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ing them with all the efforts of our martins in peculiar manner of flying; fitting about with Europe.

odd jerks and vacillations, not unlike the motions H. riparia, the sand martin, or shore bird, is of a butterfly. Doubtless the flight of all hirunfour inches and three-quarters in length, with the dines is influenced by, and adapted to, the pecuwhole upper parts of the body of a mouse-color, liar sort of insects which furnish their food." the throat and under parts white, the bill and legs H. rustica, the common or chimney swallow, blackish. It is common about the banks of is distinguished from all the other species by the rivers and sand-pits, where it terebrates a round superior forkiness of its tail, and by the red spot and regular hole in the sand or earth, which is on the forehead and under the chin. The crown serpentine, horizontal, and about two feet deep; of the head, the whole upper part of the body, At the inner end of this burrow does the bird and the coverts of the wings, are black, glossed deposit, in a good degree of safety, her rude with a rich purplish blue, and most resplendent nest, consisting of fine grasses and feathers, usu- in the male: the breast and belly white, and in ally goose-feathers,very inartificially laid together. the male tinged with red : the tail is black; the Though at first,' says Mr. White, one would two middle feathers are plain, the others márkel be disinclined to believe that this weak bird, with transversely near the ends with a white spot : the her soft and tender bill and claws, should ever exterior feathers of the tail are much longer in be able to bore the stubborn sand-bank without the male than in the female. The food is the entirely disabling herself; yet with these feeble same with that of all the genus; viz. insects. instruments have I seen a pair of them make for taking these, in their swiftest flight, their great despatch; and could remark how much parts are admirably contrived; their mouths are they had scooped that day by the fresh sand very wide to take in flies, &c., in their quickest which ran down the bank, and was of a different motions; their wings are long, and adapted for color from that which lay loose and bleached in distant and continual flight: and their tails are the sun. In what space of time these little ar- forked, to enable them to turn the readier in tists are able to mine and finish these cavities, I pursuit of their prey. This species is the first have never been able to discover; but it would comer of all the British hirundines; and appears be a matter worthy of observation, where it falls in general on or about the 13th of April, though in the way of any naturalist to make his remarks. now and then a straggler is seen much earlier. One thing is remarkable-that, after some years, This species, though called the chimney swallow, the old holes are forsaken and new ones bored; by no means builds altogether in chimneys, but perha because the old habitations grow foul often in barns and out-houses against the rafters; and fetid from long use, or because they may so as Virgil long ago remarked, (Georg. lib. iv. abound with fleas as to become untenantable. This 306). In Sweden she builds in barns, and is species of swal.ow is strangely annoyed with called ladw swala, the barn swallow. In the fleas; and we have seen fleas, bed fleas (pulex warmer parts of Europe, where there are no irritans), swarming at the mouths of these holes, chimneys to houses except they are English like bees on the stools of their hives. The sand built, she constructs her nest in porches, gatemartin arrives much about the same time with ways, galleries, and open halls. But in gethe swallow ; and lays, as she does, from four to neral, with us, this species breeds in chimneys; six white egys. But as this species is crypto- and haunts those stacks where there is a congame, carrying on the busines of nidification, stant fire, for the sake of warmth; generally incubation, and the support of its young in the prefering one adjoining to the kitchen, and disdark, it would not be easy to ascertain the time regarding the perpetual smoke of that funnel. of breeding, were it not for the coming forth of Five or six or more feet down the chimney does the broods, which appear much about the time, this little bird begin to form her nest about the or rather somewhat earlier than those of the middle of May, which consists, like that of swallow. The nestlings are supported in common the house martin, of a crust or shell composed like those of their congeners, with gnats and of dirt or mud, mixed with short pieces of straw other small insects ; and sometimes they are fed to render it tough and permanent; with this with libellulæ (dragon flies) almost as long as difference, that, whereas the shell of the martin is themselves. This hirundo is said to lay only nearly hemispheric, that of the swallow is open once in a year, and to produce its young more at the top, and like half a deep dish. This nest early than the rest of its tribe : though, from this is lined with fine grasses, which are often collectlast circumstance, it would seem probable that ed as they float in the air. Wonderful is the they breed at least a second time, like the house- address (Mr. White observes) which this adroit inartin and swallow. It does not always take bird shows all day long in ascending and depains to make a hole for a nest; frequently scending through so narrow a pass. When holaying in cavities of quarries, and in hollows of vering over the mouth of the funnel, the vibratrees, where it is convenient. When they hap- tion of her wings acting on the confined air pen to breed near hedges and inclosures they occasions a rumbling noise like thunder. It is are often dispossessed of their breeding-holes by probable that the dam submits to this inconvethe house sparrow, which is on the same account nient situation, so low in the shaft, in order to a fell adversary to house martins. These hirun- secure her brood from rapacious birds, and pardines are no songsters, but rather mute, making ticularly from owls, which frequently fall down only a little harsh noise when a person ap- chimneys, perhaps in attempting to get at these proaches their nests. They seem not to be of a nestlings. This bird lays from four to six white sociable turn, never with us congregating with eggs, dotted with red specks; and brings out her their congeners in the autumn. They have a first brood about the last week in June, or the

first in July. The progressive method by which forked. The head and upper part of the body, the young are introduced into life is very curious: except the rump, are black glossed with blue : First, they emerge from the shaft with difficulty the breast, belly, and rump are white; the feet enough, and often fall down into the room below: are covered with a short white down. "They for a day or so they are fed on the chimney top, begin to appear about the 16th of April; and and are then conducted to the dead leafless for some time they in general pay no attention bough of some tree, where, sitting in a row, they to the business of nidification : they play and are attended with great assiduity, and may then sport about, either to recruit from the fatigue of be called perchers. In a day or two more they their journey, if they do migrate at all; or else become fliers, but are still unable to take their that their blood may recover its true tone and own food : therefore they play about near the texture after it has been so long benumbed by place where the dams are hawking for flies; and the severities of winter. About the middle of when a mouthful is collected, at a certain signal May, if the weather be fine, the martin begins given, the dam and the nestling advance, rising to think in earnest of providing a mansion for towards each other, and meeting at an angle; its family. The crust or shell of this nest seems the young one all the while uttering such a little to be formed of such dirt or loam as comes quick note of gratitude and complacency, that most readily to hand, and is tempered and one must have paid very little regard to the won- wrought together with little bits of broken straws ders of Nature, who has not remarked this feat. to render it tough and tenacious. As this bird The dam betakes herself immediately to the rear- often builds against a perpendicular wall, withing of a second brood, as soon as she is disengaged out any projecting ledge under, it requires its from her first; which she at once associates with utmost efforts to get the first foundation firmly the first broods of house martins; and with fixed, so that it may safely carry on the superthem congregates, clustering on sunny roofs, structure. On this occasion the bird not only towers, and trees. She brings out her second clings with its claws, but partly supports itself brood towards the middle and end of August. by strongly inclining its tail against the wall, Every species of hirundo drinks as it flies along, making that a fulcrum; and, thus steadied, it sipping the surface of the water; but the swal- works and plasters the materials into the face of low only washes on the wing, by dropping into the brick or stone. But then, that this work a pool for many times together; in very hot may not, while it is soft and green, pull itself weather house martins and bank martins dip down by its own weight, the provident architect and wash a little. The swallow is a delicate has prudence and forbearance enough not to songster, and in soft sunny weather sings both advance her work too fast; but by building only perching and flying, on trees in a kind of con- in the morning, and by dedicating the rest of cert, and on chimney tops: it is also a bold the day to food and amusement, gives it sufficient flier, ranging to distant towns and commons time to dry and harden. About half an inch even in windy weather, which the other species seems to be a sufficient layer for a day. By seem much to dislike; nay, even frequenting sea- this method, in about ten or twelve days, is port towns, and making little excursions over the formed an hemispheric nest, with a small apersalt-water. Horsemen on wide downs are often ture towards the top, strong, compact, and warm; closely attended by a little party of swallows for and perfectly fitted for all the purposes for miles together, which play before and behind which it was intended. But then nothing is them, sweeping around, and collecting all the more common than for the house sparrow, as sculking insects that are roused by the trampling soon as the shell is finished, to seize on it as its of the horses' feet: when the wind blows hard, own, to eject the owner, and to line it after its without this expedient, they are often forced to

After so much labor is bestowed settle to pick up their lurking prey. This in erecting a mansion, as nature seldom works species feeds much on little coleoptera, as well in vain, martins will breed on for several years as on goats and flies; and often settles on dug together in the same nest, where it happens to be ground, or paths, for gravel to grind and digest well sheltered and secure from the injuries of its food. Mr. Pennant says, that, for a few days the weather. The shell or crust of the nest is a previous to their departure, they assemble in sort of rustic work, full of knobs and protubervast flocks on house-tops, churches, and trees, ances on the outside: nor is the inside of those from whence they take their flight. They are that I have examined smoothed with any exactsupposed to take up their winter quarters in ness at all; but it is rendered soft and warm, Senegal and parts adjacent; and seem to pos- and fit for incubation, by a lining of small straws, sess in turn the whole of the old continent, being grasses, and feathers; and sometimes by a bed known from Norway to the Cape of Good Hope of moss interwoven with wool. In this they on the one hand, and from Kamtschatka to India tread or engender frequently during the time of and Japan on the other. They are also found building; and the hen lays from three to five in all parts of North America, migrating north white eggs. At first, when the young are hatched, and south as with us. Kalm says, that in Ame- and are in a naked and helpless condition, the rica they build in houses and under the outsides parent birds, with tender assiduity, carry out of the roofs; also on the mountains, in such what comes from their young. Were it not for parts of them as project beyond the bottom, as this affectionate cleanliness, the nestlings would well as under the corners of perpendicular soon be burnt up and destroyed in so deep and rocks.

hollow a nest, by their own caustic excrement. 12. H. urbica, the martin, is inferior in size to As soon as the young are able to shift for themthe chimney swallow, and its tail much less selves, the dams immediately turn their thoughts

own manner.

Gay.

to the business of a second brood: while the England his approaches makes as fierce first flight, shaken off and rejected by their As waters to the sucking of a gulph. nurses, congregate in great flocks, and are the

Id. Henry V. birds that are seen clustering and hovering, on

Opium loseth some of his poisonous quality if it sunny mornings and evenings, round towers and be vapoured out, mingled with spirit of wine.

Bacon. steeples, and on the roofs of churches and houses.

Where is this mankind now ? who lives to age These congregatings usually begin to take place Fit to be made Methusalem his page ? Donne. about the first week in August; and therefore

Every of us, each for his self, laboured how to rewe may conclude that by that time the first flight cover him.

Sidney. is pretty well over. Martins love to frequent This rule is not so general, but that it admitteth his towns, especially if there are great lakes and exceptions.

Carew's Survey of Cormeall. rivers at hand. They are by far the least agile Thus while he spake, each passion dimmed his of the British hirundines; their wings and tails face, are short, and therefore they are not capable of Thrice changed with pale ire envy and despair ; such surprising turns, and quick and glancing Which marred his borrowed visage and betrayed

Him counterfeit.

Milton's Paradise Lost. evolutions, as the swallow. Accordingly, they make use of a placid easy motion, in a middle and finds the drums Lewis's march did beat.

His mind secure does the vain stroke repeat, region of the air, seldom mounting to any great

Marvell. height, and never sweeping long together over Whene'er I stoop be offers at a kiss; the surface of the ground or water. They do And when my arms I stretch, he stretches his. not wander far for food; but affect sheltered

Addisor, districts, over some lake, or under some hanging As the wood-pigeon coos without his mate, wood, or in some hollow vale, especially in So shall my doleful dirge bewail her fate. windy weather. They breed the latest of all By thy fond consort, by thy father's cares, the swallow kind; in 1772 they had 'nestlings By young 'Telemachus his blooming years.

Pepe. until October the 21st, and are never without Let man's own sphere,' said he, confine his view; young as late as Michaelmas. As the summer Be man's peculiar work his sole delight.' Beattie. declines, the congregating flocks increase in HISINGEN, an island in the south-west of numbers daily, by the constant accession of the Sweden, at the mouth of the large river Gothasecond broods; till at last they swarm in myriads Elf, on which the town of Gottenburg was first upon inyriads round the villages on the Thames, built. It is about sixteen miles long and six darkening the face of the sky as they frequent broad. Long. 11° 4' 8" E., lat. 57° 45' N. the aits of that river, where they roost. They HISPA, in zoology, a genus of insects beretire in vast flocks together about the beginning longing to the coleoptera order, the characters of of October ; but have appeared of late years in which are these :— The antennæ are fusiform, a considerable flight in this neighbourhood, for growing gradually larger from each extremity one day or two, as late as November the 3rd and towards the middle, and are situated between 6th, after they were supposed to have been gone the eyes: the thorax and elytra are covered with for more than a fortnight. They therefore with- protuberances or spines. The H. atra, found in draw, with us, the latest of any species. Unless Britain, is all over of a deep unpolished black, these birds are very short-lived indeed, or ua- and has the upper part of its body entirely coless they do not return to the district where they vered with long and strong spines, which render are bred, they must undergo vast devastations it bristly like the shell of a chestnut. There is somewhere; for the birds that return yearly bear even a spine at the case of the antennæ; the no manner of proportion to the birds that re- thorax has a row set transversely, which are tire.

forked; and the elytra are furnished with a very HIS, Pronoun possessive. Saxon þyr. The great number that are single. Its being thus comasculine possessive pronoun of he, anciently vered with spines makes it resemble a hedgehog used in a neutral sense, where we now say its. in miniature. It is rather difficult to catch, letting It is sometimes used as a sign of the genitive itself fall down on the ground as soon as approachcase; as, the man his ground, for the man's ed. It bears its antenna upright before it. See ground. It is now rarely thus used, as its use

ENTOMOLOGY. proceeded probably from a false opinion that HISPALIS, in ancient geography, a town of The s formative of the genitive case was his con- Bætica, in Hispania Ultra, an ancient mart or tracted. Sometimes used in opposition to this trading town on the Bætis, navigable quite up man's; anciently before self.

to it for ships of burden, and thence to CorduOf his linage am I and his ofspring

ba for river barges. It was also.called Colonia

Romulensis. It had a conventus juridicus, a By veray line, as of the stok real; And now I am so caitif and so thral,

court of justice or assizes. It is now called That he that is my mortal enemy

Seville. I serve him as his squierly pourely.

HISPANIA, in ancient geography, a country Chaucer. The Knightes Tale. or kingdom of Europe, now called Spain; called Who can impress the forest, bid the tree

Hesperia Ultima by Horace, because the westUnfix his earth-bound root ?

most part of Europe; also Iberia, from the river Shakspeare. Macbeth. Iberus. Its name Hispania, or Enavia, is of Were I a king,

Phænician original, from its great number of I should cut off the nobles for their lands,

rabbits; the Phænicians, who settled several coDesire his jewels, and this other's bouse. lonies on the coast, calling it Spanjah, from these

Shakspeare.

animals. It has the sea on every side, except

on that pext to Gaul, from which it is separated Fierce champion fortitude, that knows no fears by the Pyrenees. The Romans first divided it Of hissos, blows, or want, or loss of ears. Pope. into Hispania Citra and Ultra under two præ

Hist, hist, says another that stond by, away, do tors. In that state it continued down to Augus

tor; for here's a whole pack of dismals coming.

Swift. tus; who divided the Farther Spain into Bætica, which he left to the people to be governed by All point at earth, and hiss at human pride,

With penitential aspect as they pass, a procansul; and Lusitania, which he added 'The wisdom of the wise, and prancings of the great. to his own provinces ; calling the Hither Spain

Young. Tarraconensis. Hispania was anciently much Thither with one consent they bend, celebrated for its fertility, of which it has greatly Their sorrows with their lives to end, fallen short in modern times. "Strabo says, the While each in thought already hears people were of a warlike turn; and, their bodies The water hissing in his ears.

Beattie. being formed for hardships and labor, they ever HISSAR FEROZEH, a flat district of Delhi, preferred war to peace, and were remarkably Hindostan, situated between the twenty-eighth prodigal of life. See Spain.

and thirtieth degrees of northern latitude, on the HISPANIOLA, or St. Domingo, the largest of western side of the river Jumna. The only nathe Antilles or Caribbee Islands, in the Wesi In- tural stream which runs through it is the small dies. See DOMINGO (St.)

river Sursutty; and, in order to supply this deHISS, v.a., v. N., n. s. 2 Sax. piscean, to ficiency, one of the Afghaun emperors of the Hist, interj.

S contemn; Dut. his fourteenth century caused two canals to be cut; sen. To utter a noise like that of a serpent and some the first from the Setlege, the other from the other animals. It is remarkable, that this word Jumna, both of which joined at the town of Hiscannot be pronounced without making the noise sar, whence they are supposed to have been which it signifies. To condemn at a public execu- divided into a number of small cuts. Thus a tion; to explode; to procure disgrace: hiss, the part of the district received the name of Harriana, voice of a serpent; censure; an expression of up; but the country produces horses, camels, contempt, or disapprobation, as used in theatres: and cattle; and during the prosperous period of hist, an exclamation commanding silence. Of the Mogul empire it was considered as the perthis word I know not the original : some have sonal estate of the heir apparent. Various petty thought it a corruption of hush, hush it, husht, chiefs now rule here. The chief towns are Hissar, or hist; but I have heard that it is an Irish verb Hansy, and Sursutty. commanding silence.'-Dr. Johnson.

HISSAR FEROZEH, the capital of the foregoing Every one will hiss him out to his disgrace. district, is in the midst of a once sandy desert,

Ecclus. xxii. 2. where water was sold at a high price to the traThe merchants shall hiss at thee. Ezek. xxvii. 36. vellers that passed this way from Persia to Men shall pursue with merited disgrace ;

Delhi. Sultan Feruz, having caused the two Hiss, clap their hands, and from his country chace. before-mentioned canals to be dug, laid the

Sandys. foundations of a town and fortress, to which he Thy mother plays, and I

gave the name of the Fort of Feroz. It was Play too; but so disgraced a part, whose issue

built of stone brought from the neighbouring Will hiss me to my grave.

hills of Nosa, and now belongs to an indeShakspeare. Winter's Tale. What's the newest grief?

pendent chief. Long. 75° 53' E., lat. 28° 41' N. - That of an hour's age doth hiss the speaker,

HISTER, in entomology, a genus of the coleEach minute teenis a new one. Id. Macbeth, optera order of insects. The first articulation of In the height of this bath to be thrown into the the antennæ is compressed and curved; the last Thames and cooled glowing hot, in that surge, like is cousiderably larger than the others, and apa horse shoe; think of that; hissing hot. Shakspeare. pears to be a solid knob; the head is drawn Mute silence hist along!

within the body; the mouth is forcipated; the 'Less Philomel will deign a song,

elytra are shorter than the body; and the foreIn her sweetest saddest plight.

legs are dentated. The body is polished and Smoothing the rugged brow of night. Milton.

very shining, and its form almost square; the He hiss for hiss returned, with forked tongue To forked tongue.

thorax large and highly polished ; anteriorly it is Id.

made with a slope, in the cavity of which is He heard On all sides from innumerable tongues,

lodged the head, the position of which is often A dismal uuiversal hiss, the sound

only discovered by the projection of the maxillæ; Of publick scorn!

Id. the head being, for the most part, so drawn unShe would so shamefully fail in the last act, that der the thorax, that the inseci looks as if it had instead of a plaudite she would deserve to be hissed none. The elytra are as it were cut off towards

More.

the extremity, and do not cover the whole of the I have seen many successions of men, who have abdomen. They are extremely smooth, and only shot themselves into the world, some bolting out upon have a few striæ, scarcely perceptible towards the stage with vast applause, and others hissed off, their outward side. Lastly, the hinder part of and quitting it with disgrace.

Dryden.

the abdomen, which projects beyond the elytra, See the furies arise : See the snakes that they rear,

is round and blunt. These insects are sometimes How they hiss in their hair.

found in cow-dung, and often on sand. They Id. Alexander's Feast. vary prodigiously in size; but differ very little Against the steed he threw

either in form or color, being all very dark. His forceful spear, which, hissing as it few, The larvæ, as well as the perfect insects, are frePierced through the yielding planks. Dryden. quently met with in the dung of horses, cows, &c. VOL. XI.

т

off the stage.

274

HISTORY.

HISTOʻRIAN, 1. s.

Fr. histoire ; Lat. His works resemble a large history-piece, where even Histor'ical, adj.

historia ; Gr.15opia.

the less important figures have some convenient place. A writer of facts

Pope. Historʻic, adj. Histor'ICALLY, adv. and events: histo

Here rising bold the patriot's honest face ;

There warriors frowning in historick brass. Id. Histor’IFY, v. a. -rify, to relate or reHistoriOGʻRAPHER, n. S.

cord in history:

Justly Cæsar scorns the poet's lays ;

It is to history he trusts for praise. HISTORIOGʻRAPHY, n. S.

historiographer,

What histories of toil coul: I declare! History, n. s.

ισορια and γραφω, , But still long-wearicd nature wants repair. Id. His’TORY-PIECE, n. s. a writer of history: Not added years on years my task could close, history, a narration of events, delivered with dig- The long historian of my country's woes. 14. nity; mere narration; knowledge of events nar History, so far as it relates to the affairs of the Bible, rated : history-piece, a picture representing some is necessary to divines.

Watts. memorable event,

History may, in general, be aeîned an acThis false judge, that highte Appius,

count of the most remarkable events which have (So was his name, for it is no fable,

occured in the world, arranged in the order in But knowen for an historical thing notable, which they happened, together with the causes The sentence of it sith is out of doute)

from which they originated, and the different This false judge goth now fast aboute

effects they produced. The word isopla liteTo hasten his delit all that he may.

rally denotes a search for curious things, a deChaucer. The Doctoures Tale.

sire of knowing, or even a rehearsal of things we Because the beginning seemeth abrupt, it needs have seen; being formed from the verb is opelv, that you know the occasion of these several advenwhich properly signifies to know a thing by tares ; for the method of a poet historical is not such having seen it. But the ideas attached to it beas of ar. historiographer.

Spenser. O famous moniment of womens prayse !

came gradually more extensive, and it is now Matchable either to Semiramis,

applied to the knowledge of things taken from Whom antique hictory so high dotb rayse,

the report of others: from the verb conj, I Or to Hypsiphil, or to Thomiris. Spenser. know; and hence, among the ancients, several of When that which the word of God doth but deliver their great nien were called polyhistores, i. e. historically, we construe as if it were legally meant, persons of various and general knowledge. and so urge it further than we can prove it was in The word history is, however, sometimes used tended, do we not add to the laws of God? Hooker.

to signify a description of things, as well as an What thanks sufficient, or what reeompence account of facts. Thus Theophrastus calls his Equal, have I to render thee, divine

work on the nature and properties of plants, a Historian!

Milton.

history of plants; we have a treatise of ArisThe gospels, which are weekly read, do all histori. totle, entitled a history of animals; and to this cally declare something which our Lord Jesus Christ day the description of plants, animals, and mine. himself either spoke, did, or suffered in his own per- rals, are called by the general name of natural

Id. His words or his oath,

history. Cannot bind him to troth,

But what chiefly merits the name of history, And he values not credit or history,

and what is here considered as such, is an acAnd though he has served thro'

count of the principal transactions of mankind Two 'prenticeships now,

from the beginning of the world ; generally diHe knows not his trade nor his mystery.

Marvell. vided into two parts, viz. civil and ecclesiastical. The third age they term historicon; that is, such The first contains the history of mankind in wherein matters have been more truly histori fied, and their various relations to one another in common therefore may be believed. Browne's Vulgar Errours. life; the second considers them as acting, or

0, muse, historify Her praise, whose praise to learn your skiil hath lieve to be the will of the Supreme Being. Civil

pretending to act, in obedience to what they beframed me.

Sidney. In an historical relation we use terms that are most

history, therefore, includes an account of all the proper and best known.

Burnet's Theory.

different states that have existed in the world, Our country which has produced writers of the urst and likewise of those men who in different ages figure in every other kind of work, has been very bar of the world have most eminently distinguished ren in good historians.

Addison. themselves, either for their good or evil actions. What poor ideas must strangers conceive of persons This last part of civil history, however, somefamous among us, should they form their notions of times forms a distinct branch of study styled them from the writings of those our historiogruphers. biography.

Id.

Few accomplishments are more valued than an With equal justice and historick care,

accurate knowledge of the histories of different Their laws, their toils, their arms with his compare. nations; and no literary production is more re

Prior.
I put the journals into a strong box, after the man-

spectable than a well-written history of any naner of the historiographers of some eastern monarchs.

tion: although the truth of Goldsmith's remark Arbuthnot's History of John Bull.

must be acknowledged, that history is generally After his life has been rather invented than written, little more than the register of human contention I shall consider him historically as an author, with re

and calamity. gard to those works he has left behind him.

Geography and chronology have been called Pope's Essay on Homer. the eyes of history. The person who would

son.

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