in April, May, and June, as 6. Columbine 16. Rose campion

soon as their leaves are withered, and planted 7. Flax 17. Snap dragon

again in September or October, but their offsets 8. Fox glove 18. Valerian

in August. The ranunculuses and anemones not 9. Hawkweed 19. Greek valerian

to be planted till February. The seed to be sown 10. Hollyhock

in February, in boxes.

8. Bulbous-rooted Flowers. 6. Perennial Flowers,

1. Amaryllis

5. Daffodil Which are propagated by dividing their roots 2. Colchicum

6. Lily, Belladonna in spring, in March or April; or in the autumn, 3. Crocus

7. - Guernsey in September.

4. Cyclamen

8. Saffron


pet flower.

These flower in autumn. They require to be 7. Box

21. Laurustinus planted in August, and to be taken up in April 8. Brooms

22. Magnolia or May, as soon as their leaves are decayed; but 9. Cassine, or South 23. Phillyrea their offsets in July.

Sea tea-tree 24. Privet 9. Deciduous Flowering Shrubs and Ornamental

10. Cistus or rock rose 25. Purslane tree Trees.

11. Crab tree

26. Pyracantha To be planted in March, April, September,

12. Cytisus, hairy ever- 27. Rhododendron

green and October.

28. Rose tree

13. Groundsel tree 29. Rosemary 1. Acacia, rose-flower-37. Jesuits’-bark tree,

14. Holly

30. Rue ing

false 2. Almond tree

31. Savin 38. Indigo, bastard

15. Honeysuckle 3. Allspice 39. Ironwood tree

16. Juniper

32. Spindle tree 17. Ivy.

33. Sweet briar 4. Althæa 40. Judas tree

18. Kalmia

34. Tea tree 5. Ash, mountain 41. Kidney-bean tree

19. Lavender

35. Widow-wail 6. Annona, or papaw 42. Laburnum

20. Laurel 7. Azalea

43. Lac, or varnish tree 8. Berberry tree 44. Leatherwood

12. Evergreen Forest Trees. 9. Bignonia or trumpet 45. Lilacs

To be planted from the middle of February flower. 46. Mezereon

till the end of April, and from September till 10. Bladder sena 47. Nightshade

December. 11. Bramble

48. Olive-tree, wild 12. Buckthorn 49. Passion flower

1. Cedar

3. Cypress 5. Oak 7. Yew. 13. Caragna 50. Peach trees

2. Cork

4. Fir 6. Pine 14. Cassioberry bush 51. Periploca, or Virgi

13. Fruit Trees. 15. Catalpa, or trum nian silk 52. Plum trees

To be planted in February, March, October 16. Ceanothus 53. Poison trees

and November. 17. Cephalanthus 54. Pomegranate tree

1. Almond 8. Fig

15, Pear 18. Cherry tree 55. Privet

2. Apple

9. Filbert 16. Plum 19. Cinquefoil, shrubby 56. Raspberry

3. Apricot 10. Gooseberry 17. Quince 20. Clethra 57. Restbarrow 4. Berberry 11. Medlar

18. Raspberry 21. Cornel 58. Rose tree, eighty Fa

5. Cherry 12. Nectarine 19. Service 22. Crab-tree


6. Crab-tree 13. Nut-tree 20. Vine 23. Cytisus

59. St. Peter's wort 7: Currant 14. Peach 21. Walnut 24. Diervilla

60. Sassafras 25. Dogwood 61. Service tree

The following method may be taken for pre26. Fothergilla

serving the blossoms of fruit trees in spring. 62. Snowdrop, or fringe Procure some sheep-hurdles made of 'hazel 27. Ginkgo, or maiden tree hair-tree 63. Spindle tree

or willow branches, about two or three feet 28. Gueldres rose 64. Spiræa

higher than the walls. At spring, just before

the blossoms of the fruit-trees begin to open, 29. Halesia

65. Sumach 30. Hammealis 66. Syringa

place these before the trees, and fasten them in

windy weather with stakes, and, by their being 31. Hawthorn.

67. Tamarisk 32. Hickery nut 68. Tea tree

taller than the walls are high, they may be set 33. Honeysuckle 69. Toothach tree

sloping about two feet from the bottom of the 34. Honeysuckle, up- 70. Traveller's joy

walls, which will keep them steady. When the

fruit is set, and entirely out of danger, take them right

71. Tupelo tree 35. Hypericum 72. Viburnum

quite away, and by keeping in a dry place they 36. Jasmin

will last many years, and will be always worth 73. Weeping willow

one-third of the first cost for lighting fires, when 10. Deciduous Forest Trees.

unfit for any other use. To be planted from the middle of February

In an experiment that was made, the hurdles till the beginning of April, and from September were placed before the trees in December ; they till December

also defended a crop of peas, and both seemed 1. Acacia 9. Elder

17. Maple

to be much benefited, particularly the peas. 2. Alder 10. Elm 18. Nettle-tree Possibly vines might also thus be defended in 3. Ash 11. Hickery 19. Oak

spring, and come forwarder ; at least it is worth 4. Beech. 12. Hornbeam 20. Plane

trying where the walls are not too high. 5. Birch 13. Horse chest- 21. Poplar

14. Hardy Greenhouse Plants. 6. Chestnut 14. Larch (nut 22. Tulip tree 7. Crab-tree 15. Lime 23. Walnut

To be planted against a south wall, in the open 8. Cypress 16. Magnolia. 24. Willow ground, the roots covered with tan or long litter.

These will not be killed except in very severe 11. Evergreen Flowering Shrubs and Ornamental frosts, and then they generally shoot up afresh Trees.

from their roots. By this method, many curious To be planted in March, April, September, plants, formerly only kept in greenhouses, will and October.

now ornament the walls, where they will appear 1. Alatern 4. Arbutus

in greater vigor and beauty, and many may pro2. Andromeda 5. Bay

duce both flowers and fruit, which they will not 8. Arbor vitæ 6. Bignonia

do when confined in nots in a greenhouse.


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1. Bay tree
11. Oleander.

ledged the influence of the moon over the state Blue-berried Ca · Red

of the atmosphere, they united Isis with this rolinian


god, to drive the usurper from the throne. The 2. Boxthorn 12. Olive-tree

priests, considering Osiris as the father of time, African

Box-leaved might bestow the name of his son Horus on the 3. Broom


sun, who reigned three months in the year. Starry

13. Pistachia nut-tree This, according to Mr. Savary, is the explication - Montpelier 14. Pomegranate, dwarf of this allegory. 4. Cedar tree 15. Ragwort, sea

HOSAN'NAH, n. s. Gr. osavva. An excla.
Bermudian 16. Rose tree, Chinese mation of praise to God.
17. Rosemary,


O thou ! that art so faire and ful of grace, 5. Fig, Indian


Be thou min advocat in that high place, 6. Heath 18. Sophora

Ther as withouten ende is songe Osanne, - Many-flowered Small leaved Ota

Thou Cristes mother doughter of dere Anne.
Mediterranean heite

Chuucer. The Second Nonnes Tale.
Three-flowered Broad-leaved Ro-

Through the vast of heaven 7. Jasmin, Catalonian

It sounded, and the faithful armies rung 8. Laurel, Alexandrian - Double-flowered

Hosanna to the Highest.

Milton. 9. Myrtle 19. Strawberry tree

The public entrance which Christ made into Jeru--Portugal 20. Tea tree, green

salem was celebrated with the hosannas and acclamations the people.

Fiddes. - Upright Italian 21. Winter cherry. 10. Magnolia

Hosanna, in the Hebrew ceremonies, was a

prayer rehearsed on the several days of the feast For other particular operations in gardening, of tabernacles ; thus called, because there was see Espalier, FRUIT-TREES, GRAFTING, GREEN- frequent repetition therein of the word aastoin, HOUSE, HOTBED, INARCHING, INOCULATING, i.e. save us, we pray. There are many of these ORCHARD, PLANTING, PRUNING, Trees, &c. &c. hosannahs. The Jews call them hoschannoth, and the culture of the different plants under i. e. the hosannahs : and style them hosanna of their respective generic names.

the first day, hosanna of the second day, &c., HORTUS Siccus, a dry garden, an appel- according as they are rehearsed. lation given to a collection of specimens of Hosanna Rabba, or grand hosanna, is a name plants, dried and preserved. The value of such given to the feast of the tabernacles, which lasts à collection is evident, as a thousand minutiæ eight days; because during the course thereof may be preserved in the well-dried specimens of they are frequently calling for the assistance of plants, which the most accurate engraver would God, the forgiveness of their sins, and his blesoverlook.

sing on the new year; and to that purpose they HORUS, a renowned deity of ancient Egypt. make great use of the hoschannoth above He was an emblem of the sun. Plutarch, in his mentioned.

The Jews also apply the terin hotreatise De Iside et Osiride, says, “that virtue sanna rabba more peculiarly to the seventh which presides over the sun, whilst he is moving day of this feast, because they more immediately through space, the Egyptians called Horus, and on that day invoke the divine blessing, &c. the Greeks Apollo.' Job also calls Ur or Orus,

HOSE, n. s. Sax. þora, plur, hosen ; the sun-If I gazed upon the sun (Ur, Orus)

Hoʻsier, n. s. Welsh, hosan; Erse, ossan ; when he was shining, or on the moon (Järêcha) Hosiery, n. s. ) plur. ossanen ; Fr. chausse. walking in brightness,' &c. Ch. xxxi. ver. 26, Applicable either to breeches or stockings. Ho27, 28. The interpretation left by Hermapion sier, one who sells stockings. Hosiery, stockings of the hieroglyphics engraved on the obelisk of and other articles of worsted, cotton, or silk. Heliopolis (according to Ammianus Marcellinus) These men were bound in their coats, hosen, hats, is in these remarkable words : Horus is the and other garments, and cast into the midst of the supreme lord and author of time. He is called burning fiery furnace.

Dan. iii, 21. Invisible in winter, Jupiter in the spring, the He being in love, could not see to garter his hose , Sun in summer, and towards the end of autumn and you, being in love, cannot see to put on your the tender Jao. The Egyptians represented


Shakspeare. him borne on lions, which signified the sun's

Guards on wanton Cupid's hose. Id. entrance into the sign of the lion. They who

Here's an English taylor come hither for stealing out of a French hose.

Id. presided over the divine institutions then placed

He cross examined both our hose, sphynxes at the head of the canals and sacred

And plundered all we had to lose. Hudibras. fountains, to warn the people of the approaching Will she thy linen wash, or hosen darn, inundations. Plutarch, in his Treatise of Isis And knit thee gloves ?

Gay's Pastorals. and Osiris, relates the sacred fable of Horus; As arrant a cockney as any hosier in Cheapside. Swift. that he was the son of Osiris and Isis; that Ty HOSEA, the son of Beeri, one of the minor phon, after killing his brother Osiris, took pos- prophets, lived in the kingdom of Samaria, and session of the kingdom: that Horus, leaguing delivered his prophecies under Jeroboam II. and with Isis, avenged the death of his father, ex- his successors, kings of Israel ; and under Uzziah, pelled the tyrant from his throne without de- Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. priving him of life, and reigned gloriously in His principal design is to publish the gross idolEgypt. A person who has travelled in Egypt atries of the people of Israel and Judah, to deeasily discovers natural phenomena hid under nounce the divine vengeance against them, and this veil of fable. As the philosophers acknow- to fortel the captivity in Assyria. VOL. XI.

2 E

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