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that the powdered root is more certainly fatal, HELLENODICE,'EX/nvodukai, in antiquity when applied to a wound, than when swallowed; the directors of the Olympian games. · At first that the white hellebore is more active than the there was only one, afterwards the number inblack; and that the alkaline extract, which forms creased to two and three, and at length to nine. a part of the tonic pills of Bacher, is also very They assembled in a place called 'Exinvoqualov, powerful. Vomiting is the only antidote. in the Elean forum, where they were obliged to

H. niger orientalis is a species discovered in the reside ten months before the celebration of the eastern countries, which Tournefort distinguishes games, to take care that such as offered themselves thus : amplissimo folio, caule præalto, flore to contend, performed their apoyuuvaopata, or purpurescente, and he supposes it to be the true preparatory exercises ; and to be instructed in all ancient hellebore, from its growing in plenty the laws of the games by certain men called about mount Olympus, and in the island of An- vouopulares, i. e. keepers of the laws. To preticyra, celebrated of old for the production of vent'all unjust practices, they were obliged to this antimaniacal drug : he relates, that a scruple take an oath, that they would act impartially, of this sort, given for a dose, occasioned convul- would take no bribes, nor discover the reason sions.

for which they disliked or approved of any of the HELLEN, the son of Deucalion, who is said contenders. At the solemnity they sat naked, to have given the name of Hellenus to the Greeks having before them the victorial crown till the A A.C. 1521.

exercises were finished, and then it was presentHEL'LENISM, n. s. 'Exinviopòs. A Greek ed to whomsoever they adjudged it. Nevertheidiom.

less, there lay an appeal from the hellenodicæ to HELLENISM is only used when speaking of the Olympian senate. the authors who, writing in a different language, HELLESPONT, a narrow strait between Asia express themselves in a phraseology peculiar to and Europe, near the Propontis, so named from the Greek.

Helle. It is celebrated for the love and death HELLENISTIC LANGUAGE, that used by of Leander, and for the bridge of boats which the Grecian Jews who lived in Egypt and other Xerxes built over it when he invaded Greece. It parts where the Greek tongue prevailed. In this is now. called the Dardanelles. It is about language it is said the Septuagint was written, thirty-three miles long, and in the broadest parts and also the books of the New Testament; and the Asiatic coast is about one mile and a half that it was thus denominated to show that it was distant from the European, and only half a mile Greek filled with Hebraisms and Syriacisms. in the narrowest, according to modern investiga

HELLENISTS, HELLENISTÆ, 2 term occur tion. ring in the Greek text of the New Testament, HELM, n. s. &v.a. Helm denotes defence: and which in the English version is rendered HELM'Ed, adj. -as, Eadhelm happy deGrecians. The critics are divided as to the sig HELMET, n. s. fence; Sighelm victorious nification of the word. Ecumenius, in his Scho- defence; Berthelm eminent defence; like Amynlia on Acts vi. 1, observes, that it is not to be tas and Boetius among the Greeks.-Gibson's understood as signifying those of the religion of Camden. A covering for the head in war; a the Greeks, but those who spoke Greek, Tø helmet; the part of a coat of arms that bears the Ellmvısı posyšapeves. The authors of the Vul- crest; the upper part of the retort; the rudder of gate version, indeed, render it like ours, Græci; a vessel; the station of government; a steersman; but Messieurs Du Port Royal more accurately to helm, to steer, guide, or conduct. Juifs Grecs, Greek or Grecian Jews; the Jews

Of which every-first on a short truncheon who spoke Greek being here treated of, and

His lordes helmet bore so richly dight, hereby distinguished from the Jews called He

That the worst of hem was worth the ransoune brews, that is, who spoke the Hebrew tongue of

Of any king. that time. These Hellenists, or Grecian Jews,

Chaucer. The Floure and the Leafe, were those who lived in Egypt and other parts What so I spake, I ment it nought but wele, where the Greek tongue prevailed. It is to them By Mars the god that helmed is of stele. we owe the Greek version of the Old Testament

Id. Troilus and Creseide. commonly called the Septuagint, or that of the More might be added of helms, crests, mantles, LXX. Salmasius and Vossius, however, are of and supporters.

Camden's Remains. a different opinion, with regard to the Hellenists. The very stream of his life, and the business be The latter will only have them to be those who bath helmed, must give him a better proclamation. adhered to the Grecian interests. Scaliger is re

Shakspeare. presented, in the Scaligerana, as asserting the

France spreads his banners in our noiseless land! Hellenists to be the Jews who lived in Greece

With plumed helm the slayer begins his threats.


Id. and other places, and who read the Greek Bible

I saw him down; thrice up again, and fighting; in their synagogues, and used the Greek language From helmet to the spur all bleeding o'er. Id. in sacris; and thus they were opposed to the

You slander Hebrew Jews, who performed their public wor The helms o' the state, who care for you like father, ship in the Hebrew tongue. In this sense St. When you curse them as enemies.

Id. Paul speaks of himself as a Hebrew of the He

They did not leave the helm in storms; brews (Phil. iii. 5.), i. e. a Hebrew both hy na

And such they are make happy states. tion and language. The Hellenists are thus pro

Ben Jonson. perly distinguished from the Hellenes or Greeks,

More in prosperity is reason tost mentioned John xii. 20, who were Greeks by Than ships in storms, their helms and anchors lost. birth and nation, and yet proselytes to the Jewish

Denham, religion.

The helmed cherubim

service being conveyed from the fore-end of the Are seen in glittering ranks with wings displayed. tiller to a single block on each side of the ship,


is farther communicated to the wheel, by two With them arose

blocks suspended near the mizen-mast, and two A forest huge of spears, and thronging helms Appeared, and serried shields in thick array

holes immediately above, leading up to the

wheel, which is fixed upon an axis on the quarOf depth immeasurable.

Id. The vulgar chemists themselves pretend to be able, ter-deck, almost perpendicularly over the foreby repeated cohobations, and other fit operations, to

end of tiller. "Five turns of the tiller-rope make the distilled parts of a concrete bring its own

are usually wound about the barrel of the wheel; caput mortuum over the helm.

Boyle. and, when the helm is amidship, the middle turn Seven darts are thrown at once, and some rebound is nailed to the top of the barrel, with a mark by From his bright shield, some on his helmet sound. which the helmsman readily discovers the situa

Dryden. tion of the helm, as the wheel turns it from the Mnestheus lays hard load upon his helm. Id. starboard to the larboard side. The spokes of Fair occasion shews the springing gale,

the wheel generally reach about eighi inches And interest guides the helm, and honour swells the beyond the rim or circumference, serving as sail

Prior. I may be wrong in the means ; but that is no ob- the effect of a lever increases in proportion to

handles to the person who steers the vessel. As vection against the design : let those at the helm contrive it better.


the length of its arm, it is evident that the power Where my wrecked desponding thought

of the helmsman to turn the wheel will be inFrom wave to wave of fancied misery

creased according to the length of the spokes At random drove, her helm of reason lost. beyond the circumference of the barrel. When

Young's Night Thoughts. the helm, instead of lying in a right line with the Sense is our helmet, wit is but a plume, keel, is turned to one side or the other, it receives The plume exposes, 'tis our helmet saves. Id.

an immediate shock from the water, which glides The Helm, in nautical affairs, is a long and flat along the ship's bottom in running aft, and this piece of timber, or an assemblage of several fluid pushes it towards the opposite side, whilst pieces, suspended along the hind part of a ship's it is retained in this position; so that the stern, stern-post, where it turns upon hinges to the to which the rudder is confined, receives the right or left, serving to direct the course of the same impression, and accordingly turns about vessel, as the tail of a fish guides the body. The whilst the head of the ship passes in the oppohelm is usually composed of three parts, viz. the site direction. It must be observed, that the rudder, the tiller, and the wheel, except in small current of water falls upon the rudder obliquely, vessels, where the wheel is unnecessary. As to and only strikes it with that part of its motion the form of the rudder, it becomes gradually which acts according to the sine of incidence, broader in proportion to its distance from the pushing it with a force which not only depends top, or to its depth under the water. The back, on the velocity of the ship's course, by which or inner part of it, which joins to the stern-post, this current of water is produced, but also upon is diminished into the form of a wedge through- the extent of the sine of incidence. This force is out its whole length, so as that the rudder may by consequence composed of the square of the be more easily turned from one side to the other, velocity with which the ship advances, and the where it makes an obtuse angle with the keel. square of the sine of incidence, which will necesIt is supported upon hinges; of which those that sarily be greater or smaller according to circumare bolted round the stern-post to the after ex- stances; so that if the vessel runs three or four tremity of the ship, are called googings, and are times more swiftly, the absolute shock of the furnished with a large hole in the after-part of water upon the rudder will be nine or sixteen the stern-post. The other parts of the hinges, times stronger under the same incidence : and if which are bolted to the back of the rudder, are the incidence is increased, it will yet be augmentcalled pintles, being strong cylindrical pins, ed in a greater proportion, because the square of which enter into the googings, and rest upon the sine of incidence is more enlarged. This them. The length and thickness of the rudder impression, or power of the helm, is always very is nearly equal to that of the stern-post. The feeble, when compared with the weight of the rudder is turned upon its hinges by means of a vessel; but, as it operates with the force of a long bar of timber, called the tiller, which is long lever, its efforts to turn the ship are exfixed horizontally in its upper end within the tremely advantageous. For the helm being vessel. The movements of the tiller to the right applied to a great distance from the centre of and left, accordingly, direct the efforts of the gravity, or from the point about which the vessel rudder to the government of the ship's course as turns horizontally, if the direction of the impresshe advances ; which, in the sea language, is sion of the water upon the rudder be prolonged, called steering. The operations of the tiller are it is evident that it will pass widely distant from guided and assisted by a sort of tackle, commu- the centre of gravity: thus the absolute effort of nicating with the ship's side, called the tiller- the water is very powerful. It is not therefore rope, which is usually composed of untarred surprising, that this machine impresses the ship rope-yarns, for the purpose of traversing more with a considerable circular movement; and even readily through the blocks or pulleys.

much farther whilst she sails with rapidity, beTo facilitate the nianagement of the helm, the cause the effect of the helm always keeps pace tiller-rope, in all large ves is wound about a with the velocity with which the vessel advances. wheel, which acts upon it with the powers of a Amongst the several angles that the rudder makes ciane or windlass. The rope employed in this with the keel, there is always one position more

. favorable than any of the others, as it more then arises from the shortness of the lever upon readily produces the desired effect of turning the which the action of the water is impressed, and ship, in order to change her course.

the great comparative length of the tiller, or Geometricians have determined the most ad- lever, by which the rudder is governed ; together vantageous angle made by the helm with the with the additional power of the wheel that line prolonged from the keel, and fixed it at directs the movements of the tiller, and still far54° 44', presuming that the ship is as narrow at ther accumulates the power of the helmsman her floating line, or at the line described by the over it. Such a demonstration ought to remove surface of the water round her bottom, as at the the surprise with which the prodigious effect of keel. But as this supposition is absolutely the helm is sometimes considered, from an infalse, inasmuch as all vessels augment their attention to its mechanism: for we need only to breadth from the keel upward to the extreme observe the pressure of the water, which acts at a breadth, where the floating-line or the highest great distance from the centre of gravity, about water-line is terminated; it follows, that this which the ship is supposed to turn, and we shall angle is too large by a certain number of degrees. easily perceive the difference there is between For the rudder is impressed by the water, at the the effort of the water against the helmsman, and height of the floating-line, more directly than at the effect of the same impulse against the vessel. the keel, because the fluid exactly follows the With regard to the person who steers, the water horizontal outlines of the bottom; so that a par- acts only with the arm of a very short lever : 2 ticular position of the helm might be supposed the contrary, with regard to the ship, the force of necessary for each different incidence which it the water acts upon a very long lever, which encounters from the keel upwards. But, as a renders the action of the rudder extremely middle position may be between all these points, powerful in turning the vessel; so that, in a large it will be sufficient to consider the angle formed ship, the rudder receives a shock from the water by the sides of the ship, and her axis, or the of 2700 lbs. or 2800 lbs., which is frequently the iniddle line of her length, at the surface of the case when she sails at the rate of three or four water, in order to determine afterwards the mean leagues by the hour; and this force, being applied point, and the mean angle of incidence. It is perhaps 100 or 110 feet distant from the centre evident that the angle 54° 44' is too open, and of gravity, will operate upon the ship to turn her very unfavorable to the ship's headway, because about, with 270,000 lbs. or 308,000 lbs.; whilst, the water acts upon the rudder there with too in the latter case, the helmsman acts with an effort great a sine of incidence, as being equal to that which exceeds not 30 lbs. upon the spokes of of the angle which it makes with the line pro- the wheel. From what has been said, it is plain longed from the keel below: but above, the that the more a ship increases her velocity, with shock of the water is almost perpendicular to the regard to the sea, the more powerful will be the rudder, because of the breadth of the bottom, as effect of the rudder; because it acts against the we have already remarked. If then the rudder water with a force which increases as the square is only opposed to the fluid, by making an angle of the swiftness of the fluid, whether the ship of 45° with the line prolonged from the keel, the advances or retreats. impression, by becoming weaker, will be less The Helmet was anciently worn by horsemen opposed to the ship’s head-way; and the direction both in war and in tournaments. It covered of the absolute effort of the water upon the helm, both the head and face, only leaving an aperture drawing nearer to the lateral perpendicular, will in the front secured by bars, which was called be placed more advantageously, for the reasons the visor. See ARMOUR. In achievements it is above mentioned. On the other hand, experience placed above the escutcheon for the principal daily testifies, that a ship steers well when the ornament, and is the true mark of chivalry and rudder makes the angle equal to 35o only. It nobility. Helmets vary according to the differhas been already remarked, that the effect of ent degrees of those who bear them. They are moving the wheel to govern the helm increases also used as a bearing in coats of arms. See HEin proportion to the length of the spokes; and so great is the power of the wheel, that, if the HELMI'NTHIC, adj. From Flyirbos. Rehelmsman employs a force upon its spokes equi- lating to worms. valent to thirty pounds, it will produce an ef HELMINTHOLITHUS, in natural history, a fect of ninety or 120 lbs. upon the tiller. On name given by Linnæus to petrified bodies rethe contrary, the action of the water is collected sembling worms into the middle of the breadth of the rudder, HELMONT (John Baptist Van), a celebrated which is very narrow in comparison with the Flemish gentleman, born at Brussels in 1577. length of the tiller; so the effort of the water is He acquired such skill in natural philosophy, very littie removed from the fulcrum upon which physic, and chemistry, that he was accounted a it turns ; whereas the tiller forms the arm of a magician, and thrown into the inquisition : but, lever ten or fifteen times longer, which also in- having with difficulty justified himself, as soon creases the power of the helmsman in the same as he was released he retired to Holland; where proportion that the tiller bears to the lever upon he died in 1644. He published 1. De Magnetica which the impulse of the water is directed. This Corporum Curatione. Febriuin Doctrina force then is by consequence ten or fifteen times Inaudita. 3. Ortus Medicinæ. 4. Paradoxa de stronger; and the effort of 30 lbs., which at first aquis Spadanis : and other works, printed togegave the helmsman a power equal to 90 lbs. or ther in 1 vol. folio. 120 lbs. becomes accumulated to one of 900 lbs. HELOISE, or Eloisa, the mistress and afteror 1800 lbs. upon the rudder. This disadvantage wards the wife of Abelard, famous for her Latin



letters to him, after they had retired from the

Heaven world. She died abbess of Paraclete in 1163. Hath brought me up to be your daughter's dower, See ABELARD.

As it hath fated her to be my motive, HELONIAS, in botany, a genus of the trigy- And helper to a husband.

Shakspeare nia order and hexandria class of plants; natural

Let's fight with gentle words, order tenth, coronariæ : cor. hexapetalous : CAL.

Till time lend friends, and friends their helpfruit swords.

Id. none: CAPS. trilocular.

Sir, how comes it

you HELOS, in ancient geography, a maritime

Have holp to make this rescue ?

Id. town of Laconia, between Trinasus and Acrize, Cease to lament for that thou can'st not help; in the district of Helotea. In Pausanias's time

And study help for that which thou lamentest. Id. it was in ruins. The people, being subdued by

Love doth to her eyes repair, the Lacedæmonians, were all reduced to a state To help him of his blindness. of the most abject slavery. Hence the term A skilful chymist cap as well, by separation of ÖLAWTevelv, in Harpocration, for being in a state visible elements, draw helpful medicines out of poiof slavery; and hence also the Lacedæmonians son, as poison out of the most healthful herbs. called the slaves of all nations whatever helotes.

Raleigh. Heloticus is the epithet,

If you make the earth narrower at the bottom than HELOTE, HELOTES, or Helots, called also at the top, in fashion of a sugar-loaf reversed, it will

Bacon. Helei and Heleatæ by Stephanus, and Ilotæ by help the experiment. Livy, the inhabitants of Helos and the slaves of

Coral is in use as an help to the teeth of children.

Id. the Spartans. See Helos. The Spartans were

Discreet followers and servants help much to repuforbidden the exercise of any mean or mechanical


Id, employment, and therefore the whole care of

Let us work as valiant men behoves; supplying the city with necessaries devolved

For boldest hearts good fortune helpeth out. upon the Helots. These Helots farmed the lands

Fairfar. of the Spartans; and, in order to attach them to It is impossible for that man to despair who rethe service of their masters by the allurement of members that his helper is omnipotent. gain, they only paid a fixed rent, inferior to the

Taylor's Rule of Holy Living. produce, and which it would be disgraceful in Though these contrivances increase the power, yet any proprieter of land to advance. They were they proportionably protract the time; that which by also skilful in mechanics : in time of war they snch helps one man may do in a hundred days, may be served as sailors on board the fleet; and in the done by the immediate strength of a hundred men in

one day.

Wilkins. army every oplites, or heavy armed soldier, was accompanied by one or more of them.

Compassion, the mother of Tears, is not always a

mere idle spectator, but an helper oftentimes of evils. HELP, v. a., v. n. & n. s. 7 Preter, helped, or

More. Help'er, n. s.

holp; part. helped,

There is no help for it, but he must be taught acHELP'FUL, adj. or holpen. Saxon cordingly to comply with the faulty way of writing. HELP'LESS, adj. þelpan; Goth. hil

Holder on Speech. HELP'LESSLY, adv. pan; Gr. opellw. A man reads his prayers out of a book, as a means HELP'LESSNESS, n. s.

The idea of com to help his understanding and direct bis expressions. municating to the advantage of another is com

Stilling fleet. mon to all these words: as to assist, support,

Bennet's grave look was a pretence, relieve, prevent, avoid ; to promote or forward;

And Danby's matchless impudence to supply to, or furnish with, and to present at

Helped to support tbe knave.


One dire shot table: it is used with other words expressive

Close by the board the prince's main-mast bure; of its particular meaning, as to help up, help

All three uow helpless by each other lie. Id. out, help over, help off: help is aid, assistance, This he conceives not hard to bring about, remedy: a helper is the agent: helpful, use

If all of you should join to help him out. Id. ful, wholesome, salutary: helpless, wanting Those closing skies may still continue bright; power or aid; irremediable.

But who can help it, if you make it night. But who shal helpen me nowe to complaine,

She, betwixt her modesty and pride, Or who shal nowe my life gie or lede?

Her wishes, which she could not help, would hide. O Niobe! let nowe thy teres rayne

Id, lato my penne, and helpe me eke in need.

He orders all the succours which they bring; Chaucer. Complaint of the Blacke Knight. The helpful and the good about him run,

And form an army. Mariage is a ful gret sacrament;

Naked he lies and ready to expire, He which that hath no wif I hold him shent;

Id. He liveth helples, and all desolat :

Helpless of all that human wants require. (I speke ef folke in secular estat),

The man that is now with Tiresias, can help him And herkeneth why; I say not this for nought, to his oxen again.

L'Estrange. That woman is for mannes helpe ywrought.

It is a high point of ill nature to make sport with
Id. The Merchantes Tale. any man’s in perfections that he cannot help.
I know how to deceive myself withouten help, Having never learned any laudable manual art,
And how the lion chastised is, by beating of the they have recourse to those foolish or ill ways in use,

Earl of Surrey.
to help off their time.

Locke. Such helpless harms it's better hidden keep,

He may be beholden to experience and acquired Than rip up grief, where it may not avail. Spenser. notions, where he thinks he has not the least help

Id. Muleasses, despairing to recover the city, hardly from them. escaped his enemies' hands by the good help of his Help and ease them, but by no means bemoan uncle. Knolles. them.






It was

Wherever they are at a stand, help them presently land and Medal padia, on the east by the Bothnian over the difficulty without any rebuke.

Id. Gulf, on the south by Gestricia, and on the southAnother help St. Paul himself affords us towards west and west by Dalecarlia. It is full of mounthe attaining the true meaning contained in his tains and forests. The principal towns are epistles.

Virtue is a friend and an help to nature ; but it is and lakes abound with fish.

Hudwicksvald, Alta, and Dilsbo. The rivers

Its chief trade is vice and luxury that destroys it, and the diseases of intemperance are the natural prodact of the sins of in wood, flax, linen, iron, butter, tar, tallow, &c. intemperance.


It is 120 miles long, and ninety broad.
The God of learning and of light,

HELSTON, a populous borough of Cornwall, Would want a God himself to help him out.

seated on the Cober, near its influx into the sea.

Swift. It is one of those appointed for the coinage of I live in the corner of a vast anfurnished house : tin, and the place of assembly for the west divimy family consists of a steward, a gronm, a helper sion of the shire. By a grant of Edward III. it in the stable, a foottuan, and an old maid. Id.

has a market on Monday, and eight fairs. It Those few who reside among us, only because they had formerly a priory and a castle, and sent cannot help it.

members to parliament in the reign of Edward Some, wanting the talent to write, made it their l.; but was not incorporated till the 27th of care that the actors should help out where the muses

queen Elizabeth, who appointed a mayor, four failed.

Rymer. A generous present helps to persuade as well as an

aldermen, and twenty-four assistants. agreeable person.

re-incorporated August 16th 1774, and still sends

It has a large So great is the stupidity of some of those, that they two members to parliament. may have no sense of the help administered to them. market-house, a guild-hall, and four streets in


the form of a cross, with a channel of water runWhat I offer is so far from doing any diskindness ning through each. The steeple of the church, to the cause these gentlemen are engaged in, that it with its spire, is ninety feet high, and a seadoes them a real service, and helps them out with the mark. King John exempted Helston from paymain thing whereat they stuck.


ing toll any where but in London; and the Let our enemies rage and persecute the poor and the helpless; but let it be our glory to be pure and in their own borough. It is twelve miles east of

citizens from being impleaded any where except peaceable.


Penzance, and 274 W.S.W. of London. In the He cannot help believing, that such things he saw and heard.


neighbourhood was formerly one of those curioIn that dread moment, how the frantic soul

sities called rocking-stones, which was thrown Raves round the walls of her clay tenement,

down by the governor of Pendennis Castle unRuns to each avenue and shrieks for help,

der Oliver Cromwell. Near the town is a curious But shrieks in vain.

Blair's Grave. heap of stones, piled loosely up, in the form of a In plenty starving, tantalized in state,

circle, called Earth Castle, used anciently as a And complaisantly helped to all I hate;

fortification. Treated, caressed, and tired, I take my leave.

HELTER-SKELTER, adv. From Saxon Pope.

þeolster sceado, as Skinner fancies, the darkI cannot help remarking the resemblance betwixt

ness of hell; hell, says he, being a place of conhim and our author in qualities, fame, and fortune.


fusiou ; in a hurry; without order; tumul

tuously. How shall I then your helpless fame defend ? "Twill then be infamy to seem your friend. Id.

Sir John, I am thy Pistol, and thy friend ;

And helter-skelter have I rode to England, At evening to the setting sun he turns

And tidings do I bring. A mournful eye, and down his dying heart

Shakspeare. Sinks helpless.

Thomson's Seasons,

He had no sooner turned his back but they were If they take offence when we give none, it is a thing at it helter-skelter, throwing books at one another's


L'Estrange. we cannot help, and therefore the whole blame must lie upon them.

Sanders, HELVE, n. $ & v.a. Sax. þelse, the handle I mean the man who, when the distant poor of an axe : to fit with a handle. Need help, denies them nothing but his name.

The slipping of an axe from the heloe, whereby

Cowper's Task. another is slain, was the work of God himself. And he had learned to love,-I know not why,

Raleigh's History. For this, in such as him, seems strange of wood, HELVETIA, or Civitas HELVETIÆ, in anThe helpless looks of blooming infancy,

cient geography, the country of the Helvetii, Even in its earliest nurture. Byron. Childe Harold.

which was divided into four pagi or cantons, siHELSINGFORS, a town and naval station in tuated to the south and west of the Rhine, by the south of Finland, at the mouth of the Wanna. which they were divided from the Germans; and It has a very good harbour, and 3200 inhabit- extending towards Gaul, from which they were ants; who carry on a trade in corn, fish, logs, and separated by Mount Jura on the west, and by deals : the latter articles being exported some- the Rhodanus and Lacus Lemanus on the south, times to the Mediterranean. It is defended by and therefore called a Gallic nation. It was several forts, the principal of which is Sweaborg. formerly a part of Celtic Gaul, but by Augustus It was built by Gustavus I., but burnt down in assigned to Gallia Belgica. The modern name is 1741 by the Russians: who, however, now have Switzerland. much encouraged it. It is 104 miles S.S. E. of HELVETIC REPUBLIC. See SWITZERLAND Abo.

HELVETII, a people of Gallia Belgica, near HELSINGIA, or HELSINGLAND, a province the country of the Allobroges and the Provincia of Sweden, bounded on the north by Jempter- Romana; famed for bravery. See GALLIA.

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