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preserve; subsisting principally by fishing and than at the lower, which is furnished with an pilotage. On the north end of the island is a eye-glass and micrometer. By the construction light-house, and on the south a haven for boats. of this instrument two distinct images of an ob

Heligoland was in former ages the residence ject are formed in the focus of the eye-glass, of a chief of the Sicambri, or North Frieslanders, whose distance, depending on that of the two object and the seat of worship of the Saxon deity glasses from one another, may be measured with Phoseta. During the late war it was a consi- great accuracy; nor is it necessary that the whole derable depôt for British merchandise, which was disc of the sun or moon come with th field of smuggled into the continent.

view; since, if the images of only a small part HELIOCARPUS, in botany, a genus of the of the disc be formed by each object-glass, the digynia order, and dodecandria class of plants: whole diameter may be easily computed by their natural order thirty-seventh, columnifera : CAL. position with respect to one another; for, if the tetraphyllous: the petals four; the styles simple; object be large, the images will approach, or CAPS. bilocular, compressed, and radiated length- perhaps lie even over one another; and, the obwise on each side.

ject-glasses being moveable, the two images may HELIOCEʻNTRIC, adj. Fr. heliocentrique ; always be brought to touch one another, and the ήλιος and κέντρον. .

diameter may be computed from the known disThe heliocentrick place of a planet is said to be tance of the centres of the two glasses. Besides, such as it would appear to us from the sun, if our eye as this instrument has a common micrometer in were fixed in its centre.

Harris.

the focus of the eye-glass, when the two images HELIOCOMETES, a phenomenon some- of the sun or moon are made in part to cover times observed about sun-setting; being a large one another, that part which is common to both luminous tail or column of light proceeding from the images may be measured with great exactthe body of the sun, and dragging after it, like ness, as being viewed upon a ground that is only the tail of a comet, whence the name.

one-half less luminous than itself; whereas, in HEʻLIOID PARABOLA, or the parabolic spi- general, the heavenly bodies are viewed upon a ral, in mathematics, is a curve which arises from dark ground, and on that account are imagined the supposition of the axis of the common Apol- to be larger than they really are. By a small ionian parabola being bent round into the pe- addition to this instrument, provided it be of a riphery of a circle, and is a line then passing moderate length, M. Bouguer thought it very through the extremities of the ordinates, which possible to measure angles of three or four dedo now converge towards the centre of the said grees, which is of particular consequence in takcircle.

ing the distance of stars from the moon. With HELIODORUS, bishop of Tricca, in Thes- this instrument M. Bouguer, by repeated obsersaly, and the father of romance writing, was born vation, found, that the sun's vertical diameter, at Emmessa, in Phænicia, in the end of the though somewhat diminished by the astronomifourth century. In his youth he wrote a romance cal refraction, is longer than the horizontal diain ten books, the first work of its kind, entitled meter; and, in ascertaining this phenomenon, he Æthiopics, relating the amours of Theagenes also found, that the upper and lower edges of and Chariclea. He was deposed by a synod the sun's disc are not so equally defined as the because he would not consent to suppress it. It other parts; on this account his image appears has been repeatedly printed in Greek and Latin, somewhat extended in the vertical direction. particularly at Basil, in 1553. Professor Robi- This is owing to the decomposition of light, son gives the following high character of this which is known to consist of rays differently rework, in his Proofs of a Conspiracy, p. 266. frangible in its passage through our atmosphere. * I think,' says he, “that the first piece, in which Thus the blue and violet rays, which proceed woman is pictured as a respectable character, is from the upper part of the disc at the same time the oldest novel that I am acquainted with, with those of other colors, are somewhat more written by a Christian bishop, Heliodorus; I refracted than the others, and therefore seem to mean the adventures of Theagenes and Chariclea.' us to have proceeded from a bigher point; Heliodorus was also a good Latin poet. He whereas, on the contrary, the red rays proceeding flourished under Theodosius I. and Arcadius. from the lower edge of the disc, being less re

HELIOGABALUS (M. Aurelius Antoninus), fracted than the others, seem to proceed from a one of the many monsters who reigned in Rome. lower point; so that the vertical diameter is exSee Rome. He was murdered, after a short and tended, or appears longer, than the horizontal detestable reign of four years, A.D. 222. He diameter. Mr. Servington Savery discovered a took the name of Heliogabalus from having been similar method of improving the micrometer, a priest of Apollo, in Phænicia.

which was communicated to the Royal Society HELIOMETER, from nalos, the sun, and in 1743. See MICROMETER. HETPEW, to measure, an instrument called also HELIOPOLIS, a city of Egypt, so called by astrometer, invented by M. Bouguer in 1747, Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus; by Moses On, for measuring with particular exactness the dia- and by Jeremiah Bethshemesh. It is one of the meters of the stars, and especially those of the most ancient cities of the world of which any sun and moon. This instrument is a kind of vestiges can now be traced. It lay south-east of telescope, consisting of two object glasses of the Delta, and east of Memphis; and was long equal focal distance, placed the one by the side famous for its temple of the sun. The most of the other, so that the same eye glass serves for enlightened philosophers of Greece and Rome both. The tube is of a conic form, larger at the were attracted to this celebrated seat of learning upper end, which receives the two object glasses, It was here that Herodotus became acquainted

with the sciences and mysteries of Egypt. Plato island of Rume in Scotland. It is cut into seals was here taught philosophy, and about thirty and snuff-boxes. The Siberian wants the red years before Christ its ruins were visited and spots. described by Strabo. In this city was erected a HELIOTROPIUM, turnsol, a genus of the temple to the sun, where a particular part was polygynia order, and pentandria class of plants : appropriated for the feeding of the sacred ox, natural order forty-first, asperifoliæ : cor. salverwhich was here worshipped under the name of shaped and quinquefid, with smaller dents interMnevis. There was also another splendid tem- jected alternately; the throat closed up by small ple, with avenues of sphinxes and superb obe- arches formed in the corolla itself. There are Tisks, before the principal entrance. Out of the many species, all natives of warm countries. four obelisks, which were erected here by Sochis, Only one, viz. H. tricoccum, grows in Europe, two were carried to Rome; one was destroyed and is a native of France, Spain, and Italy. by the Arabs, and the fourth still remains. HEʻLISPHERICAL, adj. Helix and sphere. The obelisk, or pillar of On, which is now the The helispherical line is the rhomb line in navigaonly piece of antiquity that marks the site of tion, and is so called because on the globe it winds Heliopolis, is about sixty-eight feet high, and six round the pole spirally, and still comes nearer and feet and a half wide on each side. According to

nearer to it, but cannot terminate in it. Harris. Dr. Clarke, who has given a very correct

HE’LIX, n. s. Fr. helice; Gr. Ede. Part of engraving of it, it is one entire mass of reddish a spiral line: a circumvolution. granite. Each its fou sides exhibits the Find the true inclination of the screw, together same characters, and in the same order. Those with the quantity of water which every helix does which face the south have been the least affected contain.

Wilkins. by the decomposition of the substance of which Helix, in anatomy, is the whole circuit or they are hewn; and it is from the southern side extent of the auricle or border of the ear outthat Dr. Clarke's engraving is taken. For a wards; whence the inner protuberance surparticular account of this obelisk, and the hiero- rounded thereby, and answering thereto, is called glyphics which it contains, the reader is referred antihelix. See ANATOMY. to Dr. Clarke's Travels in Egypt.- Near this city Helix, in architecture. Some authors make the French, under general Kleber, completely a difference between the helix and the spiral. A defeated the Turks under the grand vizier, and stair-case, according to Daviler, is in a belix, or killed 8000 men, on the 18th of March, 1800, is helical, when the stairs or steps wind round a after the breach of the treaty of El-Arisch. cylindrical newel; whereas the spiral winds

Heliopolis, a city of Cælesyria, near the round a cone, and is continually approaching springs of the Orontes; so called from the wor nearer and nearer its axis. The word is also ship of the sun; now named Balbec. See applied to the caulicules, or little volutes under BALBEC.

the flowers of the Corinthian capital ; called also HEʼLIOSCOPE, n. s. Fr.helioscope ; flog urillæ. and σκοπέω. A sort of telescope fitted so as to Helix, in zoology, the snail, a genus in the look on the body of the sun, without offence to class of vermes, aud order of testacea. The

shell consists of one spiral, brittle, and almost HELIOTROPE, n. S. Fr. heliotrope ; fjkios diaphanous valve; and the aperture is narrow. and spérw; Lat. heliotropium. A plant that There are numerous species, principally disturns towards the sun; but more particularly the tinguished by the figure of their shells. They turnsol, or sunflower.

are of various sizes, from that of a small appie "Tis an observation of flatterers, that they are like to less than a grain of corn. Some of them live the heliotrope ; they open only towards the sun, but on land, frequenting woods and gardens, or inshut and contract themselves at night, and in cloudy habiting clefts of rocks and dry sand-banks. weather.

Government of the Tongue. Others are aquatic, inhabiting ponds, deep HELIOTROPE, among the ancients, an in- rivers, and the ocean. The principal species are, strument or machine for showing when the sun 1. H. hortensis, the garden snail, is in form arrived at the tropics and the equinoctial line. like the pomatia, but less, and not umbilicated, This name was also used for a sun-dial. clouded, or mottled with brown. It abounds

HELIOTROPE, in lithology, a precious stone, with a viscid slimy juice, which it readily gives of a green color, streaked with red veins. Pliny out by boiling in milk or water, so as to render says it is thus called, because, when cast into a them thick and glutinous. The decoctions in vessel of water, the sun's rays falling thereon milk are apparently very nutritious and demulseem to be of a blood color; and that, when out cent, and have been recommended in a thin of the water, it gives a faint reflection of the acrimonious state of the humors, in consumptive figure of the sun; and is proper to observe cases, and emaciations. The eyes of snails are eclipses of the sun as a helioscope. The helio- lodged in their horns, one at the end of each trope is also called the oriental jasper, on account horn, which they can retract at pleasure. The of its ruddy spots. It is found in the East manner of examining these eyes, which are four Indies, as also in Ethiopia, Germany, Bohemia, in number, is this: when the horns are out, cut &c. According to Brandes and Firnhaber it off nimbly the extremity of one of them; and, contains, silica 96.55, oxide of iron 1.25, alu- placing it before the microscope, you may dismina 0·83, water 1:05, 99:58. It is found cover the black spot at the end to be really a in rocks belonging to the secondary form- semiglobular eye. The dissection of this animal ation. The finest heliotrope comes from Bu- is very curious ; for the microscope not only charia and Siberia. A variety is found in the discovers the heart beating just against the

the eyes.

round hole near the neck, which seems the whoever looks into Pliny cannot entertain the place of respiration, but also the liver, spleen, idea, that the thin shell aforementioned could be stomach, and intestines, with the veins, arteries, the same with it. They had several shells which mouth, and teeth, are plainly observable. The yielded the purple dye; but these were all rock guts of this creature are green, from its eating shells (see Buccinum, and Murex), very differherbs, and are branched all over with fine capil- ent both in figure and hardness from the little lary white veins: the mouth is like a hare's or helix janthina; which is not calculated for the rabbit's, with four or six needle teeth, resembling neighbourhood of rocks. those of leeches, and of a substance like horn. 3. H. pomatia, the exotic snail, with five Snails are all hermaphrodites, having both sexes spires, most remarkably ventricose, and fasciated united in each individual. They lay their eggs with a lighter and deeper brown, is a native of with great care in the earth, and the young ones France, where it inhabits the woods; but has are hatched with shells completely formed. been naturalised in England, where it inhabits Cutting off a snail's head, a little stone appears, the woods of the southern counties. It was inwhich is supposed to be a great diuretic, and troduced, as it is said, by Sir Kenelm Digby, good in all nephritic disorders. Immediately whether for medical purposes, or as food, is ununder this stone the heart is seen beating; and certain : tradition says, that to cure his beloved the auricles are evidently distinguishable, are wife of a decline, was the object. They are membraneous, and of a white color; as are also quite confined to our southern counties. An the vessels which proceed from them. Snails attempt was made to bring them into Northampdischarge their excrements at a hole in their tonshire, but they could not live there. They neck; they also breathe by this hole, and their are used as food in several parts of Europe parts of generation are situated very near it. during Lent; and are preserved in an escargaSnails are said to couple three times at the dis- toire, or a large place boarded in, with a floor tance of about fifteen days, which lasts ten or covered half a foot deep with herbs, in which twelve hours. At the end of about eighteen the snails nestle and fatten. They were also a days they bring forth their eggs by the aperture favorite dish with the Romans, who had their of their neck. The snail is a small animal; it is cochlearia, a nursery similar to the above. Fulnot free from the plague of supporting other vius Hirpinus was the first inventor of this smaller animals on its body; and as in other luxury, a little before the civil wars between animals we find these secondary ones either Cæsar and Pompey. The snails were fed with living on their surface, as lice, &c., or in the sodden wine and bran. Its name is derived not intestines, as worms, it is very remarkable that from any thing relating to an orchard, but from this creature infests the snail in both these man- nwua, an operculum, it having a very strong ners; being found sometimes on the surface of one. This seems to be the species described by its body, and sometimes within its intestines. Pliny, lib. viii. c. 39, which he says was scarce; There is a part of the common garden snail, and that it covered itself with the opercle, and of other of the like kinds, commonly called the lodged under ground ; and that they were at collar. This surrounds the neck of the snail, first found only about the Maritime Alps, and and is considerably thick, and is the only part more lately near Velitræ. that is visible when the animal is retired quietly HELL, n. s. Sax. þele; Teut. helle, signifyinto its shell. In this state of the animal these ing originally the grave; as some think, from insects which infest it are usually seen in con- Goth. hyla; Sax. belan, to cover, or conceal. siderable numbers marching about very nimbly The place of the devil and wicked spirits; the on this part; besides, the snail, every time it separate state, or invisible world ; temporal has occasion to open its anus, gives them a death; the place at a running play to which place by which to enter into its intestines, and those who are caught are carried; the place they often seize the opportunity. Snails are where the taylor throws his shreds; the infernal great destroyers of fruit in gardens, especially powers. By old writers it is a word used in the better sorts of wall-fruit. Lime and ashes composition. sprinkled on the ground where they most resort will drive them away, and destroy the young

I will go down to my son mourning to hell.

Genesis. brood of them : it is a common practice to pull

The pains of hell came about me; the shares of off the fruit they have bitten; but this should death overtook me.

Psa, xviii. 4. never be done, for they will eat no other till

He descended into hell. Apostle's Creed. they have wholly eaten up this if it be left for

Men shuld, eke, rembre hem of the shame them.

That is to come at the day of dome, to hem that ben 2. H. janthina, with a violet-colored shell. Not penitent in this present lif; for all the creaThis is remarkable for the extreme thinness of texture, which breaks with the least pressure, In heven, and in erthe, and in helle, shul and seems therefore entirely calculated to keep See apertly all that they hidden in this world. the open sea, o: at least to shun rocky shores.

Charcer. The Persones Tale. It inhabits the seas of Europe, especially the

For it is a knell Mediterranean; those of Asia and Africa; and That summons thee to heaven, or to hell. also the ocean. The living animal, when touched,

Shakspeare. exudes a juice which stains the hands of a If a man were a porter of hell gates, he should have violet color. Dr. Hawkesworth, in his account o!d turning the key.

Id. Macbeth, of Cook's voyage, mistakes this shell for that Hell's black tyrant trembled to behold which yielded the purpura of the ancients. But The glorious light be forfeited of old. Cowley.

tures

Let none admire

the points mentioned by the rabbies, will not be That riches grow in hell; that soil may

best punished therein for any other crimes above a Deserve the precious bane.

Milton,

year at most. In Covent-garden did a taylor dwell,

The Mahommedans believe the eternity of reWho might deserve a place in his own hell.

wards and punishments in another life. In the King's Cookery.

Koran it is said that hell has seven gates; the This trusty squire, he had as well

first for the Mussulmans, the second for the As the bold Trojan knight seen hell ; Not with a counterfeited pass

Christians, the third for the Jews, the fourth for Of golden bough, but true gold lace.

the Sabians, the fifth for the Magians, the sixth

Hudibras. for the Pagans, and the seventh for hypocrites of O dire ambition! what infernal power

uil religions. The locality of hell, and the reality Unchained thee from thy native depth of hell, of its fire, began first to be controverted by To stalk the earth with thy destructive train Origen. That father, interpreting the Scripture Murder and Lust! to waste domestic peace, account metaphorically, makes hell to consist, And every heart-felt joy.

Browne.

not in external punishments, but in a consciousThen couples three be straight allotted there; ness or sense of guilt, and a remembrance of They of both ends the middle two do fly;

past pleasures. Among the moderns, Mr. WhisThe two that in mid-place, hell called were, ton advanced a new hypothesis, The comets, Must strive with waiting foot and watching eye,

he thinks, are so many hells appointed in their To catch of them, and them to hell to bear,

orbits alternately to carry the damned into the That they, as well as they, hell may supply.

confines of the sun, there to be scorched by its Sidney.

violent heat, and then to return with them be But some his royal service (fools !) disdain ; So down were flung (oft bliss is double pain)

yond the orb of Saturn, to starve them in those Iu heaven, they scorned to serve, so now in hell they cold and dismal regions. Another modern aureign. Fletcher's Purple Island. thor supposes the sun to be the local hell. See

THEOLOGY. by a power, Deeper than all yet urged, a tyrant-spell,

HELL, VALLEY OF, a valley of Suabia, in the Which had its birth-place in a star condemned,

Black Forest, through which, for many leagues, The burning wreck of a demolished world, there is scarcely room for fifty men to march in A wandering hell in the eternal space;

front, the mountains rise so high on each side. By the strong curse which is upon my soul, Through this formidable defile, though defended The thought which is within me and around me, by numerous bodies of Austrian troops, general I do compel ye to my will.

Moreau, in 1798, forced a passage with his army, Byron. Childe Harold.

through a hostile country of 300 miles in extent: Hell. The hell of the ancient heathens was and daily gave battle to the Austrians, while divided into two mansions; the one called flushed with victory; and even took several ELYSIUM, on the right hand, pleasant and de- thousands of them prisoners, with many of their lightful, appointed for the souls of good men; colors and cannons, during his desperate but the other called TARTARUS, on the left, a region masterly retreat, which many think has not been of misery and torment, appointed for the wicked. equalled since the days of Xenophon. The latter only was hell, in the present restrain HELL-BLACK, adj. Compounds now ed sense of the word. (See these articles). The HELL-BRED, adj. rarely used; their philosophers were of opinion, that the infernal HELL-BROTH, 1. S.

meaning is for the regions were at an equal distance from all the HELL'-DOOMED, adj. most part obvious : parts of the earth; nevertheless it was the opi HELL-GOVERNED, adj. j hell-broth, a componion of some, that there were certain passages Hell'-HATED, adj. sition boiled up for which led thither, as the river Lethe near the HELL-HAUNTED, adj. infernal purposes : Syrtes, and the Acherusian cave in Epirus. At HELL-HOUND, n. s.

hell - haunted, freHermione it was thought that there was a very HELL-KITE, n. s. quented by the devil: short way to hell; for which reason the people HEL'LISH, adj.

hell-hound, a dog or of that country never put the fare into the HEL'LISHLY, adv. agent of hell: bellmouths of the dead to pay their passage. The Hel'LISHNESS, n. s. kite, a kite of the inJews placed hell in the centre of the earth, and HELL'ward, adv. fernal breed : hellish, believed it to be situated under waters and any thing having the qualities of hell; infernal; mountains. According to them, there are three diabolical; wicked : hellward, towards hell. passages leading to it: the first is in the wilder. The term hell prefixed to any word notes detesness, and by that Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, tation. descended into hell; the second in the sea, be

Heart cannot think what courage and what cries, cause Jonah, who was thrown into the sea, cried With foul enfouldered smoak and Aashing fire, to God out of the belly of hell; the third is in the hell-bred beast threw forth into the skies. Jerusalem, because it is said the fire of the Lord

Spenser. is in Zio, and his furnace is in Jerusalem. They

Adder's fork, and blind worm's sting, likewise maintained seven degrees of pain in Lizard's leg, and owlet's wing; hell, because they find this place called by seven For a charm of powerful trouble, different names in scripture. Though they be Like a hell-broth boil and bubble. lieved that infidels, and persons eminently wick

Shakspeare. Macbeth. ed, will continue for ever in hell; yet they Did you say all ? What all ? Oh, hell-kite! all ? held, that every Jew who is not infected What, all my pretty chickens, and their dam, with some heresy, and has not acted contrary to At one fell swoop?

Id.

+

me.

Earth gape open wide and eat him quick, Hellespont. Others say that she was carried ou As thou dost swallow up this good king's blood, a cloud, or rather upon a ship, from which she Which his hell-governed arm hath butchered. fell into the sea and was drowned. See Purexus.

Shakspeare. The sea, with such a storm as his bare head

HEL'LEBORE, n. s. Lat. helleborus. Christ. In hell-black night endured, would have boiled up,

mas flower. And quenched the stelled fires. Id. King Lear. HELLEBORE, Bastard. See SERAPIAS. Back do I toss these treasons to thy head,

HELLEBORE, BLACK. See HELLEBORUS. With the hell-hated lie o’erwhelm thy heart.

HEL'LEBORE, Wuite, n s. Lat. veratrum. À

Shakspeare. plant. See VERATRUM. From forth the kennel of thy womb hath crept

There are great doubts whether any of its species A hell-hound that doth hunt us all to death. Id.

be the true hellebore of the ancients.

Miller. And reckonest thou thyself with spirits of heaven, Hell-doomed! and breathest defiance here and scorn, HELLEBORUS, HELLEBORE, a genus of Where I reigned king ?

Milton. the polygynia order, and pentandria class of Victory and triumph to the Son of God, plants: natural order twenty-sixth, multisiliquæ. Now entering his great duel, not of arms, But to vanquish by wisdom hellish wiles.

CAL. none : petals five or more: the nectaria are Id.

bilabiated and tubular : CAPS. polyspermous, I called

and a little erect. The most remarkable species My hell-hounds to lick up the draff, and filth,

is the Which man's polluting sin with taint had shed On what was pure.

Id. H. niger, black hellebore, or Christmas rose. O thou celestial or infernal spirit of love, or what It has roots composed of many thick fleshy other heavenly or hellist title thou list to have, for spreading fibres, crowned by a large cluster of effects of both I find in myself, have compassion of lobed leaves, consisting each of seven or eight

Sidney. obtuse fleshy lobes, united to one foot-stalk; and Now the hell-hounds with superior speed

between the leaves several thick fleshy flowerHad reached the dame, and, fastening on her side, stalks three or four inches high, surmounted by The ground with issuing streams of purple dyed.

large beautiful white flowers of five roundish pe

Dryden. Fierce Osmond closed me in the bleeding bark,

tals, and numerous filaments, appearing in win

ter, about or soon after Christmas. It may be And bid me stand exposed to the bleak winds, Bound in the fate of this hell-haunted grove. Id.

propagated either by seeds or parting the roots.

It No benefits shall ever allay that diabolical rancour

prospers

in open borders, or may be planted that ferments in some hellish breasts, but that it will in pots to move when in bloom, in order to foam out at its foul mouth in slander. South, adorn any particular place; but it always flowers

Be next thy care the sable sheep to place fairest and most abundantly in the front of a Full o'er the pit, and hellward turn their face. warm sunny border. The plants may be re

Pope. moved, and the roots divided for propagation, Hell Gate, a strait near the west end of in September, October, or November ; but the Long Island Sound, opposite to Harlem, in York sooner in autumn it is done, the stronger will Island, and about eight miles north-east of New the plants flower at their proper season. The York city, remarkable for its whirlpools, and a root was anciently used as a cathartic. The hed of rocks which extend quite across it. There taste is acrid and bitter. Its acrimony is fel is a sufficient depth of water for any vessel ; but on the tip of the tongue, and then spreads itself the passage of large ships can only be accom- immediately to the middle, without being much plished with the most skilful pilots.

perceived in the intermediate part. On chewing HELLANICUS of Mitylene, a celebrated the root for a few minutes, the tongue seems beGreek historian, born before Herodotus, flou- numbed, and affected with a kind of paralytic rished about A. A. C. 480. He wrote a history stupor, as when burnt by eating any thing too of the ancient kings and founders of cities, but it hot. The fibres are more acrimonious than the has not come down to us.

head of the root from whence they issue. Black HELLAS, in ancient geograpny, an appella- hellebore root, taken from fifteen to thirty grains, tion comprising, according to the ancient Greeks proves a strong cathartic; and, as such, has been and Romans, Achaia and Peloponnesus, but after- celebrated for the cure of maniacal and other wards restrained to Achaia. It was bounded on disorders proceeding from what the ancients the west by the Achelous, on the north by called the atra bilis; in which cases, medicines mounts Othrys and Octa, on the east by the of this kind are doubtless occasionally of use, Ægean Sea, and on the south by the Saronic and though they are by no means possessed of any Corinthian Bays, and by the Isthmus which joins specific power. It does not however appear it to Peloponnesus. It was called Hellas from that our black hellebore acts with so much vioHellen the son of Deucalion; and it is now call- lence as that of the ancients; whence many have ed Livadia.

supposed it to be a different species of plant : HELLE, in fabulous history, a daughter of and indeed the descriptions which the ancients Athamas, king of Thebes, by Nephele. She fled have left us of their hellebore do not agree with from her father's house with her brother Phryxus, those of any of the sorts usually taken notice of to avoid the cruelty of her step-mother Ino. by modern botanists. Vauquelin ascribes its According to some, she was carried through the acrimony to a peculiar oil, which he separated air on a ram with a golden fleece, which her from the infusion in alcohol, by distilling off the mother had received from Neptune, and in her latter. It is very poisonous. Orfila says, on passage became giddy, and fell into that part of the contrary, that the poisonous quality of hellethe sea which from her received the name of bore root resides in a principle soluble in water ;

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