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ings; or to the bearer's name, as in the two follow- earls, viscounts, and barons. 3. Of all knights ing instances. The motto of the earl of Cholmon- of the garter, though they should be under the deley is, Cassis tutissima virtus, i.e. Virtue is degree of barons; and, 3, Of knights of the batb, he safest helmet; on account of the helmet in who both receive on their creation a grant of the coat of arms. The motto of the right honor- supporters. And, lastly, of such knights as the rable lord Fortescue is, Forte scutum salus king chooses to bestow this honor upon; as in Hucum, i. e. A strong shield is the safety of the instance of Sir Andrew Fountail, who was Commanders; alluding to the name of that ancient knighted by Philip, earl of Pembroke, when lord family. Sometimes it has reference to neither, lieutenant of Ireland, Fountain being then secrebut expresses something divine, or heroic; as tary; and, on his return to England, king Wilthat of the earl of Scarborough, Murus æreus liam granted him supporters to his arms, viz. conscientia sana, i.e. A good conscience is a two griffons gules and or. In Scotland all the wall of brass. Others are ænigmatical; as that chiefs of clans or names have the privilege of of the royal achievement, which is, Dieu et mon claiming supporters ; also the baronets. But by droit, i.e. God and iny right; introduced by act of parliament, 10th September, 1672, none Edward III. in 1340, when he assumed the arms are allowed to use either arms or supporters, and title of king of France, and began to prose- without the lord Lyon's authority, under a cute his claim, which occasioned long and penalty and confiscation of all moveables where bloody wars, fatal, by turns, to both kingdoms. on such arms are put. Mottos, though hereditary in the families that

OF THE RULES OF HERALDRY. first took them up, have been changed on some particular occasions, and others appropriated in The rules for blazoning, such as the ancient Their stead, instances of which are sometimes usage and laws of heraldry have established met with in the history of families.

amongst us, are the following :Sometimes there are two mottos, as in the 1. The first and most general rule is, to exroyal arms of Scotland; where the one, In de- press heraldic distinctions in proper terms, so as fence, is placed in a scroll above the crest; and not to omit any thing that ought to be specified, the other, Nemo me impune lacessit, in a scroll and at the same time to be clear and concise under the shield and supporters. Sometimes a without tautology. third motto is added, as in the royal arms of 2. Begin with the tincture of the field, and Great Britain, where the garter, with its motto then proceed to the principal charges which Iloni soit qui mal y pense, surrounds the possess the most honorable place in the shield, shield.

such as fess, cheveron, &c., always naming that Supporters are figures standing on the scroll, charge first, which lies next and immediately and placed at the side of the escutcheon; they upon the field. are so called because they seem to support or 3. After naming the tincture of the field, the hold up the shield. The rise of supporters is, honorable ordinaries, or other principal figures, by M. Menestrier, traced up to ancient tourna- specify their attributes, and afterwards their metal ments, wherein the knights caused their shields

or color. to be carried by servants or pages under the dis 4. When an honorable ordinary, or some one guise of lions, bears, griffons, blackamoors, &c., figure, is placed upon another, whether it be a who also held and guarded the escutcheons, fess, cheveron, cross, &c., it is always to be which the knights were obliged to expose to pub- named after the ordinary or figure over which it lic view for some time before the lists were is placed, with one of these expressions, sur tout, opened. Sir George M'Kenzie, who dissents or over all. from this opinion, says, “That the first origin 5. In blazoning such ordinaries as are plain, and use of them was from the custom which ever the bare mention of them is sufficient; but, if an was, and is, of leading such as are invested with ordinary should be made of any of the crooked any great honor to the prince who confers it: lines mentioned above, its form must be specified, thus, when any man is created a duke, marquis, that is, whether it be engrailed, wavy, &c. or knight of the garter, or any other order, he is 6. When a principal figure possesses the censupported by, and led to the prince betwixt, two tre of the field, its position is not to be expressed, of the same quality, and so receives from him the or (which amounts to the same thing), when a symbols of that honor; and, in remembrance of bearing is named, without specifying the point that solemnity, his arms are thereafter supported where it is placed, then it is understood to posby any two creatures he chooses.' Supporters sess the middle of the shield. bave formerly been taken from such animals or 7. The number of the points of mullets or birds as are borne in the shields, and sometimes stars must be specified when more than five; and they have been chosen as hearing some allusion also, if a mullet or any other charge be pierced, to the names of those whose arms they are made it must be mentioned as such, to distinguish it to support. The supporters of the arms of Great from what is plain. Britain, since the accession of king James I. to 8. When a ray of the sun, or other single the throne, are a lion rampant guardant crowned figure, is borne in any other part of the escutcheon or, on the dexter side; and a unicorn argent, than the centre, the point it issues from must crowned, armed, unguled, maned, aud gorged be named. with an antique crown, to which a chain is 9. The natural color of trees, plants, fruits, affixeil, all or, on the sinister. Bearing coats of birds, &c., is no otherwise to be expressed in arms supported is, according to the heraldic blazoning but by the word proper; but if disrules of England, the prerogative, 1. Of those colored, that is, if they differ from their natural called nobiles majores, viz. dukes, marquises, color, it must be particularised.

10. When three figures are in a field, and their 5. The person who marries an heiress, insteaa position is not mentioned in the blazoning, they of impaling his arms with those of his wife, is to are always understood to be placed two above, bear them in an escutcheon placed in the centre and one below.

of his shield, and which, on account of its show11. When there are many figures of the same ing forth his pretension to her estate, is called an species borne in a coat of arms, their number escutcheon of pretence, and is blazoned sur tout, must be observed as they stand, and distinctly i. e. over all. But the children are to bear the expressed.

hereditary coat arms of their father mother There are other positions called irregular; as, quarterly, which denotes a fixed inheritance, and for example, when three figures, which are so transmit them to posterity. The first and naturally placed two and one, are disposed one fourth quarters generally contain the father's and two, &c. It must also be observed, that arms, and the second and third the mother's ; when the field is strewed with the same figures, unless the heirs should derive not only their this is expressed by the word semée; but if the estate, but also their title and dignity, from their figures strewed on the field are whole ones, it mother. must be denoted by the words sans nombre; 6. If a maiden or dowager lady of quality whereas, if part of them is cut off at the extremi- marry a commoner, or a nobleman inferior to her ties of the escutcheon, the word semée is then to rank, their coats of arms may be set beside one be used.

another in two separate escutcheons, upon one

mantle or drapery, and the lady's arms ornaOF MARSHALLING Coats Of Arms.

mented according to her title. By marshalling coats of arms is to be under 7. Archbishops and bishops impale their arms stood the art of disposing divers of them in one differently from the forementioned coats, in escutcheon, and of distributing their contingent giving the place of honor, that is, the dexter side, ornaments in proper places. Various causes to the arms of their dignity. Prelates thus bear may occasion arms to be thus conjoined, which their arms parted per pale, to denote their being J.Guillim comprises under two heads, viz. mani- joined to their cathedral church in a sort of fest, and obscure. What this learned and judi- spiritual marriage. cious herald means by manifest causes, in the With respect to such armorial ensigns as the marshalling of coats of arms, are such as betoken sovereign thinks fit to augment a coat of arms marriages, or a sovereign's gift, granted either with, they may be marshalled various ways, as through the special favor of the prince, or for may be seen by the arms of his grace the duke of some eminent services. Concerning marriages Rutland and many others. So far the causes for it is to be observed,

marshalling divers arms in one shield, &c., are 1. When the coats of arms of a married cou manifest As to such as are called obscure, that ple, descended of distinct families, are to be put is when coats of arms are marshalled in such a together in one escutcheon, the field of their manner that no probable reason can be given respective arms is conjoined pale-ways, and why they are so conjoined, they must be left to blazoned parted per pale, baron and femme, two heralds to explain. coats; first, &c. In which case the baron's arms are always to be placed on the dexter side, and

OF THE ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD, &c. the femme's arms on the sinister side.

To the augmentations above mentioned may 2. If a widower marry again, his late and pre- be added, sent wife's arms are, according to G. Leigh, to 1. The baronet's mark of distinction, or the be both placed on the sinister side, in the arms of the province of Ulster in Ireland, granted escutcheon, with his own, and parted per pale. and made hereditary in the male line by king The first wife's coat shall stand on the chief, and James I., who erected this dignity on the 22d of the second on the base; or he may set them both May, 1611, in the seventh year of his reign, in in pale with his own, the first wife's coat next to order to propagate a plantation in the fore-menhimself, and his second outermost. If he shouia tioned province. This mark is---Argent, a sinismarry a third wife, then the two first matches ter hand couped at the wrist, and erected gules ; shall stand on the chief, and the third shall have which may be borne either in a canton, or in an the whole base. And if he take a fourth wife, escutcheon, as will best suit the figures of the she must participate one-half of the base with arms. the third wife, and so will they seem to be so many 2. The ancient badge of the most noble order coats quartered.' But these forms of impaling of the garter, instituted hy king Edward III., are meant of hereditary coats, whereby the hus- 1349, in the twenty-seventh year of his reign. band stands in expectation of having the heredi- This honorable augmentation is a deep blue gartary possessions of his wife united to his patri- ter, surrounding the arms of such knights, and mony. If a man marry a widow, he marshals inscribed with this motto-Honi soit qui mal y her maiden arms only.

pense. 3. In the arms of femmes joined to the pater The arms of those who are knights of the ornal coat of the baron, the proper differences by ders of the Bath, of the Thistle, or of St. Patrick, which they were borne by the fathers of such are marshalled in the same manner, with this femmes must be inserted.

difference only, that the color and motto accord 4. If a coat of arms that has a bordure be im- with the order to which it belongs. Thus the paled with another, as by marriage, then the motto, “Quis separabit, 1783,' on the light blue bordure must be wholly omitted in the side of riband of the order, surrounds the escutcheon of the arms next the centre.

a knight of St. Patrick. • Nemo me impune la


cesset,' on a green riband, distinguishes a knight

Knights Commanders of the Bath. of the Thistle; and “Tria juncta in uno,' on red,

Companions of the Bath. a knight of the Bath. None of these orders of

Knights Bachelors. knighthood are hereditary; but the honors of a

Eldest sons of the youngest song of Peers. baronet of Ulster, and of a baronet of Nova Scotia,

Baronets' eldest sons. (created by patent in 1602), descend to the heirs

Eldest sons of Knights of the Garters.

Bannerets' eldest sons. male.

Eldest sons of Knights of the Thistle and Baths. For representations of the badges of the seve

Knights' eldest sons. ral ders of knighthood, see plate V.

Baronets' younger sons. The following table will shew the order of

Esquires of Knights of the Bath. precedency observed at public solemnities, &c.

Esquires by Creation.

Esquires by Office.
The King.

Younger sons of Knights of the Garter.
Prince of Wales.

Younger sons of Bannerets.
King's Sons.

Younger sons of Knights of the Bath.
King's Grandsons.

Younger sons of Knights Bachelors.
King's Brothers.

King's Uncles.
King's Nephews.

Husbands of the King's Daughters.
Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord-Primate of England. the several funeral escutcheons, usually called

We shall conclude this treatise by describing Lord High Chancellor, Lord Keeper, being a Baron. Archbishop of York, Primate of England. hatchments; by which may be known, after any Lord High Treasurer.

person's decease, what rank he or she held when Lord President of the Privy Council. living; and, if it be a gentleman's hatchment, Lord Privy Seal.

whether he was a bachelor, married man, or Lord Great Chamberlain.

widower, with the like distinctions for gentleLord High Constable. Earl Marshal.

The hatchment is usually affixed to the fronts Lord High Admiral.

of houses, when any of the nobility or gentry die. Lord Steward of His Majesty's Household.

1. The arms, if the deceased be a private gentle Lord Chamberlain of His Majesty's Household. Dukes according to their Patents.

man, are parted per pale with those of his wife. Eldest Sons of Dukes of the Blood Royal.

The ground without the escutcheon being black Marquises according to their patents.

denotes the man to be dead; and the ground on Dukes' eldest sons.

the sinister side being white signifies that the Earls according to their patents.

wife is living. Younger Sons of Dukes of the Blood Royal. When a married gentlewomen dies first, the Marquises' eldest sons.

hatchment is distinguished by contrary color Dukes' younger sons.

from the former; that is, the arms on the sinister Viscounts according to their patents.

side have the ground without the escutcheon Earls' eldest sons,

black; whereas those on the dexter side, for her Marquises' younger sons. Bishops of London, Durham, Winchester, and all surviving husband, are upon a white ground :

the hatchment of a gentlewoman is, moreover, other bishops, according to their seniority of creation.

differenced by a cherub over the arms instead of Secretary of State, being a Baron. Commissioners of the Great Seal.

When a bachelor dies, his arms may be Barons according to their patents.

depicted single or quartered, with a crest over Speaker of the House of Commons.

them, but never impaled, as the two first are, and Treasurer, Comptroller, and Vice-Chamberlain of the all the ground without the escutcheon is also Household.

black. Secretary of State, being under the degree of a Baron. When a maid dies, her arms, which are placed Viscounts' eldest sons.

in a lozenge, may be single or quartered, as those Earls' younger sons.

of a bachelor; but, instead of a crest, have a Barons' eldest sons. Knights of the Garter.

cherub over them, and all the ground without the Privy Councillors.

escutcheon, is also black. Chancellor of the Exchequer.

When a.widower dies, his arms are represented Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.

impaled with those of his deceased wife, having a Lord Chief-Justice of the King's Bench. crest and sometimes a helmet and mantling over Master of the Rolls.

them, and all the ground without the escutcheon Lord Chief-Justice of the Common Pleas. black. Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer.

When a widow dies, her arms are also reJudges and Barons of the degree of the coif of the presented impaled with those of her deceased

said court, according to seniority. Bannerets made by the King himself in person.

husband, but enclosed in a lozenge, and, in

stead of a crest, a cherub is placed over them; Viscounts' younger sons, Barons'

all the ground without the escutcheon is also younger sons. Baronets.

black. Bannerets not made by the King himself in person.

If a widower or bachelor should happen to be Knights of the Thistle.

the last of the family, a mort-head is generally anGrand Crosses.

nexed to each hatchment, to denote that death Knights of the Bath.

has conquered all.

a crest.

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The Star Jewe of the Order of the GARTER

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star, or'a kmght Commander

or the triler or the BATH.

Star Collar and Badge of the Order of S' PATRICK.

London Fublished by Thomas Togg. 13. Cheapside. July.2.1827."

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