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totally overthrown in 587 B.C. Three years the Carthaginians were doubtless enriching thembefore this he had taken and razed the city of selves by means of their commerce. Tyre, and over-run all Egypt. He is even said by Josephus to have conquered Spain, and Sect. V:—From the Enection of the Per
SIAN EMPIRE TO ITS OVERTIROW BY ALEXreigned there nine years; but this seems impro
ANDER : AND TO THE DIVISION OF THE GREbable. His empire comprehended Phænicia,
CIAN EMPIRE, UPON HIS DEATH. Palestine, Syria, Babylonia, Media and Persia, and part of India. When we consider that the Cyrus having now become master of all the whole strength of this mighty empire was em- east, the Asiatic affairs continued for some time ployed in beautifying the metropolis, we cannot in a state of tranquillity. The Jews obtained regard the wonders of that city, as reiated by leave to return to their own country, and rebuild Herodotus, as at all incredible.
their temple. The successor of Cyrus, CamSect. IV.–FROM THE ERECTION OF THE BA- also to have subdued the Carthaginians; but
byses, added Egypt to his empire. BYLONIAN EMPIRE TO ITS OverTICOW BY CYRUS.
the Phænicians refused to supply him with
ships. This fourth general period is very short, em In 517, B.C., the Babylonians, finding thembracing only the revolution occasioned by the mis- selves grievously oppressed by their Persian masconduct of Evil-merodach, Nebuchadnezzar's son, ters, resolved to shake off the yoke, and for this in his father's life time. Having, in a hunting purpose stored their city with provisions. When match, entered the country of the Medes, and some Darius Hystaspis advanced against them, they of his troops coming up to relieve the garrisons collected all the women, old men, and children, in those places, he joined them to those already into one place, and strangled them withoui diswith him, and without the least provocation be- tinction, whether wives, fathers, mothers, brogan to plunder and lay waste the country. This thers, or sisters ; every one being allowed to select produced an immediate revolt, which quickly only one wife and a maid-servant. This cruel extended over all Media and Persia,
The policy did not avail them : their city was taken, Medes, headed by Astyages, and his son Cy- and the king caused the walls to be beat down axares, drove back Evil-merodach and his party from 200 to fifty cubits height. with great slaughter; nor does it appear that Darius then turned his arms against the Scythey were afterwards reduced by Nebuchadnez- thians; after which he directed his course eastzar. The new empire continued daily to gather ward, and reduced the country as far as the strength; and at last Cyrus, Astyages's grand- Indus. In the mean time, the Ionians revolted; son, a prince of great prudence and valor, being and the conquest of Greece was projected : but made generalissimo of the Median and Persian the expeditions for that purpose ended most unforforces, took Babylon itself, in the year 538, B.C. tunately for the Persians. "See Attica, Persia, See BABYLONIA.
and SPARTA. The Romans, during this period, increased in In 459, B. C., the Egyptians attempted to repower under the wise government of Servius cover their liberty, but were reduced after a war Tullius, a pacific prince, who rendered this of six years. In 413, B.C., they revolted a people more formidable by a peace of twenty second time; and, being assisted by the Sidoyears, than his predecessors had done by all nians, drew upon the latter that terrible destructheir victories. The Greeks now began to inter- tion foretold by the prophets; while they themfere with the Persians, on account of the Ioni- selves were so thoroughly humbled, that they ans, or Grecian colonies in Asia Minor. Whe- never after made any attempt to recover their ther the Lydians had been subdued by the liberty. Babylonish monarch or not, is not ascertained; The revolt of Cyrus the younger against his though it is probable that they were either in brother Artaxerxes Mnemon, in which, through subjection to him, or greatly awed by his power, his own rashtess, he miscarried, and lost his life as before his death nothing considerable was un at the battle of Cunaxa, in the province of Badertaken by them. It is also very probable that bylon, happened in the year B.C. 401 or 403. during the insanity of Nebuchadnezzar, spoken 10,000 Greek mercenaries, who served in his of by Daniel, the affairs of his kingdom would army, made their way back into their country, fall into confusion. Certain it is, that, if the though surrounded on all sides by the enemy, Babylonians did not regard Cræsus as their In this retreat they were commanded by Xenosubject, they considered him as a very faithful phon, who has received the highest praise on ally.
account of his conduct and military skill. Two When Cyrus, therefore, was proceeding in bis years after, the invasion of Agesilaus, king of conquest of the Babylonish empire, before he Sparta, threatened the Persian empire with toto] proceeded to attack the capital, he offered ad- destruction. vantageous terms to the Ionians, but they refused The various transactions between the Grecian to submit to him. Soon after, however, Cræsus states, though they make a considerable figure himself being defeated and taken prisoner, the in their respective histories, make but a small Ionians sent ambassadors to Cyrus, offering to one in a general sketch. We shall, therefore, embrace his terms. These were now refused; only observe, that in 404, B.C., the Athenian and the Ionians applied to the Spartans for aid. power was totally broken by the taking of their Thus commenced the hatred between the Greeks city by the Spartans. See ATTICA. In 370 and Persians. The transactions of Africa during that of the Spartans received a severe check this period are almost entirely unknown; though from the Thebans at the battle of Leuctra; and
eight years after was still further reduced by the territory scarcely extended six or seven leagues battle of Mantinea. The Macedonians, a bar- from the capital. The people had been divided barous nation lying to the north of the states of by Romulus into two classes, namely patricians Greece, now rose into power under Philip, who and plebeians, answering to our nobility and being no stranger to the weakened situation of commonalty. Between these two bodies were Greece, began to meditate the conquest of it. perpetual jealousies and contentions; which re
The particulars of this enterprise will be found tarded the progress of the Roman conquests, and under the article Macedon. Here it is sufficient revived the hopes of the nations they conquered.
mention, that by first attacking those he was The tribunes of the people were perpetually opsure he could overcome, and corrupting those posing the consuls and military tribunes, and the whom he thought it dangerous to attack; by senate had often recourse to a dictator endowed sometimes pretending to assist one state and with absolute power. Thus had the Romans sometimes another, and by imposing upon all continued for nearly 400 years, running the same as best suited his affairs, he finally gained his round of wars with the same enemies, and reapend. In 338 B.C. he procured himself to being little advantage from their conquests, till at elected general of the Amphictyons, and, having last matters were compounded, by choosing one once obtained liberty to enter that country with of the consuls from among the plebeians; and an army, he quickly convinced the states that from this time chiefly we may date the prosperity they must all submit to him.
of Rome. Philip whe master of all Greece, projected The Carthaginians in the mean time continued the conquest of Asia, when he was suddenly as to enrich themselves by commerce; but were by sassinated.
no means equal to the Romans in power. A Alexander his son was possessed of every qua- new state, however, made its appearance during lity necessary for the execution of so great a plan; this period, which may be said to have taught and his impetuosity of temper made him execute the Carthaginians the art of war. This was Siit with an unheard of rapidity. He met with cily. At what time it was first peopled cannot only two checks in his Persian expedition. The be ascertained. In the second year of the sevenone was from the city of Tyre, which for seven teenth Olympiad, or 710 B. C., some Greea mmonths resisted his utmost efforts; the other was lonies are said to have arrived on the island, and from Memnon the Rhodian, who had undertaken in a short time founded several cities, of which to invade Macedonia. The first of these obsta- Syracuse was the chief. cles Alexander at last overcame, and treated the The first considerable monarch of Syracuse governor and inhabitants with the utmost cruelty. was Gelon, who obtained the sovereignty about The other was scarcely felt; for Memnon died the year 483 B. C. The Carthaginians possessafter reducing some of the Grecian islands, and ed some part of the island as early as 505 B.C.; Darius had no other general capable of con- but, in twenty-eight years after, they had been toducting the undertaking. The power of the Per- tally driven out by Gelon. sian empire was totally broken by the victory The island also proved the scene of much gained over Darius at Arbela, in the year 331 slaughter and bloodshed in the wars of the GreB.C., and next year a total end was put to it by cian states. Before the year 323 B.C., however, the murder of the king by Bessis.
the Carthaginians had inade themselves masters Alexander now invaded and reduced Hyrcania, of a very considerable part of Sicily; whence Bactria, Sogdiana, and all the vast tract of coun all the power of the Greeks could not dislodge try now called Bukharia. Having entered In- them. After the destruction of Tyre almost all dia, he reduced all the nations to the river the commerce in the western part of the world fell to Hyphasis, one of the branches of the Indus. the share of the Carthaginians; but whether they But when he would have proceeded farther, and had at this time made many settlements in Spain, extended his conquests quite to the eastern extre- is not known. It is certain, that they traded to mities of Asia, his troops positively refused to that country for the sake of the silver, as they follow him.
probably also did to Britain for tin. In the Rome and Carthage were now making consi- year 323 B. C. Alexander the Great died at derable advances in the west. During the time Babylon, without settling the affairs of his rast of their kings, the Romans had made a very empire, or even naming a successor; and four considerable figure among the Italian nations ; new empires iinmediately rose out of it. but after their expulsion, and the commence
ECT. VI.- FROM THE Division of the GREment of the republic, their conquests became much more rapid and extensive. 'In 501 B.C.
CIAN EMPIRE, TO THE DESTRUCTION OF TIIE they subdued the Sabines; eight years after, the
CARTHAGINIAN REPUBLIC BY THE Romans. Latins; and in 399 the city of Veii, the strongest Alexander had left behind him a victorious, in Italy, excepting Rome itself
, was taken after and, we may say, invincible army, commanded a siege of ten years. But in the midst of their by most expert officers, all equally ambitious successes a sudden irruption of the Gauls had of authority. Cassander, the son of Antipater, almost put an end to their power. The city was had seized Macedonia and Greece ; Antigonus, burnt to the ground in 383 B. C., and the capitol Asia Minor ; Seleucus had Babylon and the eastou the point of being surprised, when the Gauls, ern provinces; and Ptolemy, Egypt and the who were climbing up the walls in the night, western ones. One of these empires, however, were accidently discovered and repulsed. Rome soon fell ; Antigonus being defeated and killed was soon rebuilt; but at the celebrated Camil- by Seleucus and Lysimachus at the Battle of lus's death, which happened about 352 B. C., its Ipsus, in 301 B.C. The greatest part of his
dominions then fell to Seleucus : but several calling in the Romans to defend them. This provinces took the opportunity of these confu- produced a war in which the latter were victorisions to shake off the Macedonian yoke altoge- ous; but Perseus, the successor of Philip, renewther; and thus were formed the kingdoms of ed the war, until Macedon submitted to the Pontus, Bithynia, Pergamus, Armenia, and Cap- Romans, 167 B.C. padocia
After this, war was declared a third time The two most powerful and permanent em- against the unfortunate Carthaginian state ; there pires, however, were those of Syria, founded by was now no Hannibal to command their armies, Seleucus, and Egypt by Ptolemy Soter. The and Carthage was utterly destroyed in the year kings of Macedon, though they did not preserve 146 B.C. The same year the Romans put an the same authority over the Grecian states that end to the liberties they had pretended to grant Alexander, Antipater, and Cassander had done, the cities of Greece, by the entire destruction of yet effectually prevented them from those out- Corinth. rages upon one another for which they had for The only transaction of any considerable conmerly been so remarkable.
sequence in the Syrian empire, at this period, is While the eastern parts of the world were the oppression of the Jews by Antiochus Epithus deluged with blood, the Romans and Car- phanes. After their return from the Babylonish thaginians also proceeded in their attempts to captivity, they continued in subjection to the enslave the western nations. About the year Persians, till the time of Alexander. From that 253 B.C. the former had made themselves mas time they were subject to the kings of Egypt or ters of almost the whole of Italy; but Pyrrhus Syria, as the fortune of either bappened to preking of Epirus, in 271 B.C., entered that coun vail. Egypt being reduced by Antiochus Epitry, and maintained a war with them for six years. phanes, the Jews fell under his dominion ; and, He was finally defeated, however, and the Ro- being severely treated by him, imprudently mans being invited into Sicily, to assist the Mar- showed some signs of joy on a report of his mertines against Hiero II. king of Syracuse and death. This brought him against them with a the Carthaginians, they immediately commenced powerful army; and in 170 B.C. he took Jerua war with the latter, which continued for twenty- salem by storm, committing the most horrid three years; and the consequence was the entire cruelties on the inhabitants. Their religion was loss of Sicily to the Carthaginians; soon after for a while totally abolished, their temple prothe Romans seized on Sardinia.
faned, an image of Jupiter Olympius set up, and Hamilcar now set about the subjugation of a sow sacrificed on the altar of burnt offerings. Spain ; and his son Asdrubal continued the war In 167 B.C., however, Mattathias restored the with success ; till at last the Romans engaged true worship in most of the cities of Judea; him to make the river Iberus the boundary of his and in 165 the temple was purified by Judas conquests.
Maccabæus. This was followed by a long series The transactions of the second Punic war are of wars between the Syrians and Jews, in which perhaps the most remarkable recorded in history. the latter were almost always victorious. We now see the Romans, who for more than 500 years had been constantly victorious, unable Sect. VII.- From the DESTRUCTION OF CARto resist the efforts of a single man, until at last,
THAGE TO THE DEATH OF TRAJAN, WHEN THE
ROMAN EMPIRE HAD ATTAINED TO ITS UTMOST Hannibal, the conqueror of Italy, was obliged to
EXTENT. . abandon his final designs for want of 20,000 or 30,000 men. Hannibal had concluded an alli The empire of Syria at first comprehended all ance with Philip VI. of Macedonia. Had that Asia to the river Indus, and beyond it; but in prince sent an army to the assistance of the Car- 312 B. C. most of the Indian provinces had been thaginians in Italy, immediately after the battle by Seleucus ceded to Sandrocottus, or Androof Cannæ, there can be no doubt but the Romans cottus, a native, who in return gave him 500 would have been forced to accept of peace. Philip, elephants. Of the empire of Sandrocottus we however, could not be roused. The issue was know nothing farther than that he subdued all that the Carthaginian armies, unsupported in the countries between the Indus and the Ganges; Italy, were recalled into Africa, which the Ro- so that from this time the greatest part of India mans had invaded. Here Hannibal was defeat- became independent of the Syro-Macedonian ed at the battle of Zama, which finished the princes. In 250 B.C., however, the empire sussecond Punic war, in the year 188 B. C. tained a much greater loss by the revolt of the
All this time Egypt, Syria, and Greece, had Parthians and Bactrians from Antiochus Theos. been promoting their own ruin by mutual wars. The former could not be subdued ; and, as they The Syrian empire was now governed by Antio- held in subjection to them the extensive country chus the Great, and to him Hannibal applied, now called Persia, their defection was an irrewhen he was obliged to leave his country, and the parable loss. Whether any part of their country Romans declared war against him. The event was afterwards recovered, by the kings of Egypt was, that Antiochus was every where defeated, or Syria, is not certain. The general state of the and forced to conclude a peace upon very disad- world B. C. 146 was as follows: vantageous terms.
In Asia were the empires of India, Parthia, The states of Greece, weary of the tyranny of and Syria, with the smaller states of Armenia, the Macedonians, now entered into the resolution Pontus, &c., to which we must add that of of recovering their liberties. For this purpose Arabia, which during the sixth period had bewas framed the Achæan League, but they at come of some consequence, and had maintained last came to the inprudent determination of its independence from the days of Ishmael. In
Africa were the kingdoms of Egypt and Ethio. Roman republic; and it proved advantageous to pia; the Carthaginian territories, now subject to the few nations of the world who still retained the Romans; and the kingdoms of Numidia, their liberty. That outrageous desire of conMauritania, and Getulia, ready to be swallowed quest, which had so long marked the Roman up by the same ambitious and insatiable power, character, now in a measure ceased ; and after now that Carthage was destroyed, which bad the final reduction of Spain, and the conquest of served as a barrier against it. To the south lay Masia and Pannonia, the empire enjoyed for unknown and barbarous nations, secure by their some time a profound peace. situation and insignificance, rather than their The only remarkable transactions which took strength, or distance from Rome. In Europe we place during the remainder of this period, were find none to oppose the progress of the Roman the conquest of Britain by Claudius and Agriarms, except the Gauls, and some nations of cola, and the destruction of Jerusalem by VespaSpain.
sian and Titus. The war with the Jews began The Spaniards had indeed been subdued by A.D. 67; and was occasioned by their obstiScipio Africanus during the second Punic war; nately claiming the city of Cæsarea, which the but in 155 B. C. they revolted; and under the Romans had added to Syria. It ended in 73, conduct of one Viriathus, formerly a robber, held with the most terrible destruction of their city out for a long time against all the armies the and nation; since which time they have never Romans could send into Spain, Him the consul been able to exercise sovereign authority. The Cæpio caused to be murdered about 138 B. C., southern parts of Britain were totally subdued because he found it impossible to reduce him by by Agricola about ten years after. force. Numantia defied the whole Roman In the year 98, of the Christian æra, Trajan power for six years longer.
was emperor of Rome; and the empire reached About this time Attalus king of Pergamus left its utmost extent. Having conquered the Daby will the Roman people heirs to all his goods; cians, a German nation beyond the Danube, he upon which they immediately seized on his king. turned his arms eastward ; reduced all Mesopodom and reduced it to a Roman province, under tamia, Chaldæa, and Assyria; and having taken the name of Asia Proper. In 122 B.C. the Ctesiphon, the capital of the Parthian empire, Balearic Islands, now called Majorca, Minorca, appointed them a king. After this he proposed and Ivica, were subdued. The event of it was to return to Italy, but died by the way. the total reduction of Numidia, which took place about the year 105 B. C.; but Mauritania and Ge- SECT. VIII.- FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF tulia preserved their liberty for some time longer.
THE DECLINE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, TO In the east the einpire of Syria continued to ITS DIVISION UNDER CONSTANTINE. decline; by which means the Jews not only had an opportunity of recovering their liberty, but No sooner, however, had the vast empire of even of becoming almost as powerful, or at least the Romans attained its utmost degree of power, of extending their dominions as far, as in the than, like its predecessors, it began to decline. days of David and Solomon. The Syrian empire The provinces of Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and was farther reduced by the civil dissensions be- Africa, almost instantly revolted, and were abantween the two brothers, Antiochus Gryphus and doned by Adrian, the successor of Trajan. The Antiochus Cyzicenus; during which the cities of Parthians, having recovered their liberty, were Tyre, Sidon, Ptolemais, and Gaza, declared them- very formidable enemies, and the barbarians of selves independent. This happened about 100 the northern parts of Europe continued to inB.C.; and, seventeen years after, the whole was crease in strength. At different times, however, reduced by Tigranes king of Armenia. On his some warlike emperors arose, who put a stop to defeat, by the Romans, the latter reduced Syria the incursions of these barbarians; and, about to a province of their empire. Pontus was sub- the year 225, the Parthian empire was totally dued about 64 B.C. The kingdom of Judea also overthrown by the Persians. But the latter bewas reduced under the same power about this came still more troublesome enemies to the emtime. It owed the loss of its liberty to the same pire than the Parthians; and, though often cause that had ruined various other states, namely, defeated, they long continued to infest it on the calling in the Romans to be arbitrators between east. In 260 the defeat and captivity of Valerian, contending parties. Hyrcanus and Aristobulus by the Persians, threatened the empire withoutter had contended for the kingdom, when the latter destruction. Thirty tyrants now seized the goapplied to the Romans, and Pompey the Greatvernment at once; and the barbarians, pouring decided against him ; but at the same time de- in on all sides, ravaged almost all the provinces. prived Hyrcanuis of all regal power, and did not By the vigorous conduct of Claudius 11., Aureallow him to extend his territory beyond the lian, Tacitus, Probus, and Carus, the empire was ancient borders of Judea.
in part, indeed, restored to its former lustre; but In the west, however, the Gauls were still free, the barbarians were never thoroughly subdued. and the Spanish nations bore the Roman yoke An end was put to these evils when the emwith great impatience; while the kingdom of pire was united under Constantine the Great ; Egypt remained independent. The battle of Ac- but in 330 a mortal blow was given to it, by his tium, however, determined the fate of Antony, removing the imperial seat to Constantinople. Cleopatra, and Egypt itself; which was reduced The establishment of Christianity, now corrupted to a Roman province, about the year 29 B.C. with the grossest superstitions, proved also no
This same event was the destruction of the small detriment to the empire.
SECT. IX.-FROM THE DivisioN OF THE ROMAN In 487 Clovis, the founder of the French
EMPIRE TO THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WEST- monarchy, possessed himselt of all the countries ERN Part of IT, AND THE RISE OF MAHOMET lying between the Rhine and the Loire. See AND OF THE EUROPEAN States.
FRANCE. We now see that mighty empire, which formerly In Spain the Visigoths erected a kingdom ten occupied almost the whole world, weakened by years before the conquest of Rome by the He division, and surrounded by enemies. On the ruli. This they extended eastward, about the east, the Persians; on the north, the Scythians, same time that Clovis was extending his conSarmatians, Goths, and a multitude of other quests to the west; so that the two kingdoms barbarous nations, watched all occasions to break united at the river Loire. The consequence of into it; and miscarried in their attempts rather this was an immediate war, and Clovis proved through their own barbarity than the strength of victorious. their enemies.
Another kingdom had in the mean time been Some of the Roman emperors indeed with- founded in the western parts of Spain by the stood this inundation of savages; but as the Suevi. In 409 this kingdom was entirely sublatter grew daily more numerous, and the Ro- verted by Theodoric king of the Goths, who in mans continued their intestine wars, they were
584 became masters of almost all Spain. at last obliged to take large bodies of barbarians Africa, properly so called, had changed its into their pay, and teach them their military masters three times during this period. The discipline. This at last proved their total de- Vandals had expelled the Romans, and erected struction; for, in 476, the barbarians who served an independent kingdom, which was at last in the Roman armies, and were dignified with overturned by the emperors of Constantinople; the title of allies, demanded the third part of and from them the greatest part of it was taken the lands of Italy as a reward for their services; by the Goths in 620. and, meeting with a refusal, revolted, and made Sect. X.–FROM The Rise of the Manorthemselves masters of Rome itself.
MEDAN SUPERSTITION TO THE COMMENCESpain was at this time held by the Goths and Suevians; Africa (that is, Barbary and Biledul
MENT OF THE CRUSADES. gerid), by the Vandals; the Burgundians, Goths, The tenth general period of history commences Franks, and Alans, had erected several small with the flight of Mahomet in the year 622 states in Gaul; Italy was subjected to the He- (whence his followers date their era called ruli under Odoacer, who had assumed the title the llegira). The Roman empire in the west of King of Italy; and Britain was abandoned. was now annihilated; the Persian empire, and
The empire, indeed, continued to maintain its that of Constantinople, weakened by their musway at Constantinople, and comprehended all tual wars and intestine divisions; the Indians Asia Minor and Syria, as far as Persia ; in Africa, and other eastern nations unaccustomed to war, the kingdom of Egypt; and Greece in Europe. and ready to fall a prey to the first invader ; the It was engaged, however, in continual wars with southern parts of Europe were also in a disthe Persians, Bulgarians, and other barbarous tracted and barbarous state; while the inhabinations; and superstition and a general relaxa- tants of Arabia, from their earliest origin accustion of military discipline hastened its downfal. tomed to war and plunder, were like a flood
Among the western nations, revolutions suc- pent up, and ready to overwhelm the rest of the ceeded one another with rapidity. The He- world. ruli under Odoacer were driven out by the With amazing celerity, therefore, they overGoths under Theodoric. The Goths were ex ran all Syria, Palestine, Persia, Bukharia, and pelled by the Romans; and, while the two par- India, extending their conquests farther to the ties were contending, both were attacked by the eastward than ever Alexande: had done. On Franks. The Romans were in their turn expelled the west their empire soon extended over Egypt, by the Goths: the Franks again invaded Italy, Barbary, Spain, Sicily, Sarlivia, Majorca, Miand made themselves masters of the province of norca, &c., and many of the isles in the ArchiVenetir; but at last the superior fortune of the pelago: nor were the coasts of Italy itself free emperor of Constantinople prevailed, and in 553 from their incursions; they are even said to the Goths were finally subdued.
have reached the distant and barren country of Narses, their conqueror, governed Italy as a Iceland. But at last this great empire began to province of the eastern empire till the year 568, decline, and its ruin was very sudden. Mahomet when Longinus his successor made considerable had not taken care to establish the apostlealterations. Being invested with absolute power, ship in his family, or to give any particular by Justinian, he suppressed the consulares, cor- directions about a successor. The consequence rectores, and præsides; and placed in each city was, that the caliphat, or succession to the aposof note a governor, whom he distinguished with tleship, was seized by many usurpers; and those the title of duke. The city of Rome was not who resided at Bagdad were regarded only as a more honored than any other; for Longinus, kind of high priests. Of these divisions the having abolished the name of senate and consuls, Turks took advantage, to establish their authority appointed a duke of Rome as well as of other in many provinces. cities. To himself he assumed the title of ex While the barbarians of the east were thus arch ; and, residing at Ravenna, his government conquering, for the glory of God and his apostle was styled the exarchate of Ravenna. While he Mahomet, the western nations professed an equal was establishing this new pire, the greatest regard for the divine glory, and exemplified it in part of Italy was conquered by the Lombards. the respect they paid to the pope and the clergy