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, } termed Tenny,


Ꮋ Ꭼ Ꭱ Ꭺ Ꮮ Ꭰ Ꭱ Y.

177 Amongst ancient shields, some were almost like Besides the colors above-mentioned, the Enga horse-shoe (see plate I. HERALDRY), others lish writers on heraldry admit two others, viz. triangular, somewhat rounded at the bottom. Orange,

termed The people who inhabited Mesopotamia, now

Sanguine. called Diarbeck, made use of this sort of shield, But these two are rarely to be found in British. which it is thought they had of the Trojans. bearings. Sometimes the shield was heptagonal, that is, These tinctures are represented in engravings had seven sides. The first of this shape is said and drawings (the invention of the ingenious to have been used by the famous triumvir M. Silvester Petra Sancta, an Italian author of the Antony. That of knights banneret was square, last century), by dots and lines. like a banner. As to modern escutcheons, those Or is expressed by dots. Argent needs no of the Italians, particularly of ecclesiastics, are mark, and is therefore plain. Azure, by horigenerally oval. The English, French, Germans, zontal lines. Gules, by perpendicular lines. and other nations, have their escutcheons formed Vert, by diagonal lines from the dexter chief to different ways, according to the carver's or pain- the sinister base points. Purpure, by diagonal ter's fancy : see the various examples in the lines from the sinister chief to the dexter base plates. But the escutcheons of maids, widows, points. Sable, by perpendicular and horizontal and of such as are born ladies, and are married lines crossing each other. Tenny, by diagonal to private gentlemen, is in the form of a lozenge. lines from the sinister chief to the dexter base Sir G. M'Kenzie mentions one Muriel, countess points, traversed by horizontal lines. Sanguine, of Strathern, who carried her arms in a lozenge, by lines crossing each other diagonally from anno 1284, which shows how long we have been dexter to sinister, and from sinister to dexter. versant in heraldry.

The English heralds give different names to Armorists distinguish several parts or points the roundlet, according to its color. Thus, if it in escutcheons, in order to determine exactly the is Or, it is called a Bezant; Argent, a Plate; position of the bearings they are charged with; Azure, a Hurt; Gules, a Torteux ; Vert, a Pothey are here denoted by the first nine letters of mey; Purpure, a Golpe; Sable, a Pellet;

Tenny, the alphabet, ranged in the following manner : an Orange; and Sanguine, Guze. See Colors.

Other nations do not admit such a multiA-the dexter chief B-the precise middle chief.

plicity of names to this figure; but call them A B C

Bezants, after an ancient coin struck at ConstanC—the sinister chief.

D D—the honor point.

tinople, once Byzantium, if they are Or and E—the fess point.


Torteaux; if of any other tincture expressing the

See plate I. F-the nombril point.


Furs represent the hairy skin of certain beasts, G-the dexter base.

G H I prepared for the doublings or linings of robes H—the precise middle base.

and garments of state; and, as shields were an1-the sinister base. The knowledge of these points is of great im- fore used in heraldry, not only for the linings of

ciently covered with furred skins, they are there. portance, for they are frequently occupied with the mantles, and other ornaments of the shields, several bearings of different kinds. The dexter but also in the coats of arms themselves. There side of the escutcheon is opposite to the left

are six different kinds in use, viz. hand, and the sinister side to the right hand of

1. Ermine; which is a field argent, powdered the person that looks uponi it.

with black spots, their tails terminating in three Of TINCTURES, FURS, LINES, AND DIF


2. Erminitis, or counter-ermine, where the

field is sable, and the powdering white. By tinctures is meant that variable hue of arms

3. Erminois : the field Or, the powdering which is common both to shields and their bear

sable. ings. According to the ci-devant French he

4. Vair, which is expressed by blue and white ralds, there are but seven tinctures in armory; skins, cut into the forms of little bells, ranged in of which two are metals, the other five are colors.

rows opposite to each other, the base of the By tinctures By precious By planets for

white ones being always next to that of the blue The proper for Com stones for princes, kings,

Vair is usually of six rows; if there be Colors.

and emperors.

more or fewer the number ought to be ex

pressed; and, if the colors are different from Yellow Or Topaz Sol

those above mentioned, they must likewise be White Argent Pearl Luna

expressed. Red Gules Ruby Mars

5. Pean; the field is sable, the powdering Or. Blue Azure Sapphire Jupiter

The French used no such term : but they called Purple | Purpure Amethyst Mercury

all furs or doublings des pannes, or pennes ; Black Sable Diamond Saturn which term has possibly given rise to this misGreen Vert Emerald Venus take and many others, in those who do not un

derstand the French language. When natural bodies, such as animals, plants, 6. Potent, anciently called Vairy-cuppy, as celestial bodies, &c., are introduced into coats when the field is filled with crutches or potents of arms, they frequently retain their natural co- counter-placed. Vair and Potent may be any lors, which are expressed in this science by the two colors.

The use of the tinctures took its rise from the VOL. XI





word proper.


Ꮋ Ꭼ Ꭱ Ꭺ Ꮮ Ꭰ Ꭱ Y. several colors used by warriors whilst they were others, and their nearness to the principal beares in the army, which S. de Petra Sancta proves demonstrated. According to J. Guillim, these by many citations; and because it was the cus differences are to be considered either as ancient ion to embroider gold and silver on silk, or silk or modern. on cloth of gold and silver, the heralds ap Those be calls ancient differences consist in pointed, that, in imitation of the clothes so em- bordures; which is a bearing that goes all round broidered, color should never be used upon and parallel to the boundary of the escutcheon, color, nor metal upon metal.

in form of a hem, and always contains a fifth Escutcheons are either of one tincture, or part of the field in breadth. Bordures were used more than one. Those that are of one only, that in ancient times for the distinguishing not only is when some metal, color, or fur, is spread all of one nation or tribe from another, but also to over the surface or field, such a tincture is said note a diversity between particular persons deto be predominant : but in such as have on them scended of one family and from the same parents. more than one, as most have, the field is divided This distinction, however, was not expressly sigby lines, which, according to their divers forms, nified by invariable marks; nor were bordures receive various names.

always appropriated to denote the different de Lines may be either straight or crooked. grees of consanguinity : for, as Sir Henry SpelStraight lines are carried evenly through the es man observes ancient heralds, being fond of cutcheon : and are of four different kinds, viz. perspicuous differences, often inverted the paa perpendicular line 1; a horizontal, –; a dia- ternal tincture, or sometimes inserted another gonal dexter, \; a diagonal sinister, /. charge in the escutcheon, such as bends, croslets,

Crooked lines are those which are carried un- cantons, or the like; which irregularity has, I evenly through the escutcheon with rising and suppose, induced modern armorists to invent and falling. French armorists reckon eleven differ- make use of others.' ent sorts of them ; Guillim admits of seven only; There are bordures of different forms and tine the figures and names of which are to be seen in tures, and they are generally used as a difference plate I. of HERALDRY.

beween families of the same name, and also as The principal reason why lines are thus used marks of illegitimacy. in heraldry is to difference bearings which A bordure is never of metal upon metal, and would be otherwise the same ; for an escutcheon seldom of color upon color, but rather of the charged with a chief engrailed, differs from one tincture which the principal bearing or charge charged with a chief wavy, as much as if the one is of. Thus Sir — Dalziel of Glenae, whose bore a cross and the other a saltier. As the predecessor was a younger brother of the noble forementioned lines serve to divide the field, if family of Carnwath, has within a bordure argent, the division consists of two equal parts made by the paternal coat of the ancient name of Dalziel, the perpendicular line, it is called parted per viz." "Sable, a hanged man with his arms expale; by the horizontal line, parted per fess; by tended, argent;' formerly they carried him hangthe diagonal dexter, parted per bend; by the ing on a gallows. This bearing, though so very diagonal sinister, parted per hend sinister'; ex- singular for a coat of arms, was given as a reward amples of which will be given in the sequel of to one of the ancestors of the late Robert Dalziel, this treatise.

earl of Carnwarth, to perpetuate the memory of If a field is divided into four equal parts, by a brave and hazardous exploit performed in tak. any of these lines, it is said to be quartered; ing down from the gallows the body of a favorite which may be done two ways, viz.

and near relation of king Kenneth II., hung up Quartered or parted per cross : which is made by the Picts; which story is thus related by by a perpendicular and horizontal line, which, Alexander Nisbet : The king being exceedingly crossing each other at the centre of the field, di- grieved that the body of his minion and kinsman vide it into four equal parts called quarters. should be so disgracefully treated, he proffered

Quartered or parted per saltier; which is made a great reward to any of his subjects who would by two diagonal lines, dexter and sinister, that adventure to rescue his corpse from the disgrace cross one another in the centre of the field, and like- his cruel enemies had unjustly put upon it; but, wise divide it into four equal parts. See plate I. when none would undertake this hazardous en

The escutcheon is sometimes divided into a terprise, at last a valorous gentleman came and greater number of parts, in order to place in it said to the king, Dalziel, which signifies ‘I the arms of the several families to which one is dare;' and he did actually perform that noble allied ; and in this case it is called a genealogi- exploit to the king's satisfaction and his own cal achievement. These divisions may consist immortal honor, and in memory of it got the of six, eight, twelve, and sixteen quarters, (as the aforesaid remarkable bearing; and afterwards royal arms), and even sometimes of twenty, his posterity took the word Dalziel for their surthirty-two, sixty-four, and upwards; there being name, and the interpretation of it, I dare, contiexamples of such divisions frequently exhibited nues to this day to be the motto of that noble at pompous funerals; but Sir William Dugdale family.' We can have no better proof of the truth very justly objects to so many arms being clus- of this tradition than this, that the head of this tered together in one shield or banner, on account ancient family have for many ages carefully retainof the difficulty of discerning one coat of arms ed this bearing without any alteration or addition, from another.

The modern differences which the English Armorists have invented many differences or have adopted, not only for the distinguishing of characteristical marks, whereby bearers of the sons issued out of one family, but also to denote same coat of arms are distinguished each from the difference and subordinate degrees in each

house from the original ancestors, are nine; viz. but straight, must be expressed. It is placed in For the heir or first son, the Label. Second son, the upper part of the escutcheon, and contains the Crescent. Third son, the Mullet. Fourth in depth the third part of the field. Its diminuson, the Martlet. Fifth son, the Annulet. Sixth tive is a fillet, the content of which is not to exson, the Fleur-de-lis. Seventh son, the Rose. ceed one-fourth of the chief, and stands in the Eighth son, the Cross-moline. Ninth son, the lowest part thereof. This ordinary is subject to Double Quarter-foil. By these differences, the be charged with variety of figures ; and may be six sons of Thomas Beauchamp, the fifteenth indented, wavy, nebule, &c. earl of Warwick, who died in the thirty-fourth The pale is an ordinary, consisting of two year of;king Edward III., are distinguished in perpendicular lines drawn from the top to the an old' window of the church of St. Mary at base of the escutcheon, and contains the third Warwick; so that, although they are called mo- middle part of the field. Its diminutives are, dern differences, their usage with the English is the pallet, which is the half of the pale; and the ancient. But of all the fore-mentioned marks of endorse, which is the fourth part of a pale. distinction, none but the label is affixed on the This ordinary and the pallet may receive any coats of arms belonging to any of the royal charge, but the endorse should not be charged. family; which the introducers of this peculiarity The endorse, besides, is never used, according have, however, thought proper to difference by to J. Leigh, but to accompany the pale in pairs, additional pendants and distinct charges on them; as cotices do the bend; but Sir John Ferné is of 1. The prince of Wales has a label Luna. 2. a different opinion. The duke of York has a label Luna charged with The bend is an ordinary formed by two dia cross Mars upon the middle Lambeaux. 3. agonal lines, drawn from the dexter chief to the The duke of Clarence has a label Luna, charged sinister base; and contains the fifth part of the with a cross Mars, between two anchors Jupiter. field in breadth, if uncharged; but if charged, 4. The duke of Gloucester has a label of five then the third. Its diminutives are, the bendlet, points Luna, the middle one charged with a which is the half of a bend : the cost or cotice, fleur-de-lis Jupiter; the other four with a cross when two of them accompany a bend; which is Mars. These differences are borne upon the the fourth part of a bend; and the riband, the árms and supporters. See the plates.

moiety of a cost, or the eighth part of a field. Sisters, except of the blood-royal, have no The bend sinister is of the same breadth as other mark of difference in their coats of arms, the bend, but drawn the contrary way: this is but the form of the escutcheon; therefore they subdivided into a scrape, which is the half of the are permitted to bear the arms of their father, as bend, and into a baton, which is the fourth part the eldest son does after his father's decease. The of the bend, but does not extend itself to the exreason is by Guillim said to be, that when they tremities of the field, there being part of it seen are married they lose their surname, and receive at both ends. that of their husbands'.

The fess is an ordinary produced by two

parallel lines drawn horizontally across the cenOF THE CHARGES.

tre of the field, and contains in breadth the Whatsoever is contained in the field, whether third part thereof. Some English writers say it it occupy. the whole or only a part thereof, is has no diminutive, for the bar is a distinct orcalled a charge. All charges are distinguished dinary of itself. hy the names of honorable ordinaries, sub-ordi The bar, according to their definition, is naries, and common charges.

formed of two lines, and contains but the fifth Honorable ordinaries, the principal charges in part of the field: which is not the only thing heraldry, are made of lines only, which, accord- wherein it differs from the fess; for there may ing to their disposition and form, receive different be more than one in an escutcheon, placed in names.

different parts thereof, whereas the fess is limitSub-ordinaries are ancient heraldic figures, ed to the centre-point; but in this the French frequently used in coats of arms, and which are armorists differed from them. The bar has two distinguished by terms appropriated to each of diminutives ; the barulet, which contains the them.

half of the bar; and the closet, which is the half Common charges are composed of natural, ar- of the barulet. When the shield contains a tificial, and even chimerical things ; such as number of bars of metal and color alternate, of planets, creatures, vegetables, instruments &c. even number, that is called barry of so many

The most judicious armorists admit only of pieces, expressing their number. nine honorable ordinaries, viz. The Chief; the The chevron, which represents two rafters of Pale; the Bend; the Bend Sinister; the Fess: a house well jointed together, or a pair of comthe Bar; the Chevron ; the Cross; and the passes half open, takes up the fifth part of the Saltier.

field with the English, but the French gave it the Of these only six have diminutives, which are third. Its diminutives are, The chevronel, called as follows: That of the chief is a fillet; which contains the half of a chevron; and the the pale has a pallet and endorse; the bend, a couple-close, which is the half of a chevronel, bendlet, cost, and riband; the bend sinister has that is, its breadth is but the fourth part of a the scarp and bâton; the bar, the closet and chevron. Leigh observes, that this last diminubarulet; the chevron, a chevronel and couple- tive is never borne but in pairs, or with a chevron close. See Plate I.

between two of them. The French had bút one The chief is an ordinary determined by an diminution of this ordinary called Etaye, conhorizontal line, which, if it is of any other form taining the third part of its breadth.

s the

The cross is an ordinary formed by the meet terlaced. J. Gibbon terms it the herald's true ing of two perpendicular with two horizontal lover's knot; but many dissent from his opinion. lines in the fess point, where they make four Fretty is said when the field or bearings are right angles; the lines are not drawn tliroughout, covered with a fret of six, eight, or more pieces. but discontinued the breadth of the ordinary, The word fretty may be used without addition, which takes up only the fifth part of the field when it is of eight pieces: but if there be less when nor charged: but if charged, then the than that number, they must be specified. third. It is borne as well engrailed, indented, The pile, which consists of two lines, termi&c., as plain.

nating in a point, is formed like a wedge, and is There is a great variety of crosses used in he- borne engrailed, wavy, &c., as in the figure. It raldry. Guillim has mentioned thirty-nine dif- issues in general from the chief, and extends to ferent sorts; De la Columbiere seventy-two; wards the base; yet there are some piles borne Leigh forty-six ; and Upton declares he dares in bend, and issuing from other parts of the not ascertain all the various crosses borne in arms, field. for that they are almost innumerable.

The orle is an ordinary composed of two The saltire, which is formed by the bend lines going round the shield, the same and bend sinister crossing each other in right bordure, but its breadth is but one-half of the angles, as the intersecting of the pale and fess latter, and at some distance from the brim of the forms the cross, contains the fifth part of the field; shield. but if charged, then the third. In Scotland, this The inescutcheon is a little escutcneon bome ordinary is frequently called a St. Andrew's cross. within the shield; which, according to Guillim's It

may, like the others, be borne engrailed, wavy, opinion, is only to be so called when it is borne &c., as also between charges, or charged with single in the fess point or centre. any other bearing.

The tressure is an ordinary commonly supThere are other heraldic figures, called sub- posed to be the half of the breadth of an orle, and ordinaries, or ordinaries only, which, by reason is generally borne flowery and counter-fiowery, of their ancient use in arms, are of worthy bear- as it is also very often double, and sometimes ing, viz. the Gyron, Franc-quarter, Canton, Pairle, treble. This double tressure makes part of the Tret, Pile, Orle, Inescutcheon, Tressure, Annu- arms of Scotland, as marshalled in the royal let, Flanches. Flasques, Voiders, Billet, Lozenge, achievement, and granted to the Scottish kings Gutts, Fusil, Rustre, Mascle, Papillone, and by Charlemagne, emperor and king of France, Diaper. See the plates.

when he entered into a league with Achaiens, The

syron is a triangular figure formed by king of Scotland, to show that the French lilies two lines, one drawn diagonally from one of the should defend and guard the Scottish lion. four angles to the centre of the shield, and the The annulet, or ring, is a well-known figure, other is drawn either horizontally or perpendi- and is frequently to be found in arms through cularly, from one of the sides of the shield, every kingdom in Europe. meeting the other line at the centre of the field. The flanches are formed by two curved lines,

Gyronny is said, when the field is covered or semicircles, being always borne double. G. with six, eight, ten, or twelve gyrons, in a coat Leigh observes, that on two such flanches two of arms : but a French author would have the sundry coats may be borne. true gyronny to consist of eight pieces only, The flasques resemble the Aanches, except which represents the coat of arms of Flora Camp- that the circular lines do not go so near the cenbell, countess of Loudon, &c., whose ancestor tre of the field. Gibbon would have these two was created baron of Loudon in 1604 by James ordinaries to be both one, and written flank; alVI. and earl of the same place, May 12th, 1633, leging, that the two other names are but a corthe ninth of Charles I.

ruption of this last : but, as G. Leigh and J. The franc-quarter is a square figure, which Guillim make them two distinct and subordioccupies the upper dexter quarter of the shield. nate ordinaries, we insert them here as such. It is but rarely carried as a charge. Silvester The voiders are by Guillim considered as a Petra Sancta has given us a few instances of its subordinate ordinary, and are not unlike the

flasques, but they occupy less of the field. The canton is a square part of the escutcheon, The billet is an oblong square, twice as long somewhat less than the quarter, but without any as broad. Some heralds imagine, that they refixed proportion. It represents the banner that present bricks for building : others more properly was given to ancient knights-bannerets, and, gene- consider them as representing folded paper or rally speaking, possesses the dexter-chief point letters. of the shield, as in the figure; but should it pos The lozenge is an ordinary of four equal and sess the sinister corner, which is but seldom, it parallel sides, but not rectangular; two of its must be blazoned by a canton sinister. J. Coats opposite angles being acute, and the other two reckons it as one of the nine honorable ordina- obtuse. ries, contrary to most heralds' opinions. It is Guttes, or Drops, are round at bottom, waved added to coats of arms of military men as an on the sides, and terminate at the top in points. augmentation of honor.

Heralds have given them different names accordThe pairle is a figure formed by the conjunc- ing to their different tinctures : thus, if they are tion of the upper half of the saltier with the yellow, they are called guttés d'or; if white, under half of the pale.

d'eau; if red, de sang; if blue, de larmes; if The fret is a figure representing two little green, de vert; if black, de poix. sticks in saltire, with a mascle in the centre in The fusil is longer than the lozenge, having


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