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middle of March will be a good time; and the enough for a pole; and all the sprouts and binds latter end of March, if it be apt to produce over that you have no occasion for are plucked up; rank binds, or the beginning of April may be but, if the ground be young, then none of these soon enough. Then having with an iron picker useless binds should be plucked up, but should cleared away all the earth out of the hills, so as be wrapped up together in the middle of the to clear the stock to the roots, with a sharp knife hill. When the binds are grown beyond the you must cut off all the shoots which grew up reach of your hands, if they forsake the poles, with the binds the last year; and also all the you should make use of a stand ladder in young suckers, that none be left to run in the tying them up. Towards the end of May, alley, and weaken the hill. It will be proper
have made an end of tying them, the cut one part of the stock lower than the other, ground must have the summer dressing : this is and also to cut that part low that was left highest done by casting up with the spade some fine the preceding year. By pursuing this, method earth into every hill. A month after this hoe you may expect to have stronger buds and also the alleys with a Dutch hoe, and make the hills keep the hill in good order. In dressing those up to a convenient biyness. About the middle hops that have been planted the year before, you of July hops begin to blow, and will be ready olight to cut off both the dead tops and the to gather about Bartholomew-tide. A judgment young suckers which have sprung up from the may be made of their ripeness by their strong sets, and also to cover the stocks with fine earth scent, their hardness, and the brownish color of a finger's length in thickness.
their seed. When by these tokens they appear About the middle of April the hops are to be to be ripe, they must be picked with all the expoled, when the shoots begin to sprout up; the pedition possible; for if at this time a storm of poles must be set to the hills deep into the wind should come, it would do them great ground, with a square iron picker or crow, that damage by breaking the branches, and bruising they may the better endure the winds; three and discoloring the hops; and it is very well poles are sufficient for one hill. These should known, that hops picked green and bright will be placed as near the hill as may be, with their sell for a third more than those which were disbending tops turned outwards from the hill, to colored and brown. The most convenient way prevent the binds from entangling; and a space of picking them is into a long square frame of between two poles ought to be left open to the wood, called a bin, with a cloth hanging on tensouth to admit the sun-beams. The poles ought ter hooks within it, to receive the hops as they to be in length sixteen or twenty feet, more or are picked. The frame is composed of four less, according as the ground is in strength; and pieces of wood joined together, supported by great care must be taken not to overpole a young four legs, with a prop at each end to bear up or weak ground, for that will draw the stock too another long piece of wood, placed at a convemuch, and weaken it. If a ground be overpoled, nient height over the middle of the bin; this you are not to expect a good crop from it; for serves to lay the poles upon, which are to be the branches which bear the hops will grow very picked. This bin is commonly eight feet long, little till the binds have over-reached the poles, and three feet broad ; two poles may be laid on which they cannot do when the poles are too it at a time, and six or eight persons may work long. Two small poles are sufficient for a ground at it, three or four on each side. It will be that is young. If you wait till the sprouts or best to begin to pick the hops on the east or young binds are grown to the length of a foot, north side of the ground, if you can do it conyou will be able to make a better judgment veniently; this will prevent the south-west wind where to place the largest poles; but, if you stay from breaking into the garden. Having made till they are so long as to fall into the alleys, it choice of a plot of ground, containing eleven will be injurious to them, because they will hills square, place the bin upon the hill which is ertangle one with another, and will not clasp in the centre, having five hills on each side; and, ahout the pole readily. Maple or aspen poles when these hills are picked, remove the bin into are accounted the best for hops, on which they another piece of ground of the same extent, and are thought to prosper best, because of their so proceed till the whole hop-ground is finished. warmth; or else, because the climbing of the When the poles are drawn up to be picked, take hop is promoted by means of the roughness of care not to cut the binds too near the hills, esthe bark. But, for durability, ashen or willow pecially when the hops are green, because it will poles are preferable; but chestnut poles are the make the sap to flow excessively. The hops most durable of all. If, after the hops are must be picked very clean, i. e. free from leaves grown up, you find any of them have been and stalks ; and, as there shall be occasion, two underpoled, taller poles may be placed near or three times in a day the bin must be emptied those that are too short to receive the binds from into a bop-bag made of coarse linen cloth, and them.
carried immediately to the oast or kiln to be As to the tying of hops, the buds that do not dried; for, if they should be long in the bir. clasp of themselves to the nearest pole, when or bag, they will be apt to heat and be discolored they are grown to three or four feet high, must If the weather be hot there should no more be guided to it by the hand, turning them to the poles be drawn than can be picked in an hour, sun, whose course they always follow. They and they should be gathered in fair weather if it must be bound with withered rushes, but not can be, and when the hops are dry; this will so close as to hinder them from climbing lip the save some expense in firing, and preserve pole. Continue to do this till all the poles are their color better when they are dried. The furnished with binds, of which two or three are crops of hops being thus bestowed, take care of Vol. XI.
the poles against another year, which are best to will powder, but if they lie a while (and the be laid up in a shed, having first stripped off the longer they lie the better, provided they be cohauim from them; but if you have not that conve vered close with blankets to secure them from niency, set up three poles in the form of a triangle, the air) they may be bagged with more safety, or six poles as you please, wide at bottom; and not being liable to be broken to powder in having set them into the ground with an iron treading; and this will make them bear treadpicker, and bound them together at the top, seting the better, and the harder they are trodden the rest of your poles about them; and, being the better they will keep. The common method thus disposed, none but those on the outside of bagging is as follows: they have a hole made will be subject to the injuries of the weather, in an upper floor, either round or square, large for all the inner poles will be kept dry, unless enough to receive a hop-bag, which consists at the top; whereas, if they were on the ground, of four ells and a half of ell-wide cloth, and they would receive more damage in a fortnight also contains ordinarily 2 cwt. of hops; they then by standing all the rest of the year. The tie a handful of hops in each lower corner best method of drying hops is with charcoal on of the bag to serve as handles to it; and they an oast or kiln, covered with hair-cloth, of the fasten the mouth of the bag, so placed that same form and fashion as that used for drying the hoop may rest upon the edges of the hole. malt. There is no need of particular directions Then he that is to tread the hops down into the for making these, as every carpenter and brick- bag, treads the hops on every side, another perlayer in those countries where hops grow, or son continually putting them in as be treads malt is made, knows how to build them. The them till the bag is full; which being well filled kiln ought to be square, and may be of ten, and trodden, they unrip the fastening of the bag twelve, fourteen, or sixteen feet over at the top, to the boops, let it down, and close up the mouth where the hops are laid, as the plantation re- of the bag, tying up a handful of hops in each quires, and room will allow. There ought to corner, as was done in the lower part. Hops be a due proportion between the height and being thus packed, if they have been well dried, breadth of the kiln and the beguels of the sted- and laid up in a dry place, will keep good se dle where the fire is kept, viz. if the kiln be veral years; but care must be taken that they twelve feet square on the top, it ought to be nine be not spoiled by the mice making their nests feet high from the fire, and the steddle ought to in them. be six feet and a half square, and so proportion In spring, while the bud is yet tender, the ably in other dimensions. The hops must be tops of the plant being cut off and boiled are spread even upon the oast a foot thick or more, eaten like asparagus, and found very wholesome, if the depth of the curb will allow it; but care and of service to loosen the body. The heads must be taken not to overload the oast if the and tendrils are good to purify the blood in the hops be green or wet. The oast ought to be scurvy, and most cutaneous diseases ; decoctions first warmed with a fire before the hops are laid of the flowers, and syrups thereof, are of use on, and then an even steady fire must be kept against pestilential fevers ; juleps and apozems under them; it must not be too fierce at first, were formerly made with hops for hypochronlest it scorch the hops, nor must it be suffered driacal and hysterical affections, and to promote to sink or slacken, but rather be increased, till the menses. A pillow stuffed with hops, and laid the hops be nearly dried, lest the moisture or under the head, is said to procure sleep in ferers sweat which the fire has raised fall back and attended with a delirium. His late majesty discolor them. When they have lain about nine George III. had'a pillow of this kind presented hours they must be turned, and in two or three for his use in 1787. But the principal use of hours more they may be taken off the oast. It hops is in the brewery, for the preservation of may be known when they are well dried by the malt liquors; which, by the superaddition of brittleness of the stalks and the easy falling off this balsamic, aperient, and diuretic bitter, beof the hop leaves. It is found by experience come less viscid, less apt to turn sour, more that the turning of hops, though it be after the palatable, more disposed to pass off by urine, most easy and best manner, is not only an injury and in general more salubrious. They are said to the hops, but also a waste of fuel and time, to contain an agreeable odoriferous principle, because they require as much fuel and as long a which promotes the vinous fermentation. When time to dry a small quantity, by turning them, slightly boiled, or infused in warm water, they as a large one. Now this may be prevented by increase its spirituosity. having a cover to be let down and raised at To judge of the quality of hops, observe how pleasure to the upper bed whereon the hops lie. far a yellow clamminess, peculiar to this plant, This cover may also be tinned, by nailing single abounds in the sample: the brightest colored tin plates over the face of it; so that when the hops are not always the best flavored; but purhops begin to dry, and are ready to burn, i. e. chasers dwell much on the color, which should when the greatest part of their moisture is eva- therefore be preserved as bright as possible. A porated, then the cover may be let down within hop plantation, on a good soil, may be continued a foot or less of the hops like a reverberatory, from fifteen to thirty years. They in general, which will reflect the heat upon them, so that however, begin to decline about the tenth year. the top will soon be as dry as the lowermost, and Some advise that the plantation should then be every hop be equally dried. As soon as the destroyed, and a fresh one made; others conhops are taken off the kiln lay them in a room sider it the best plan to break up and plant a for three or four weeks to cool, give, and tough- portion of new ground every two years, letting en; for if they are bagged immediately they an equal quantity of the old be destroyed, as in.
this way a regular succession of good plantation vigor and rapidity as to become quickly incawill be kept up, and the expense be gradually pable of being fed upon and devoured by the incurred. For this is a serious consideration; insect. And the frequent stirring of the mould being estimated, in some districts, at from not about the roots of the plants by the hoe may be less than £70 to £100 the acre. The produce of utility in the saine view. is uncertain ; often very considerable ; but some • With respect to the green or long-winged fly, seasons nothing, after all the labor of culture, ex- it mostly makes its appearance about the latter cept picking, has been incurred. Where end of May, and in the two succeeding months; lands are of the proper sort, and there are hop- being supposed to be produced by the prevapoles on the farm, and the farmer has a sufficient lence of north-easterly winds about that period. capital, it is probably a sort of husbandry that It is highly destructive to the young leaves of the may be had recourse to with advantage ; but, plants. They are said, under such a state of the under the contrary circumstances, hops will sel- wind, to scarcely ever fail covering the leaves : dom answer. • In growing them in connexion and, by dropping their ova, producing an abunwith a farm,' says Mr. Loudon,' regard should dance of lice, by which the crops are often much be had to the extent that can be manured with- injured; as, when they have once obtained comout detriment to the other tillage lands. On the plete possession of the plants, they seldom or whole, hops are an expensive and precarious ever leave them before they are wholly destroyed. crop, the culture of which should be well con The forwardest and most luxuriant hop-vines, sidered before it is entered upon.'
are in general the inost disposed to be attacked From this useful writer we abstract the fol- by insects of this sort. Their removal chiefly lowing account of the diseases of hops. It is depends upon a change taking place in the wind apt,' he observes, ' in the very early stage of its more to the south, and the setting in of more growth, to be devoured, as it rises above the sur- mild, warm, and temperate weather. It has been face of the ground, by the ravages of an insect of found that the ot!er moth, by depositing its eggs the flea kind. At a more advanced age it is upon the roots of the plants, renders them liable subject to the still more injurious effects of to be attacked by the larva, and the healthy the green or long-winged fly, red spider, and growth of the hops to be thereby greatly imotter moth; the former, by the depositing of paired, the crops being of course much injured their ova, afford the means of producing lice in in their produce. Stirring the earth well about great abundance; by which the plants are often the roots of the plants may probably sometimes very greatly, if not wholly destroyed, and the be serviceable in cases of this kind. larvæ of the latter prey upon the roots, and thus • The honey-dew mostly occurs after the crops render the plants weak and subject to disease. have been attacked by some of these kinds of inThe honey-dew is another disease to which the sects, and when the weather is close, moist, and hop is exposed about the same time, and by foggy. In these cases, a sweet clammy subwhich it is often much injured. The mould stance is produced upon the leaves of the plants, occurs in general at a somewhat later period, which has the taste of honey, and they have at being equally injurious. Hop-crops are also first a shining appearance, but afterwards soon beexposed to other injuries, as the blight and fire come black. It is a disease that mostly happens blast, but which take place at different times, in the more forward crops; and the chief depenthough mostly towards ihe latter periods of the dence of the planter for its removal, according growth of the plants. The flea, which is said to to Bannister, is that of heavy thunder showers be an insect of the same kind as that which is so taking place; as by this means, when the destrucprejudicial to the young turnip, is observed to tion of the hops has not proceeded too far, they make the greatest havock in seasons where the are often much restored, the insects that devour nights are cold and frosty, and the days hot and the leaves and vines being greatly destroyed, the inclined to be dry; eating off the sweet tender growth of fresh shoots promoted, and a favorable tops of the young plants; and which, though bloom brought on the plants. The fen, mould, not wholly destroyed, shoot forth afterwards in a or mildew, is a disease to which the hop-crop is far less vigorous manner, and of course become exposed at a later period of its growth, and more exposed to diseases. It has been found to which chiefly attacks the part where the hop is commit its depredations most frequently on the attached to the stem. It is said that its producplants in grounds that have been dunged the tion is greatly promoted by moist damp weather, same year; on which account it has been sug- and a low situation ; those hop-crops, that grow gested that the manure employed for the purpose in low, close, rich, grounds, being the most liable of covering the hills should be previously well to be attacked by it: and it is found to soon mixed and incorporated as we have directed; spread itself over the whole crop, after it has and that it should be applied either over the once seized upon any part of it. The nature of whole of the land, or only the hills, as soon as this vegetable disease has not been yet suffipossible after the plants have been cut over ; but ciently investigated; it has been suggested by the former practice is probably the best. It Darwin and Willdenow to be a plant of the funinakes its greatest depredations in the more early gus kind, that is capable of growing without cold spring months, at the latter end of April and light or change of air, attaching itself to plants beginning of the succeeding month, disappearing already in a morbid condition, and by its roots as the season becomes more mild and warm. In penetrating their vessels. And, on this supposithese cases, the principal remedy is that of hav- tion, the best remedy is believed to be that of ing the land in a sufficient state of fertility, to thinning the plants, in order to afford a more enable the young plants to shoot up with such free circulation of air, and admit the light more
extensively; by which the vigor of the hop-plants without benefit of clergy. For the duty upon may be restored, and the disease be of course hops see stats. 39 & 40 Geo. III. c. 81; and 48 removed. In this view, it is probable, by planting Geo. III. c. 134 for preventing frauds in the the hills more thinly, and making them at greater trade of hops: these acts regulate the mode of distances from each other, the disease might in packing, bagging, and weighing them. some measure be prevented from taking place. HOPE, n. s. & v. n. Sax. þopa; Dut. hope ;
* Diseases terıned blights are frequently met Hope'rul, adj. Germ. hoffen; Gr.OnEVU. with in hop-crops, at different periods of the Hope'FULLY, adv. Expectation of future growth of the plants, but mostly in the more HOPE'FULNESS, n. s. good attended with pleaearly stages of their rising from the hills, while Hope'less, adj. sure; confidence in a the nights are cold and frosty in the spring Hoʻper, n. s.
future event, or the fu. months, and the days have much sun and heat; HoʻPINGLY, adv. ture conduct of any by which the living powers of the plants are person : that which gives hope; the object of greatly exhausted in the day-time by the stimu- hope: to live in expectation or confidence as to lus of heat, and of course much injured, or the future: hopeful, likely to gratify desire, obwholly destroyed in the nights, from being ex- tain success, or answer expectation; full of hope : posed 10 a freezing air, which is incapable of ex- this sense is almost confined to Scotland, though citing the actions which are necessary for the found in good writers: hopeless, without hope ; preservation of vegetable life. As the presence desperate : hoper, one that has pleasing expectaof this disease is supposed to be greatly con tations : hopingly, with encouragement: hope, a nected with the prevalence of winds from the sloping plain between the ridges of mountains. northern or easterly quarters, there is often a flea
There is hope of a tree, if cut down, that it will produced of a similar kind to that which attacks
sprout out again.
Job xiv. 7. the shoots in their early growth. It is highly He shall strengthen your heart, all ye that hope in injurious, by preying upon the nutriment of the the Lord.
Psalm xxxi, 24. blossoms, and thereby diminishing their weight It is good being put to death by men, to look for and changing them to a brown color, which is hope from God, to be raised up again by them. very prejudicial in their sale at the market. The
2 Mac, vii. 14. fire-blast is also a disease that hop-crops are ex
Blessed is he who is not fallen from his hope in the posed to, in the later periods of their growth,
Ecclus, xiv, 2.
Lord. and generally supposed to proceed from the par
If hope me faile, than alle am I ticular state of the air or weather. It has been
Ungracious and unworthy ; conjectured to be the effect of lightning, as it
In hope I woll comforted be ;
For love, wban he betaught hire me, takes place, for the most part, at those seasons
Sayed that hope where so I go when it is the most prevalent, and in a very sud Should aie be relese to my wo. den manner: and besides, the most forward and
Chaucer. Romarnt of the Rose. most luxuriant vines are the most subject to be With him went Hope in rancke, a bandsome mayd, affected. It has been suggested, that in exposures Of chearefull looke and lovely to behold; that are particularly liable to have the crops thus
In silken samite she was light arayd, injured, it may be advisable to plant thinner, to And her fayre locks were woven up in gold. keep back the growth of the plants as much as
Spenser. Faerie Qucene. possible, by extirpating all the most forward Are they indifferent, being used as signs of immodeshoots, and to enıploy a less proportion of the rate and hopeless lamentation for the dead? Hooker. earthy compost in their culture.'
Men of their own natural inclination hopeful and The hop-grower has the amoyance of being strongly conceited, whatsoever they took in hand. Id. placed under the excise laws. Every grower of
Alas! I am a woman, friendless, hopeless.
Shakspeare. hops in Britain being legally obliged to give
Thy mother felt more than a mother's pain, notice to the excise, on or before the first day of And yet brought forth less than a mother's hope ; September, of the number of acres he has in cul- To wit, an indigested deformed lump.
Id. tivation; the situation and number of his oasts; The sun shines hot; and, if we use delay, the place or places of bagging, which, with the Cold-biting winter mars our hoped for hay. Id. store-rooms, or warehouses, in which the packages
He will advance thee : are intended to be lodged, are entered by the I know his noble nature, not to let revenue officer. No hops can be removed from Thy hopeful service perish.
Id. the rooms thus entered before they have been
When in heaven she shall his essence see, weighed and marked by a revenue officer; who This is her sovereign good, and perfect bliss ; marks, or ought to mark, not only the weight, Her joys are full, her motious rest in this.
Her longing, wishings, hopes, all finished be ;
Daries. but the name and residence of the grower, upon each package. There is a penalty on importing We are not where or what we be ;
Sweet hope! kind cheat! fair fallacy! by thee or using corrupt hops, imposed by stat. 1 Jac. I.c. But what and where we would be ; thus art thou
No bitter is to be used in brewing but hops, Our absent presence, and our future now. Crashaw. by 9 Ann. c. 12, sec. 24; and no hops are to One sign of despair is the peremptory contempt of be imported into Ireland from other parts but the condition which is the ground of hope ; the going Great Britain, 5 Geo. II. c. 3. Landing foreign on not only in terrours and amazement of conscience, hops, before the duty is paid, incurs the penalty but also holdly, hopingly, and confidently in wilful of having the hops burnt, and ship forfeited, 7 habits of sin.
Hammond. Gev. II. c. 19. There is also a penalty on so
Hope! of all ills that men endure phisticating hops, 7 Geo. II. c. 19 sec. 2; on
The only cheap and universal cure ! cutting hop-binds, 10 Geo. II. c. 32, sec. 4; and
Thou captive's freedom, and thou sick man's bealtb ! by 6 Geo. II. c. 37, sec. 6, this is made a felony,
Thou loser's victory, and thou beggar's wealth !
Faith is opposed to infidelity, and hope to despair. Hope, of all passions, most befriends us here;
Passions of prouder name befriend us less. Hope for good success, according to the efficacy of Joy has her tears; and transport has her death; the causes and the instrument, and let the husband. Hope like a cordial, innocent though strong, man hope for a good harvest.
Id. Man's heart at once inspirits and serenes. What to the old can greater pleasure be,
Young's Night Thoughts. Than hopeful and ingenious youth to see ?
But to the generous still improving mind
Denham. That gives the hopeless heart to sing for joy,
The wretch condemned with life to part,
Still still on hope relies
Bids expectation rise.
On the verge, He sought them both, but wished his hap might From side to side, beneath the glittering morn, find
An Iris sits, amidst the infernal surge, Eve separate : he wished, but not with hope
Like Hope upon a death-bed ; and unworn Of what so seldom chanced : when to his wish,
Its steady dyes, while all around is torn
Id. By the distracted waters, bears serene
Its brilliant haes with all their beams unshorn; The maladies thou me dost teach;
Resembling, 'mid the torture of the scene, Whom first the cramp of hope does tear,
Love watching Madness with unalterable mien. And then the palsy shakes of fear. Marvell.
Byron. Childe Harold. Prom your promising and generous endeavours we Hope, in ethics, is the desire of some good, may hopefully expect a considerable enlargement of attended with a belief of the possibility, at least, the history of nature.
of obtaining it; and enlivened with joy, greater I was hopeful the success of your first attempts
or less, according to the greater or less probawould encourage you to make trial also of more nice bility of our possessing the object of our hope. and difficult experiments.
Boyle. To encourage our hopes, it gives us the highest as
Alexander, preparing for his Asian expedition,
distributed his hereditary dominions among his surance of most lasting happiness, in case of obedi. ence.
friends; allotting to some villages, to others The Trojan dames
boroughs, to others cities; and, being asked To Pallas' fane in long procession go,
what he had reserved for himself, replied, In hopes to reconcile their heavenly foe.
Dryden. Hope (Dr. John), professor of hotany in Hopeless of ransom, and condemned to lie the university of Edinburgh, was born in EdinIo durance, doomed a lingering death to die. Id. burgh on the 10th of May 1725. After finish
She was his care, his hope, and his delight, ing the usual course of education, he studied Most in his thought, and ever in his sight. Id. medicine at the university of Edinburgh. Ilav
Who knows what adverse fortune may befall! ing finished his academical education, he visited Arin well your mind, hope little, and fear all. Id. other medical schools, and upon his return obSo stands the Thracian herdsman with bis spear
tained the degree of M. D. from the university Full in the gap, and hopes the hunted bear. Id. of Glasgow in 1750. A few months after he was
Why not comfort myself with the hope of what admitted a meinber of the royal college of phymay be, as torment myself with the fear on't ? sicians in Edinburgh, and entered upon the
L'Estrange. practice of medicine in that city. In 1761 Dr. Hope is that pleasure in the mind which every one llope, by a commission from his majesty, was finds in himself, upon the thought of a profitable appointed king's botanist for Scotland, and sufuture enjoymeut of a thing, which is apt to delight perintendant of the royal garden at Edinburgh; him.
and a few weeks after was elected, by the town May sorrow shame and sickness overtake her, And all her beauties like my hopes be blasted.
council of Edinburgh, successor to Dr. Alston Rowe's Royal Convert.
in the professorships of botany and materia meThey take up a book in their declining years, and dica. In 1777 he was nominated regius progrow very hopeful scholars by that time they are three fessor of medicine and botany in the uuiversity,
and had the offices of king's botanist and superSet down beforehand certain signatures of hopeful- intendant of the royal garden conferred upon ness, or characters, whereby may be timely described him for life, which till that time had been granted what the child will prove in probability. Wotton. during pleasure only. Dr. Hope married the He left all his female kindred either matched with
daughter of Dr. Stevenson, an eminent physician peers of the realm actually, or hopefully with earls' in Edinburgh; by whom he had four sons and soas and heirs. Whatever ills the friendless orphan bears,
one daughter. He died in November 1786. Bereaved of parents in his infant years,
He was a member not only of the Royal Society Still must the wronged Telemachus sustain,
of London, but also of several foreign societies; If hopeful of your aid, he hopes in vain.
and at the time of his death he held the distinWith looks unmoved, he hopes the scaly breed,
guished office of president of the royal college And eyes the dancing cork and bending reed.
of physicians. I except all hopers, who turn the scale, because the Hope LAND, an island of the South Pacific strong expectation of a good certain salary will out Ocean, discovered in 1772 by Mr. Marson. It weigh the loss by bad
Swift. is intersected by mountains, rising above each