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king's chaplain, and two years after dean of Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night : Worcester. The death of Charles II. stopped God said, Let Newton be, and all was light. Pope. his farther preferment; for, though his church The boys and girls would venture to come and principles were very high, he manifested too play at hide and seek in my hair. Gulliver's Travel. much zeal againt popery to be a favorite with HIDAGE, HIDAGIUM, was an extraordinary James II. On the revolution, he with many tax payable to the kings of England for every others was deprived for refusing to take the oath's hide of land. This taxation was levied not only to king William and queen Mary; and soon in money, but in provision, armour, &c.; and after, archbishop Sancroft and his colleagues,
when the Danes landed in Sandwich, in 994, king considering how to maintain episcopal succession Ethelred taxed all his lands by hides; so that among those who adhered to them, Dr. Hickes every 310 hides found one ship furnished, and carried over a list of the deprived clergy to king every eight hides furnished one jack and one James; and with his sanction a private conse- saddle, to arm for the defence of the kingdom, cration was performed, at which it is said lord &c. Sometimes the word hidage was used for Clarendon was present. Dr. Hickes was conse- the being quit of that tax; which was also called crated suffragan bishop of Thetford, and died in hidegild, from the Saxon, “a price or ransom 1715. He wrote 1. Institutiones Grammaticæ paid to save one's skin or hide from beating.' Anglo-Saxonicæ, et Mæso-Gothicæ. 2. Antiqua HIDALGO, in modern history, a title given Literatura Septentrionalis. 3. Two treatises, one in Spain to all who are of noble family. The of the Christian priesthood; the other of the Hidalgos claim a descent from those valiant soldignity of the episcopal order. 4. Jovian, or an diers who retired into Castile, and the mountains answer to Julian the Apostate. Three volumes of Asturias, and other remote parts of Spain, on of sermons: with many temporary controversial the invasion of the Moors, where, having fortified pieces on politics and religion.
themselves, they successively descended into the HICK'WALL, n. s. / Old words for a wood- plains, in proportion to the success of their arms: Hick'way, n. s. pecker.
from the notoriety of their persons, or the lands HID, part.
Sax. þidan; Belg. they became possessed of, they acquired the apHID'DEN, part.
hoedan; Teut. huten. pellation of Hidalgos notorios, Hidalgos de solor Hide, v. a. & v. n. To conceal; to with- conocido, or de casa solariega. Otalora says that HIDE AND SEEK, n. s.
hold or withdraw the true meaning of Hidalgos de solar conocido HI'DER, n. s. ledge: to lie concealed: hide and seek, a play in known mansion or possession, the nature of which some hide themselves and others seek them. which is particularly explained in the laws of For fere almost out of his wit he brayde,
Perditas, which describe three sorts of tenures And to his goddes pitously he preide
called devisa, solariega, and behetria. By the For socour; but it mighte not betide :
first, lands are devised by the ancestor; solariFor drede of his him thoughte that he diede, ega is a tenure upon another person's manor, and And ran into a garden bim to hide.
obliges the owner to receive the lord of the fee Chaucer. The Monkes Tale. when necessity obliges him to travel; and beAvaunt, and quit my sight; let the earth hide thee! hetria is of the nature of an allodium. In pro
Shakspeare. portion as these aborigines gained ground on His reasons are as two grains of wheat hid' in two
the Moors, and increased in their numbers, many bushels of chaff.
Id. Merchant of Venice.
private persons distinguished themselves by their Thus fame shall be atchieved, renown on earth ; valor, and obtained testimonies of their services And what most merits fame, in silence hid, Milton.
called cartas de merced, which served them as a Other hidden cause
foundation of their birth and good descent, withLeft them superior.
out which documents their posterity could not Blame not the muse that brought those spots to
make it appear; and if, from lapse of time, or sight,
other unavoidable accidents, such proofs should Which in your splendor hid corrode your light.
happen to be lost or destroyed, the law affords
Marvell. Saturnian spite pursues me through the earth,
them a remedy, by a declaration, importing, that No corners left to hide my long-wished birth. Id.
such persons as are supposed to have had such Seas hid with navies, chariots passing o'er
certificates, may be relieved by making it appear The channel, on a bridge from shore to shore. that their ancestors, time immemorial, have al
Dryden. ways been held and reputed as Hidalgos, and Nile hears him knocking at his sevenfold gates, enjoyed the privileges such, from a strong And seeks his hidden spring, and fears his nephews' presumption in their favor; the possession of fates.
land having equal force to any other document; Then for my corps a homely grave provide, which is fully set forth in the Pragmatica of CorWhich love and me from public scorn may hide. dova.
HIDALGU Y Costilla (Don Miguel), a priest, A fox, hard run, begged of a countryman to help who first kindled the insurrection in Mexico, him to some hiding place.
which has resulted in the independence of that p. With what astonishment and veneration may we Jook into our own souls, where there are such hidden country. He was the resident clergyman in the stores of virtue and knowledge, such inexhausted and regarded as a man of talents in early life.
town of Dolores, in the intendencia of Goanaxoato, sources of perfection ? Hell trembles at the sight, and hides its head
His intercourse with the Indian population af. In ut most darkness, while on earth each heart forded him opportunities of perceiving their disIs filled with peace.
Rowe's Royal Convert. like to the Spaniards; and this led him to irom
the plan of a general revolt. Circumstances One of the first things was a inore particular in. hastened the execution of the scheme ; and cap- quisition than had been before of every hide of land tain Allende, having collected a few soldiers, within the precincts of his conquest, and how they
Wotton. marched to Dolores, where he arrived on the
And still the harsher and hidebounder 10th of September 1810, and joined Hidalgo.
The damsels prove, become the fonder, Allende and the priest, at the head of the insur
Hudibras. gents, now pillaged the houses of the Spaniards
His mantle, now his hide, with rugged hairs in the town of San Miguel el Grande; and on
Cleaves to his back; a famished face he bears. the 29th of September gained possession of
Dryden. Goanaxoato, in the treasury of which town they
The trembling weapon past found a large quantity of coin and silver bars. Through nine bull hides, each under other placed Don J. Villegas, appointed viceroy by the re On his broad shield.
Id. gency of Cadiz, arrived at this period at Mexico, Pisistratus was first to grasp their hands, and sent a body of troops against flidalgo. His
And spread soft hides upon the yellow sands. measures at first however were ineffectual; Hi
Like stinted hidebound trees, that just have got dalgo attached the Indians to his cause, by re
Swift. pealing the tax called tributos, which they had Sufficient sap at once to bear and rot. paid ever since their original conquest. From Hide is particularly applied to the skin of Goanaxoato he marched on Valladolid October large cattle, as bullocks, cows, horses, &c. Hides the 20th, and was joyfully received by two regi- are either raw, that is just as taken off the carcase : ments of militia. Soon after, being proclaimed salted, or seasoned with salt, alum, and saltpetre, generalissimo of the Mexican forces, be found to prevent their spoiling: or curried and tanned. himself at the head of eighty regiments, of 1000 See Tanning. men each. He now, therefore, proceeded towards
Hide of LAND was as much as would mainMexico, when Villegas, having but a handful of tain a family: some call it sixty, some eighty, and iroops for its defence, applied to the archbishop others 100 acres. of Mexico, and to the inquisition, for a sentence HID'EOUS, adj. Fr, hideux. Horrible; of excommunication against Hidalgo and his Hıd'EOUSLY, adv. dreadful ; deformed; adherents. This awed the Mexicans from join Ilı D'EOUSN Ess, n.s. S shocking : it is used by ing the insurgents; disappointed their expecta- Spenser in a sense not now retained; detesttions of assistance; and Hidalgo became irresolute. able. After having waited in the neighbourhood of the With that the chorle his clubbe gan shake ; capital till the viceroy had recalled his troops, he Frowning his eyen gan to make began a retreat. Ai Aculco, however, he was An hideous chere, as man in rage ; overtaken and completely defeated, on the 7th of For
he brent in his viage. November. He then retired to Goanaxoato,
Chaucer. Romaunt of the Rose. whither he was followed by the Spanish army,
The brighte swerdes weuten lo and fro who took the place with great slaughter. Hi
So hideously, that with the leste stroke,
It semned that it wolde felle an oke. dalgo fled to Guadalaxara; and on the 17th
Id. The Knightes Tale. of January, 1811, suffered a further and ruinous
O hideous hanger of dominion !
Spenser. defeat at the bridge of Calderon. One of
I arm myself his own officers delivered him up on the 21st
To welcome the condition of the time; of March, 1811; and having previously been Which cannot look more hideously on me, degraded from the priesthood he was put to Than I have drawn it in my fantasy. Shakspeure. death on the 27th of July that year.
Some monsters in my thoughts, HIDDENSOE, a small island of Pomerania, Too hideous to be shewn.
Id. Othello. off the west coast of the island of Rugen. The
I fled, and cryed out death! pasture is tolerable; but the inhabitants. who
Hell trembled at the hideous name, and sighed amount to about 500, are chiefly fishermen. It
From all her caves, and back resounded death. is ten miles long and two broad. Long. 13° 10'
Milton. E., lat. 54° 35' N.
If he could have turned himself to as many forms n. s. . ; Belg. as Proteus, every form should have been made hide
Sidney. skin of an animal either raw or dressed ; the Her eyes grew stiffened, and with sulpbur burn;
Her hideous looks and hellish form return; human skin in contempt; a certain quantity of land : hidebound, being in the state in which
Her curling snakes with hissings fill the place,
And open all the furies of her face. the bark will not give way to the growth; harsh;
This, in the present application, is hideously prountractable; niggardly; penurious. A horse is
but the sense is intelligiblc. said to be hidebound when his skin sticks so
Collier's Defence. hard to his ribs and back, that you cannot with
'Tis forced through the hiatuses at the bottom of your hand pull up or loosen the one from the
the sea with such vehemence, that it puts the sea into other. It sometimes comes by poverty and bad
the most horrible disorder, making it rage and roar keeping; at other times from over-riding, or a
with the most hideous and amazing noise. surfeit.
Woodward's Natural History. Oh, tiger's heart, wrapt in a woman's hide !
What avails that indulgent heaven How could'st thou drain the life-blood of the child : From nortal eyes, has wrapt the woes to come
Shakspeare. If we, ingenious, lo torment ourselves, A root of a tree may be hidebound, but it will not Grow pale at hideous fictions of our own! keep open without somewhat put into it. Bacon.
HIDJELLE, Hijali, or INGELLEE, a town in The presbytery had more sympathy with the disthe province of Bengal, situated on the westcipline of Scotland than the hierarchy of England. bank of the Hooghly River, fifty-five miles S.S.W.
Bacon. from Calcutta. During the Mogul government
He rounds the air, and breaks the hymnick notes it was the capital of a foujdarry or military sta
In birds, heav'n's choristers, organick throats ; tion, comprehending 1098 square miles. This Which, if they did not die, might seem to be
Donne. district is situated on the low margin of the river A tenth rank in the heavenly hierarchy.
Out of the hierarchies of angels sheen, Hooghly, where it unites with the bay of Bengal.
The gentle Gabriel called he from the rest. It was first dismembered from the Soubah of
Fairfax. Orissa, and annexed to Bengal, in the reign of The blessedest of mortal wights, now questionless Shah Jehan; and is very productive in grain the highest saint in the celestial hierarchy, began to and salt. “The salt land is that portion exposed be so importuned, that a great part of the divine to the overflowing of the tides, usually called the liturgy was addressed solely to her. Hotel. churs or banks; where mounds of earth, strongly Angels, by imperial summons called, impregnated with saline particles, named kalaries Forthwith from all the ends of heaven appeared, or working-places, are formed. Each of these Under their hierarchs in orders bright. Milton. heaps is estimated on a medium to yield 233
These the supreme king maunds (eighty 'bs. each) of salt, requiring the
Exalted to such power, and gave to rule, labor of seven manufacturers; who, by an easy
Each in his hierarchy, the orders bright. Id.
When an old Scotch covenanter shall be process of filtration and boiling, are enabled to
The champion for the Eoglish hierarchy. complete their operations from November to
Marcell. June, before the setting in of the periodical rains.' While the old Levitical hierarchy continued, it was Hamilton. HIE, v. n. Sax. biegan; Goth heya. To part of the ministerial office to slay the sacrifices.
South. basten; to go in haste.
Consider what I have written, from regard for the Thus in hir doubtes as they stode
cburch established under the hierarchy of bishops. Waxing the se, coming the flode
Swif?. Was cried : . To ship goe every wight:'
HIERACITES, in church history, Christian Then was, but hie that hie him might.
heretics in the third century: so called from Chaucer's Dreame.
their leader Hierax, a philosopher of Egypt; When they had marked the changed skies,
who taught that Melchisedek was the Holy they wist their hour was spent; then each to rest him"hies,
Id. Faerie Queene. ·
Ghost, denied the resurrection, and condemned My will is even this,
marriage. That presently you hie you home to bed.
HIERACIUM, hawkweed ; a genus of the
Shakspeare. polygamia æqualis order, and syngenesia class of Well, I will hie,
plants; natural order forty-ninth, compositæ. And so bestow these papers as you bade me. Id. The receptacle is naked : Cal. imbricated and Auster spyed him ;
ovate; the pappus simple and sessite. The most Cruel Auster hither hyed him. Crashaw. common species are, The snake no sooner hist,
1. H. aurantiacum, commonly called Grim But virtue heard it, and away she hyed. Id.
the collier, has many oblong, oval, entire leaves, Some to the shores do fly,
crowning the root ; an upright, single, hairy, and Some to the woods, or whither fear advised :
almost leafless stalk, a foot high, terminated by But running from, all to destruction hie. Daniel.
reddish orange-colored flowers in a corymbus. . Thither, full fraught with mischievous revenge,
These flowers have dark, oval, ash-colored, Accursed, and in a cursed hour, he hies. Milton.
calyces; whence the name. This is the only Thus be advised me, on yon aged tree Hans up thy lute, and hie thee to the sea.
species cultivated in gardens. It is propagated Waller. by seeds or parting the roots.
The seed may The youth, returning to his mistress hies. be sown in autumn or spring. In June, when
Dryden. the plants are two or three inches high, they His folded Rocks secure, the shepherd bome may be picked out and planted in beds, Hies merry hearted, and by turns relieves
where they must be left till the next autumn, The ruddy milk-naid of her brimming, pail. and then transplanted where they are to re
Thomson's Seasons. main. HIELMAR, a lake between Sudermannland 2. H. Pilos ella, the mouse-ear, has blossoms and Nericia, in the central part of Sweden, com- ted on the outside, and pale yellow within; municating with the lake of Malar. It is about the cups set thick with black hairs. The flowers forty miles long, but of small width; and contains open at 8 A. M., and close about 2 P. M. It a number of rocks and islands. Sixty miles west grows commonly in dry pastures in England; of Stockholm.
it has a milky juice, but is less bitter and HI'ERARCH, n. S. Fr. hierarque; Gr.iepos, astringent than is usual with plants of that class. HIERARC'HICAL, adj. a priest, and apxos chief. It is reckoned hurtful to sheep. Goats eat it;
HI'ERARCHY, n. s. The chief of a sacred sheep are not fond of it; horses and swine refuse order : hierarchy, a sacred government; rank, or it. subordination of holy beings; the ecclesiastical 3. H. umbellatum grows to the height of establishment.
three feet, with an erect and firm stalk, termiJehovah, from the summit of the sky,
nated with an umbel of yellow flowers. It is a Environed with his winged hierarchy,
native of Scotland, and grows in rough stony The world surveyed.
Sandys. places, but is not very common. The flowers are
sometimes used for dyeing yarn of a fine yellow Hicro's Crown, in hydrostatics. Hiero II., color.
having furnished a goldsmith with a quantity of HIERAPOLIS, in ancient geography, a town fine gold to make a crown, suspected, upon reof Phrygia, abounding in hot springs, and having ceiving it, that he had been cheated, by his using its name from the number of its temples. There a greater quantity of silver alloy than was necesare coins exhibiting figures of various gods who sary. He applied to Archimedes to discover the had temples here. Of this place was Epictetus fraud without defacing the crown; which he did the stoic philosopher. It is now called Pambouk; by this experiment: He procured a ball of pure . and is situated near the Scamander, on a portion gold and another of silver, each exactly of the of Mount Mesogis, six miles from Laodicea. same weight with the crown; and judging that The worship of the great Syrian goddess, called if the crown were of pure gold it would be of Atergatis, was established in this town; but no equal bulk, and, upon putting it in water, expel traces now remain of her temple. The only re an equal quantity of the water with the golden markable monument is a subterraneous canal, ball; if of silver, it would expel an equal quanwhich conducts the water from the mountains of tity with the silver one; but, if of an intermedithe north for the distance of four leagues. ate quality, the quantity of water expelled would
HIERARCHY. Some of the rabbies reckon be in exact proportion. This upon trial he found four, others ten, orders or ranks of angels; and to be the case; and, by comparing the quantities give them different names according to their of water displaced, discovered the proportions of supposed degrees of power and knowledge. gold and silver in the crown.
HIERES, ISLES OF, is the name of a cluster HIEROCLES, a cruel persecutor of the Chrisof three small islands of the Mediterranean, tians, and a violent promoter of the persecution near the south coast of France, and about eleven under Dioclesian, flourished A D. 302. He miles from the town of Hieres. They are called wrote some books against the Christian religion; Porquerolles, Porticros, and the isle of Titan. in which he aims to show some inconsistencies in Giens, sometimes reckoned one of them, is mure the Holy Scriptures, and compares the miracles of properly a peninsula. Porquerolles, the largest, Apollonius Tyanæus to those of our Saviour. He does not contain 100 inhabitants. Porticros, was refuted by Lactantius and Eusebius. The rethree leagues farther to the east, and more ele- mains of his works were collected into one volume vated, has a small harbour, but only fifty inha- by bishop Pearson; and published in 1654, with bitants. All of them are defended by forts. a learned dissertation prefixed.
Hieres, a town in the department of the Var HIEROCLES, a Platonic philosopher of the France, nine miles east of Toulon. It is at the fifth century, who taught at Alexandria, and was foot of a steep rock or mountain, surrounded by admired for his eloquence. He wrote seven a beautiful plain. The old town, which stood on books upon Providence and Fate, dedicated to the high part of the mountain, has been aban- the philosopher Olyınpiodorus, who by his emdoned. On entering the new town the streets bassies did the Romans great services under are found to be mean and dirty, and singularly Honorius and Theodosius II. But these books contrasted with the neat white houses of which are lost, and we only know them by the extracts they are composed. The environs are pleasant; in Photius. He wrote also a Commentary upon abounding with gardens containing the best the golden verses of Pythagoras; which is still exfruits, particularly oranges, and covered with tant, and has been several times published with verdure throughout the year.
But the air of those verses. Hieres is unhealthy, owing to exhalations from HIEʻROGLYPH, n. S. Fr. hieroglyphe; the marshes, and from a salt lake in the neigh HIEROGLYPH'Ic, 7. S. Gr. cepos, y upw. bourhood. Here great quantities of salt are ob HIEROGLYPH'ICAL, adj. An emblem ; a tained, and exported, as well as oil, wine, and HIEROGLYPH’ICALLY, adv. ) figure by which fruit, to Toulon and Marseilles. Hieres was for- a word was implied. Hieroglyphics were used merly a sea-port of consequence : but the sea has before the alphabet was invented. Hieroglyph now retired to the distance of a league. The seenis to be the proper substantive, and hierocelebrated Massillon was born here. Population glyphic the adjective. The art of. writing in 7000.
picture: charged with hieroglyphical sculpture; HIERO I., king of Syracuse, succeeded his emblematical. brother Gelon, A. A. C. 478. He made war
In this place stanos a stately hieroglyphical obelisk against Theron, tyrant of Agrigentum, and took of Thebani marble.
Sandys's Travels. Himera. He gained three crowns at the Olympic The Egyptian serpent figures time, games by horse and chariot racing, for which he And, stripped, returns into his prime ; is celebrated by Pindar; whese conversation, If my affection thou would'st win, with that of other literati, rendered him humane First cast thy hieroglyphick skin. Cleaveland. and liberal. He died A. A. C. 467..
A lamp amongst the Egyptians is the hieroglyphick Hiero II., king of Syracuse, was a descendant of life.
Wilkins's Dædalus. of Gelon, and was eleeted king A. A. C.'268.
The original of the conceit was probably hieroglyHe carried on war against the Romans for some phical, which after became mythological, and, by a time along with the Carthaginians; but made process of tradition, stole into a total verity, which
was but partly true in its morality. peace, and continued ever after their firm ally.
Browne's Vulgar Errors. He was a relation of Archimedes; and was a
This hieroglyphick of the Egyptians was erectrd prince of great learning and virtue, and en for parental affection, manifested in the protection couraged arts and commerce. He died A.A.C. of her young ones, when her gest was set on fire. 225.
Others have spoken emblenjatically and hieroglyphi- and inconvenient essay towards writing, for they cally as the Egyptians, and the phenix was the hiero- contrived to make them both pictures and chaglyphick of the sun.
racters. In order to effect this improvement, The first writing men used was only the single pic- they were obliged to proceed gradually, by first tures and gravings of the things they would represent, making the principal circumstance of the subject which way of expression was afterwards called hiero- stand for the whole; as in the hieroglyphics of glyphick.
Horapollo, which represent a battle of two armies Between the statues obelisks were placed,
in array by two hands, one holding a shield and And the learned walls with hieroglyphicks graced.
the other a bow : then putting the instrument of
Pope. No brute can endure the taste of strung liquor, and the thing, whether real or metaphorical, for the consequently it is against all the rules of hierogly- thing itself, as an eye and sceptre to represent a phick to assign any animals as patrons of punch.
monarch, a ship and pilot the governor of the
Swift. universe, &c.; and finally, by making one thing once I was well versed in the forgotten stand for or represent another, where their obEtruscan letters, and were I so minded
servations of nature, or traditional superstitions Could make their hieroglyphics plainer than led them to discover or imagine any resemblance : Your alphabet. T'he Deformed Transformed. thus the universe was designed by a serpent in a
HIEROGLYPHICS were in use among the circle, whose variegated spots denoted the stars; Egyptians, and that as well in their writings as and a man who had nobly surmounted his misinscriptions; being the figures of various ani- fortunes was represented by the skin of the mals, the parts of human bodies, and mechanical hyæna, because this was supposed to furnish an instrumenis. It was the custom to have the walls, invulnerable desence in battle. The Chinese doors, &c., of their temples, obelisks, &c., en- writing, he observes, was the next kind of imgraven with such figures. "Hieroglyphics are pro- provement in the use of hieroglyphics. The periy emblems or signs of divine, sacred, or Egyptians joined characteristic marks to images; supernatural things; by which they are distin- the Chinese threw out the images and retained guished from common symbols, which are signs only the contracted marks, and from these marks of sensible and natural things. Hermes Trisme- proceeded letters. The general concurrence of gistus is commonly esteemed the inventor of different people, in this method of recording their hieroglypnics : he first introduced them into the thoughts, can never be supposed to be the effect heathen theology, whence they have been of imitation, sinister views, or chance; but must transplanted into the Jewish and Christian. be considered as the uniform voice of nature Sacred things, says Hippocrates, should only be speaking to the rude conceptions of mankiud; communicated to sacred persons. Hence the for not only the Chinese of the East, the Mexiancient Egyptians communicated to none but cans of the West, and the Egyptians of the South, their kings and priests, and those who were to but the Scythians likewise of the North, and the succeed to the priesthood and the crown, the intermediate inhabitants of the earth, viz. the Insecrets of nature, and of their morality and history; dians, Phænicians, Ethiopians, &c., used the and this they did by a kind of cabbala, which, al same way of writing by picture and hieroglyphic. the same time that it instructed them, only He farther shows, that the several species of amused the rest of the people. Hence the use hieroglyphic writing took their rise from nature of hieroglyphics, or mystic figures, to veil their and necessity, and not from choice and artifice, morality, politics, &c., from profane eyes. This by tracing, at large the origin and progress of the author and many others do not keep to the pre- art of speech. He proceeds to show how, in cise character ofa hieroglyphic, but apply it to process of time, the Egyptian hieroglyphics came profane as well as divine things. Hieroglyphics to be employed for the vehicle of mystery. They are a kind of real characters, which do not only used their hieroglyphics two ways; the one denute, but in some measure express the things. more simple, by putting the part for the whole Thus, according to Clemens Alexandrinus, which was the curiologie hieroglyphic; and the (Stroin. v.) a lion is the hieroglyphic of strength other more artificial, by putting one thing of and fortitude; a bullock, of agriculture; a horse, resembling qualities for another, called the tropic of liberty; a sphinx, of subtlety, &c. Such is hieroglyphic: thus the moon was sometimes rethe opinion that has generally been embraced, presented by a half circle, and sometimes by a both by ancient and modern writers, of the origin cynocephalus. They employed their proper and use of hieroglyphics. It has been almost hieroglyphics to record openly and plainly their uniformly maintained, that they were invented laws, policies, public morals, and history, and by the Egyptian priests to conceal their wisdom all kinds of civil matters: this is evident from from the knowledge of the vulgar; but the late their obelisks, which were full of hieroglyphic bishop Warburton has, with much ingenuity and characters, designed to record singular events, learning, endeavoured to show that this account memorable actions, and new inventions; and is erroneous. He thinks the first kind of hiero- also from the celebrated inscription on the temglyphics were mere pictures, because the most ple of Minerva at Sais, where an infant, an old natural way of communicating our conceptions, man, a hawk, a fish, and a river-horse, expressed by marks or figures, was by tracing out the this moral sentence : «All you who come into the images of things; and this is verified in the world and go out of it, know this, that the gods case of the Mexicans, whose only method of hate impudence. However, the tropical hierowriting their laws and history was by this picture glyphics, which were employed to divulge, grawriting. But the hieroglyphics invented by the dually produced symbols which were designed Egyptians were an improvement on this rude to secrete or conceal: thus Egypt was soinetimes