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its upper and lower part more acute and sharp treated of as are most frequently borne in coats than the other two collateral middle parts, which of arms. acuteness is occasioned by the short distance of I. Among the multitude of natural figures the space between the two collateral angles; which are used in coats of arms, those most which space, if the fusil is rightly made, is al- usually borne are, for the sake of brevity as well ways shorter than any of the four equal geome as perspicuity, distributed into the following trical lines whereof it is composed.
classes, viz. 1. Celestial figures; as, the sun, The rustre is a lozenge pierced round in the moon, stars, &c., and their parts. 2 Etfigies of middle, called by the Germans rutten.
men, women, &c., and their parts. 3. Beasts; The mascle is pretty much like a lozenge, but as lions, stags, foxes, bears, &c., and their parts. voided or perforating through its whole extent, 4. Birds; as, eagles, swans, storks, pelicans, &c., showing a narrow border, as in the figure. and their parts. 5. Fishes; as, dolphins, whales,
Papillone is an expression used for a field or sturgeons, trouts, &c., and their parts. 6. Repcharge that is covered with figures like the tiles and insects; as, tortoises, serpents, grassscales of a fish. M. Baron gives us an example hoppers, &c., and their parts. 7. Vegetables ; as, of it in the arms of Monti, Gueules Papelone trees, plants, flowers, herbs, &c., and their parts. d'Argent. The proper term for it in English 8. Stones; as, diamonds, rubies, pebbles, rocks, would be scallop-work.
&c. Diupering is said of a field or charge, shadowed These charges have, as well as ordinaries, with flourishings or foliage with a color a little various attributes or epithets, which express darker than that on which it is wrought. The their qualities, positions, and dispositions. Thus Germans frequently use it; but it does not enter the sun is said to be in his glory, eclipsed, &c. into the blazoning or description of an arms; it The moon, in her complement, increscent, &c. only serves to embellish the coat.
Animals are said to be rampant, passant, &c. If the fore-mentioned ordinaries have any at- Birds have also their denominations, such as ributes, that is, if they are engrailed, indented, close, displayed, &c. Fishes are described to wavy, &c., they must be distinctly specified, be hauriant, naiant, &c. Lions are termed after the same manner as the honorable ordi- lioncels, if more than two in a field, and eagles naries,
eaglets. A lion is said to be couchant, when As in all ages men have made use of repre- lying down; and rampant, when standing on his sentations of animals and other symbols to dis- hind legs, and rearing up his fore feet, as if Inguish themselves in war, human ingenuity has climbing. Trees and plants are also said to be lcen not a little exerted, in multiplying these trunked, eradicated, fructuated, or raguled, acmarks of distinction, by all sorts of figures, some cording as they are represented in arms. See natural, others artificial, and many chimerical; plate II. in allusion to the state, quality, or inclination of II. Of artificial figures, borne in coats of the bearei.
arms, some are taken from warlike instruments; Hence the sun, moon, stars, comets, meteors, as swords, arrows, battering rams, gauntlets, hel&c., have been introduced to denote glory, gran- mets, spears, pole-axes, &c. Others from ornadeur, power, &c. Lions, leopards, tigers, ser ments used in royal and religious ceremonies ; pents, stays, &c., have been employed to signify as crowns, coronets, mitres, wreaths, crosiers, courage, strength, prudence, swiftness, &c. &c. Others are borrowed from architecture; as War, hunting, music, &c., have furnished lances, towers, castles, arches, columns, plummets, batswords, pikes, arms, harps, &c. Architecture, tlements, churches, portcullisses, &c. Others columns, cheverons, &c.; and the other arts vari- from navigation; as ships, anchors, rudders, penous things that relate to them.
dants, sails, oars, masts, flags, galleys, lighters, Human bodies, or parts of theni, as well as &c. clothes and ornaments, have, for particular in All these bearings have different epithets, servtentions, found place in armory: Trees, plants, ing either to express their position, disposition, fruits, and flowers, have also been adopted to or make: viz. swords are said to be erect, pomdenote the rarities, advantages, and singularities, melled, hilted, &c.; arrows, armed, feathered, of different countries.
&c.; towers, covered, embattled, &c.; and so on The relation of some creatures, figures, &c., to of all others. particular names, has been likewise a very fruit III. Chimerical Figures form the last and ful source of variety in arms. Thus the family the oddest kind of bearings in coats of arms. of Coningsby bears three coneys; of Arundel, Under the name of chimerical figures, heralds six swallows, from hirundo, the Latin for a swal- rank all representations of things that have no low; of Urson, a bear, from the Latin ursus; of real existence, but are mere fabulous and fantasLucie, three pikes, in Latin tres lucios pices; of tical inventions. These, charges, griffons, martStarkey, a stork; of Castleman, a castle triple- lets, and unicorns excepted, are not common in towered; of Shuttleworth, three weavers' shut- British coats. Those most in use are the followtles, &c.
ing, viz.Besides these natural and artificial figures, Angels, Cherubim, Tritons, Centaurs, Martmany chimerical or imaginary ones are used in lets, Griffons, Unicorns, Dragons, Mermaids, heraldry, the result of fancy and caprice; such Satyrs, Wiverns, Harpies, Cockatrices, Phænixes, as centaurs, hydras, phænixes, griffins, dragons, and Sphinxes. These, like the foregoing charges, &c. This great variety of figures prevents us are subject to various positions and dispositions, from comprehending all common charges in a which, from the principles already laid down, work of this nature; therefore such only are will be plainly understond.
To these figures may be added the montegre, long cap of golden cloth, from which hang two an imaginary creature, supposed to have the pendants embroidered and fringed at the ends, body of a tiger with a satyr's head and horns; semée of crosses of gold. This cap is enclosed also those which have a real existence, but are by three marquis's coronets; and has on its top said to be endowed with extravagant and imagi- a mound of gold, whereon is a cross of the nary qualities, viz. the salamander, beaver, same, which cross is sometimes represented by chameleon, &c.
engravers and painters pometted, recrossed, OF THE EXTERNAL ORNAMENTS OF
flowery, or plaiu. It appears, from very good
authority, that Boniface VIII., who was elected EscuTCHEONS.
in 1295, was the first who encompassed his eap The ornaments that accompany or surround with a coronet; Benedict XII., in 1935, added the escutcheons were introduced to denote the a second to it; and John XXIII., in 1411, birth, dignity, or office of the persons to whom a third ; with a view to indicate by them, that the the coat of arms appertains; which is practised pope is the sovereiga priest, the supreme judge, both among the laity and clergy. Those most and the sole legislator amongst Christians. in use are of ten sorts, viz. Crowns, Coronets, The coronet of the prince of Wales, or eldest Mitres, Helmets, Mantlings, Chapeaux, Wreaths, son of the king of Great Britain, was anciently Crests, Scrolls, and Supporters.
a circle of gold set round with four crosses patThe first crowns were only diadems, bands, tee, and as many fleurs-de-lis alternately; but, or fillets ; afterwards they were composed of since the Restoration, it has been closed with branches of trees, and then flowers were added one arch only, adorned with pearls, and surto them. Among the Greeks, the crowns given mounted of a mound and cross, and bordered to those who carried the prize at the Isthmian with ermine like the king's. But, besides the games were of pine ; at the Olympic of laurel; coronet, his royal highness has another distinand at the Nemean of smallage.
guishing mark of honor, peculiar to himself, viz. Examples of some of these ancient crowns a plume of three ostrich feathers, with a coronet are frequently met with in modern achievements, of the ancient princes of Wales. Under it, in a as the mural crown; the naval or rostral crown; scroll, is this motto, ' Ich dien,' which in the the castrense or vallary crown; the civic crown; German or old Saxon language signifies, I serve. the radiated crown; the celestial crown, formed This device was at first taken by Edward prince like the radiated, with the addition of a star on of Wales, commonly called the Black Prince, each ray, is only used upon tomb-stones, monu- after the famous battle of Cressy, in 1346, where, ments, and the like. Others of the ancient having with his own hand killed John, king of Bocrowns are still borne as crests.
hemia, he took from his head such a plume, and But modern crowns are only used as orna- put it on his own. ments, which emperors, kings, and independent The coronet of all the princes, immediate sons princes set on their heads, in great solemnities, and brothers of the kings of Great Britain, is to deuote their sovereign authority. These are a circle of gold, bordered with ermine, heightenthe most in use in heraldry, and are as follows:- ed up with four fleurs-de-lis, and as many
The crown of the kings of Great Britain, see crosses-pattées alternate. The particular and plate of crowns, is a circle of gold, bordered with distinguished form of such coronets as are appearls and precious stones, and heightened up propriated to princes of the blood-royal is dewith four large fleurs-de-lis, and four crosses scribed and settled in a grant of the 13th of pattee alternately; from these rise four arched Charles II. diadems adorned with pearls, which close under The coronet of the princesses of Great Britain a mound, surmounted of a cross like those at is a circle of gold, bordered with ermine, and bottom. Mr. Sandford, in his Genealogical heightened up with crosses-pattées, fleurs-de-lis, History, remarks, that Edward IV. is the first and strawberry leaves alternate. king of England, who in his seal, or on his coin, A duke's coronet is a circle of gold bordered is crowned with an arched diadem.
with ermine, enriched with precious stones and The crowns of Spain and Portugal are a ducal pearls, and set round with eight large strawberry coronet, heightened up with eight arched dia or parsley leaves. dems that support a mound, ensigned with a A marquis's coronet is a circle of gold borplain cross. Those of Denmark and Sweden dered with ermine, set round with four strawberry consist of eight arched diadems, rising from a leaves, and as many pearls on pyramidical points, marquis's coronet, which conjoin at the top equal height, alternate. under a mound ensigned with a cross botone. An earl's coronet is a circle of gold, bordered
The crowns of most other kings in Europe are with ermine, heightened up with eight pyramidicircles of gold, adorned with precious stones, cal points or rays, on the tops of which are as and heightened up with large trefoils, and closed many large pearls, placed alternately with as by four, six, or eight diadems, supporting a many strawberry leaves, but the pearls much mound, surmounted with a cross.
higher than the leaves. The grand seignior bears over his arms a tur A viscount's coronet differs from the preban, enriched with pearls and diamonds, under ceding ones as being only a circle of gold bortwo coronets, the first of which is made of dered with ermine, with large pearls set close pyramidical points heightened up with large together on the rim, without any limited numpearls, and the uppermost is surmounted with ber, which is his prerogative above the baron, crescents.
who is limited. The pope appropriates to himself a tiara, or A baron's coronet, which was granted by
king Charles II., is formed with six pearls set at as also to prevent the ill consequences of their equal distances on a gold circle, bordered with too much dazzling the eye in action. But ermine, four of which only are seen on engravings, Guillim very judiciously observes, that their paintings, &c., to show he is inferior to the shape must have undergone a great alteration viscount.
since they have been out of use, and, therefore, The eldest sons of peers, above the degree of might more properly be termed flourishings than a baron, bear their father's arms and supporters mantlings. with a label, and use the coronet appertaining The French heralds assure us, that these mantto their father's second title; and all the younger lings were originally only short coverings which sons bear their arms with proper differences, commanders wore over their helmets; and that, but use no coronets.
going into battles with them, they often, on their As the crown of the king of Great Britain is coming away, brought them back in a ragged not quite like that of other potentates, so most of condition, occasioned by the many cuts they had the coronets of foreign noblemen differ a little received on their heads; and, therefore, the more from those of the British nobility.
hacked they were, the more honorable they were The archbishops and bishops of England and accounted; as our colors, in time of war, are the Ireland place a nitre over their coats of arms. It inore esteemed for having been shot through iu is a round cap pointed and cleft at the top, from many places. which hang two pendants fringed at both ends; Sometimes skins of beasts, as lions, bears, &c. with this difference, that the bishop's mitre is only were thus borne, to make the bearer look more surrounded with a fillet of gold, set with precious terrible; and this occasioned the doubling of stones; whereas the archbishop's issues out of a mantlings with furs. ducal coronet.
A chapeau, is an ancient hat, or rather
of This ornament, with other ecclesiastical gar- dignity, worn by dukes, generally scarlet-colored ments, is still worn by the archbishops and bishops velvet on the outside, lined and turned up with of the church of Rome, whenever they officiate fur; of late frequently to be met with above a with solemnity; but it is never used in England helmet, instead of a wreath, under gentlemen's except on coats of arms.
and noblemen's crests. Heretofore they were The helmet was formerly worn as a defensive seldom to be found, as of right appertaining weapon, to cover the bearer's head and face; and to private families; but by the grants of Rois now placed over a coat of arms as its chief bert Cooke, Clarencieux, and other succeeding ornament, and the true mark of gentility. heralds; these, together with ducal coronets, There are several sorts, distinguished by the are now frequently to be met with in families matter they are made of, by their form, and by who yet claim not above the degree of gentheir position.
tlemen. As to the matter they are, or rather were, made The wreath is a kind of roll, made of two of: the helmets of sovereigns were of burnished skeins of silk of different colors twisted together, gold damasked ; those of princes and lords, of which ancient knights wore as a head-dress when silver figured with gold; those of knights, of steel equipped for touinaments. The colors of the adorned with silver; and those of private gentle- silk åre always taken from the principal metal men, of polished steel.
and color contained in the bearer's coat of arms. As to their form: those of the king and the They are still accounted one of the lesser ornaroyal family, and noblemen of Great Britain, ments of escutcheons, and are placed between are open-faced and grated, and the number of the helmet and the crest. In the time of Henry bars serves to distinguish the bearer's quality; I., and long after, no man who was under the that is, the helmet appropriated to the dukes and degree of a knight had his crest set on a wreath; marquises is different from the king's, by having but this, like other prerogatives, has been ina bar exactly in the middle, and two on each fringed. side, making but five bars in all; whereas, the The crest is the highest part of the ornaments king's helmet has six bars, viz. three on each of a coat-of-arms. It is called crest from the side. The other grated helmet with four bars is Latin word cresta, which signifies comb or tuft, common to all degrees of peerage under a mar such as many birds have upon their heads, as quiss. The open-faced helmet without bars de- the peacock, pheasant, &c., in allusion to the notes baronets and knights. The close helmet is place on which it is fixed. Crests were formerly for all esquires and gentlemen.
great marks of honor, because they were only Their position is also looked upon as a mark worn by heroes of great valor, or by such as were of distinction. The grated helmet in front be- advanced to some superior military con mand, longs to sovereign princes. The grated helmet in that they might be the better distinguished in an profile is common to all degrees of peerage. engagement, and thereby rally their men if disThe helmet standing direct without bars, and the persed; but they are at present considered as a beaver a little open, denotes baronets and knights. mere ornament. The crest is frequently a part Lastly, the side-standing helmet, with heaver close, either of the supporters, or of the charge borne in is the way of wearing it amongst esquires and the escutcheon. Thus the crest of the royal gentlemen.
achievement of Great Britain is a lion guardant Mantlings are pieces of cloth, jagged or cut crowned. into flowers and leaves, which now-a-days serve The scroll is the ornament placed sometimes as an ornament for escutcheons. They were the above the crest, but most usually below the shield ancient coverings of helmets, to preserve them, and supporters; containing a motto or short or the bearer, from the injuries of the weather; sentence, alluding thereto, or to the bear