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stalks are covered over with a yellow saccharine sula. The recovery of Peloponnesus by the Hera etilorescence, tasting like liquorice; and in this clidæ forms an interesting epoch in ancient state they are eaten as a great delicacy. The bistory, which is universally believed to have Russians not only eat the stalks thus prepared, happened eighty years after the Trojan war, or but procure from thein a very intoxicating spirit. A. A.C. 1190. This conquest was totally They first ferment them in water with the greater achieved about 120 years after the first attempt bilberries (vaccinium uliginosum), and then distil of Hyllus, who was killed about twenty years the liquor to what degree of strength they before the Trojan war. As it occasioned many please ; which, Gmelin says, is more agreeable changes and revolutions in the affairs of Greece, to the taste than spirits made from corn. This the return of the Heraclidæ is the epocha of the may therefore prove a good succedaneun for beginning of profane history: all the time that whiskey, and lessen the consumption of barley. preceded it is reputed fabulous. Accordingly Swine and rabbits are very fond of this plant. Ephorus, Cumanus, Callisthenes, and TheopomIn Norfolk it is called hogweed.

pus, begin their histories from this era. HERACLIDÆ, the descendants of Hercules, HERACLIDES, a Greek philosopher of greatly celebrated in ancient history. : Hercules Pontus, the disciple of Speusippus, and afterat his death left to his son Hyllus all the rights wards of Aristotle, flourished about A. A.C. 336. and demands which he had upon Peloponnesus, His vanity prompted him to desire one of his and ordered him to marry Iole, the daughter of friends to put a serpent into his bed just as he Eurytus, as soon as he came of age. The pos- was dead, 'in order to raise a belief that he was terity of Hercules were not more kindly treated ascended to the heavens among the gods; but by Eurystheus than their father had been, and the cheat was discovered. All bis works are they were obliged to retire for protection to the lost. court of Ceyx, king of Trachinia. Eurystheus HERACLITUS, a famous Ephesian philoso pursued them thither, and Ceyx, afraid of his pher, who flourished about the sixty-ninth Olym resentment, be ged the Heraclidæ to depart from piad, in the time of Darius Hystaspis. He is his dominions. From Trachinia they came to said to have continually bewailed and wept for Athens, where king Theseus, who had accompa- the wicked lives of men; contrary to Democrinied their father in some of his expeditions, tus, who made the follies of mankind a subject received them with great humanity, and assisted of laughter. He retired to the temple of Diana, them against Eurystheus. Eurystheus was killed and played at dice with the boys there; saying by Hyllus himself; his children perished with to the Ephesians who gathered round him, him, and all the cities of Peloponnesus became “Worst of men, what do you wonder at? Is it the undisputed property of the Heraclidæ. Their not better to do thus than to govern you!' triumph, however, was short; their numbers were Darius invited him to come and live with him, lessened by a pestilence; and the oracle informed but he refused. At last, out of hatred to manthem that they had taken possession of Pelopon- kind, he retired to the mountains, where he connesus before the gods permitted their return. tracted a dropsy, by living on herbs, which killed Upon this they abandoned Peloponnesus, and him at sixty years of age. His writings gained came to settle in Attica, where Hyllus married him great reputation. Laertius mentions a Trealole. Soon after he consulted the oracle, anxious tise upon Nature, divided into three books, one to recover the Peloponnesus; and the ambiguity concerning the universe : the second on politics : of the answer determined him to make a second the third on theology. This book he deposited attempt. He challenged to single combat in the temple of Diana; and it is said that he Atreus, the successor of Eurystheus on the affected to write obscurely, lest it should be throne of Mycenæ; and it was mutually agreed read by the vulgar, and become contemptible. that the undisturbed possession of Peloponnesus The fundamental doctrine of his philosophy was, should be ceded to the victor. Echemus ac- that fire is the principle of all things. cepted the challenge for Atreus; Hyllus was HERACLIÙS, an emperor of the east, a rekilled, and the Heraclidæ departed from Pelo- nowned warrior, who dethroned and succeeded ponnesus a second time, about twenty years be- Phocas in 610. At this time the empire was at fore the Trojan war. Cleodæus, the son of war with Chosroes II., king of Persia. HeracHyllus, made a third attempt, and was equally lius proposed terms of peace, but the haughty unsuccessful; and his son Aristomachus some Persian refused it, unless he would renounce time after met with the same unfavorable recep- Christianity. Heraclius thereupon mustered his tion, and perished in the field of battle. Aris- forces, and, after repeated victories, obliged him todemus, Temenus, and Chresphoutes, the three to beg for that peace he had refused. He was, sons of Aristomachus, encouraged by the more however, not so successful in his wars with the express word of an oracle, and desirous to re. Saracens. He died in 641, aged sixty-six. venge the death of their progenitors, assembled Heraclius CONSTANTINE, son of the above, a numerous force, and with a fleet invaded all succeeded him in conjunction with his brother Peloponnesus. Their expedition was attended Heracleonas ; but reigned only a few months, with much success; and, after some decisive being poisoned by his stepmother Martina, in battles, they became masters of all the penin- 641.


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HER’ALD, n. s.&d.a. Fr. herault ; Teut. embassies, funeral processions, declarations of

Her’aldry, n. s. Dan. herold. An officer whose business it is to blazon the arms of the nobility and gentry; and register genealogies, adjust ensigns armorial, to regulate any abuses therein through the Briregulate funerals, and, anciently, to carry mes- tish dominions, under the authority of the earl sages between princes, and proclaim war and marshal, to whom they are subservient. The peace; a precursor; forerunner; a harbinger; office of the Windsor, Chester, Richmond, å proclaimer or publisher: heraldry, the art or Somerset, York, and Lancaster heralds, is to be office of a herald ; a science; registry of genealo- assistants to the kings at arms, in the different gies; blazonry: the verb is now out of use. branches of their office: and they are superior And after hem, came a grete company

to each other, according to creation, in the above Of heraudes and pursevauntes eke,

order. Heralds were anciently held in much Arrayed in clothes of white velvet.

greater esteem than they are at present; and Chaucer. The Floure and the Leafe. were created by the king, who, pouring wine We are sent from our royal master,

from a gold cup on their head, gave them the Only to herald thee into his sight,

herald name: but this is now done by the earl Not pay thee.

Shukspeare. marshal. They could not arrive at the dignity After my death I wish no other herald, of herald without being seven years pursuivant; No other speaker of my living actions,

nor quit the office of herald, but to be made king But such an honest chronicler as Griffith. Id. When time shall serve let but the herald cry,

at arms. Richard III. was the first who formed And I'll appear again.

Id. King Lear.

them, in this kingdom, into a college ; and afterIt is the part of men to fear and tremble,

wards great privileges were granted them by When the most mighty gods, by tokens, send

Edward VI. and Philip and Mary. Such dreadful heralds to astonish us. Shakspeare.

HERALDRY is a science which teaches how to It was the lark, the herald of the morn, Id. blazon, or explain in proper terms, all that be:

May none, whose scattered names honour my book, longs to armorial bearings, and how to marshal, For strict degrees of rank or title look ;

or dispose regularly, divers arms on a coat or "Tis 'gainst the manners of an epigram,

shield. It also teaches whatever relates to the And I a poet here, no herald am. Ben Jonson.

marshalling of solemn cavalcades, processions, I am writing of heraldry.


and other public ceremonies at coronations, inMetals may blazon common beauties; she Makes pearls and planets humble heraldry.

stallations, creations of peers, nuptials, christenCleaveland.

ings of princes, funerals, &c. 'Twas no false heraldry when madness drew Arms, or coats of arms, are hereditary marks Her pedigree from those who too much knew, of honor, made up of fixed and determined

Denham. colors and figures, granted by sovereign princes, Embassador of peace, if peace you chuse ; as a reward for military valor, or some signal Or herald of a war, if you refuse. Dryden. public service; and serve to denote the descent

Please thy pride, and search the herald's roli, and alliance of the bearer, or to distinguish states, Where thou shalt find thy famous pedigree. Id.

cities, societies, &c., civil, ecclesiastical, and miGrant her, besides, of noble blood that ran

litary. In ancient veins, ere heraldry began.


Heraldry, according to Sir George MackenThe boast of heraldry, the pomp of power,

zie, 'as digested into an art, and subjected to And all that beauty, all that wealth o'er gave, Await alike the' inevitable hour;

rules, must be ascribed to Charlemagne and The paths of glory lead but to the grave.

Frederick Barbarossa, for it did begin and grow Gray's Elegy.

with the feudal law.' Sir John Ferne is of Pluck the others, but still remember

opinion, that we borrowed arms from the EgypTheir Herald out of dim December

tians; meaning from their hieroglyphics! Sir The morning star of all the flowers,

William Dugdale mentions, that arms, as marks The pledge of day-light's lengthened hours; of honors, were first used by great commanders Nor midst the roses e'er forget

in war, necessity requiring that their persons The virgin, virgin violet.

should be notified to their friends and followers. Byron, The Deformed Transformed. The learned Alexander Nisbet, in his System of HERALD, says Verstegan, is derived from the Heraldry, says, that signs and marks of honor Saxon word Herehault, and by abbreviation 'he- were made use of in the first ages of the world, ralt, which in that language signifies the cham- and by all nations, however simple and illiterate, pion of an army; and, growing to be a name of to distinguish the noble from the ignoble. We office, it was given to him who, in the army, had find in Homer, Virgil, and Ovid, that their the special charge to denouncé war, to challenge heroes had divers figures on their shields, whereto battle and combat, to proclaim peace, and to by their persons were distinctly known. execute martial messages. But the business of In all ages, men have made use of symbolical heralds, now, is as follows, viz. to marshal, signs, to denote the bravery and courage either order, and conduct all royal cavalcades, cere. of their chief or nation, to render themselves anonies at coronations, royal marriages, installa- more terrible to their enemies, and even to distions, creations of dukes, marquises, earls, vis- tinguish themselves or families, as names do incounts, barons, baronets, and dubbing of knights; dividuals. The famous C. Agrippa, in his

treatise of the Vanity of Sciences, cap. 81, has Arms of concession, or augmentation of honor, collected many instances of these marks of dis- are either entire arms, or else one or more figures. tinction, anciently borne by kingdoms and states given by princes as a reward for some great serthat were any way civilised. As to hereditary vice. We read in history, that Robert Bruce, arms of families, William Camden, Sir Henry king of Scotland, allowed the earl of Wintoun's Spelman, and other judicious heralds, agree, that ancestor to bear, in his coat armour, a crown supthey did not begin till towards the end of the ported by a sword, to show that he, and the clan eleventh century. According to F. Menestrier, Seaton, of which he was the head, supported his a French writer, whose authority is great in this tottering crown. The late queen Anne granted matter, Henry l'Oiseleur (or the Falconer), who to Sir Cloudesly Shovel, rear-admiral of Great was raised to the imperial throne of the West in Britain, a cheveron between two fleurs-de-lis in 920, by regulating tournaments in Germany, chief, and a crescent in base, to denote three gave occasion to the establishment of family great victories he had gained: two over the arms, or hereditary marks of honor, which un- French, and one over the Turks. deniably are more ancient and better observed Arms of community are those of bishoprics, among the Germans than in any other nation. cities, universities, academies, societies, compaThis last author also asserts, that with tourna- nies, and other bodies corporate. ments first came up coats of arms; which were Arms of patronage are such as governors of a sort of livery, made up of several lists, fillets, provinces, lords of manors, patrons of benefices, or narrow pieces of stuff of divers colors, from &c., add to their family arms, as a token of their whence came the fess, the bend, the pale, &c., superiority, rights, and jurisdiction. These arms which were the original charges of family arms; have introduced into heraldry, castles, gates, for they who never had been at tournaments had wheels, ploughs, rakes, harrows, &c. not such marks of distinction. They who in Arms of family, or paternal arms, are those listed in the crusades took up also several that belong to one particular family, that distinnew figures formerly unknown in armorial en- guish it from others, and which no person is signs; such as allerions, bezants, escalop-shells, suffered to assume without committing a crime, martlets, &c. but more particularly crosses of which sovereigns have a right to restrain and different colors and shapes. From this it may punish. be concluded, that heraldry, like most human Arins of alliance are those which families or inventions, was introduced and established gra- private persons take up and join to their own, dually; and that, after having been rude and to denote the alliances they have contracted by unsettled for many ages, it was at last metho- marriage. This sort of arms is either impaled, dised, perfected, and fixed by the crusades and or borne in an escutcheon of pretence, by those tournaments.

who have married heiresses. These marks of honor are called arms, from Arms of succession are such as are taken up their being principally and first worn by military by those who inherit certain estates, manors, &c., men at war and tournaments, who had them either by will, entail, or donation, and which engraved, embossed, or depicted on shields, tar- they either impale or quarter with their own gets, banners, or other martial instruments. They arms; which multiplies the titles of some famiare also called coats of arms, from the custom lies out of necessity, and not through ostentation, of the ancients embroidering them on the coats as many imagine. they wore over their arms, as heralds do to this These are the eight classes under which the day.

various sorts of arms are generally ranged ; but Arms are distinguished by different names, to there is a sort which blazoners call assumptive denote the causes of their bearing : such as, arms arms, being such as are taken up by the caprice of dominion, of pretension, of concession, of or fancy of upstarts, though of ever so mean excommunity, of patronage, of family, of alliance, traction, who, being advanced to a degree of of succession.

fortune, assume them without a legal title. This, Arms of dominion, or sovereignty, are those indeed, is a great abuse of heraldry, and common which emperors, kings, and sovereign states, only in Britain, for on the continent no such constantly bear; being, as it were, annexed to practice takes place. the territories, kingdoms, and provinces they We now proceed to consider the essential and possess. Thus the three lions are the arms of integral parts of arms, which are these :- The England, the fleur-de-lis those of the French, escutcheon; the charges; the tinctures; the or&c.

Arms of pretension are those of such kingdoms, provinces, or territories, to which a prince

Op The Sueld or Escutcheon. or lord has some claim, and which he adds to his The shield or escutcheon is the field or ground own, although the said kingdoms or territories be whereon are represented the figures that make possessed by a foreign prince or other lord. Thus up a coat of arms: for these marks of distinction the kings of England quartered the arms of were put on bucklers or shields before they were France with their own, ever since Edward III. placed on banners, standards, flags, and coatlaid claim to the kingdom of France in 1330, on armour; and, wherever they may be fixed, they account of his being son to Isabella, sister to are still on a plane, or superficies, whose form Charles IV. or the Fair, who died without issue; resembles a shield. till the union with Ireland, when his majesty's Shields, in heraldry called escutcheons, or arms were altered, and the French arms were scutcheons, have been, and still are, of different thrown out.

forms, according to different times and nations.


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