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it slowly through a long tortuous tube wrapped gines, which was before so great, was in a in porous paper wetted with ether. On the moment more than doubled. The counterother hand, when he wishes to expose his vessels weight required in the single-stroke engine, to to a regulated heat, he causes hot vapor to be depress the pump-end of the working beam, was condensed on their cold surface. The heat, thus now laid aside. He thus freed the machine from disengaged from the vapor, passes into the ves a dead weight or drag of many hundred pounds, sel, and speedily raises it to a temperature which which had hung upon it from its birth, about he can adjust with the nicest precision. A seventy years before. vapor bath ought therefore to be provided for The application of steam to heat apartments every laboratory.
is another valuable fruit of these studies. Safety, But the most splendid trophy erected to the cleanliness, and comfort, thus combine in giving science of caloric, is the steam-engine of Watt. a genial warmth for every purpose of private This illustrious philosopher, from a mistake of accommodation, or public manufacture. "It has his friend Dr. Robison, has been hitherto de- been ascertained that one cubic foot of boiler prived of a part of his claims to the admiration will heat about 2000 feet of space in a cotton and gratitude of mankind. The fundamental mill, whose average heat is from 70° to 80° Fahr. researches on the constitution of steam, which And if we allow twenty-five cubic feet of a boiler formed the solid basis of his gigantic superstruc- for a horse's power, in a steam-engine supplied ture, though they coincided perfectly with Dr. by it, such a boiler would be adequate to the Black's results, were not drawn from them. In warming of 50,000 cubic feet of space. It has some conversations with Dr. Vre, a short period been also ascertained, that one square foot of before his death, Mr. Watt described the simple, surface of steam pipe is adequate to the warmbut decisive experiments, by which he discovered ing of 200 cubic feet of space. This quantity is the latent heat of steam. His means and his adapted to a well finished ordinary brick' or leisure not then permitting an expensive and stone building. The safety valve on the boiler complex apparatus, he used apothecaries' phials. should be loaded with two pounds and a half With these he ascertained the two main facts, for an area of a square inch, as is the rule for first, that a cubic inch of water would form Mr. Watt's engines. Cast iron pipes are prefeabout a cubic foot of ordinary steam, or 1728 rable to all others, for the diffusion of heat. inches; and that the condensation of that quan- Freedom of expansion must be allowed, which tity of steam would heat six cubic inches of in cast iron may be taken at about a tenth of an water from the atmospheric temperature to the inch for every ten feet in length. The pipes boiling point. Hence he saw that six times the should be distributed within a few inches of the difference of temperature, or fully 900° of heat, floor. had been employed in giving elasticity to steam; Steam is now used extensively for drying which must be all abstracted before a complete muslins and calicoes. Large cylinders are filled vacuum could be procured under the piston of with it, which, diffusing in the apartment a temthe steam-engine. These practical determina- perature of 100° or 130°, rapidly dry the sustions he afterwards found to agree pretty nearly pended cloth. Occasionally the cloth is made with the observations of Dr. Black. Though to glide in a serpentine manner closely round a Mr. Watt was then known to the Dr. he was series of steam cylinders, arranged in parallel not on those terms of intimacy with him which rows. It is thus safely and thoroughly dried in he afterwards came to be, nor was he a member the course of a minute. Experience has shown of his class.
that bright dyed yarns like scarlet, dried in a Mr. Watt's three capital improvements, which common stove heat of 128°, have their color seem to have nearly exhausted the resources of darkened, and acquire a harsh feel; while simiscience and art, were the following: 1. The lar hanks, laid on a steam pipe heated up to separate condensing chest, immersed in a body 165° retain the shade and lustre they possessed of cold water, and connected merely by a slen- in the wetted state. The people who work in der pipe with the great cylinder, in which the steam drying-rooms are healthy; those who were impelling piston moved. On opening a valve formerly' employed in the stove-heated apartor stop-cock of communication, the elastic steam, ments became soon sickly and emaciated. These which had floated the ponderous piston, rushed injurious effects must be ascribed to the action into the distant chest with magical velocity, of cast iron, at a high temperature, on the atmoleaving an almost perfect vacuum in the cylin- sphere. The heating by steam of large quantities der, into which the piston was forced by atmo- of water or other liquids, either for baths or spheric pressure. What had appeared impossible manufactures, may be effected in two ways: to all previous engineers was thus accomplished. that is, the steam pipe may be plunged with an A vacuum was formed without cooling the cylin- open end into the water cistern; or the steam der itself. Thus it remained boiling hot, ready may be diffused around the liquid in the interval the next instant to receive and maintain the between the wooden vessel and an interior metalelastic steam. 2. Ilis second grand improve- lic case. The second mode is of universal apment consisted in closing the cylinder at top, plicability. Since a gallon of water in the form making the piston-rod slide through a stuffing of steam will heat six gallons at 50°, up to the box in the lid, and causing the steam to give the boiling point, or 162° ; one gallon of the former impulsive pressure, instead of the atmosphere. will be adequate to heat eighteen gallons of the Henceforth the waste of heat was greatly dimi- latter up to 100°, making a liberal allowance for nished. 3. The final improvement was the waste in the conducting pipe. But see our ar. double impulse, whereby the power of his en- ticle Steam.
HEATH, n. s. Lat. erica; Teut. and nephew to Milton, 1676, folio. 2. Flagellum : Heatu'-COCK, n. S. Belgic heide ; à Greek or The Life and Death, Birth and Burial, of Heath'-PEASELING, I alw, to burn. Minsheu. Oliver Cromwell, 1663. The third edition came HEATH'-POUT, n. s. Heath, evergreen out with additions in 1665, 8vo. 3. A New HEATH'-ROSE, N. S.
shrub of low stature; a Book of Loyal English Martyrs and Confessors, HEATH'Y, adj. place overgrown with who have endured the Pains and Terrors of heath ; a place covered with shrubs : heathcock, Death, Arraignment, &c., for the Maintenance a fowl that frequents heaths: heath-peaseling, a of the just and legal Government of these species of vetch : heath-pout, a bird : heath-rose, Kingdoms both in Church and State, 1663, plant.
12mo. Heath, who perhaps had nothing but Say, from whence
pamphlets and newspapers to compile from, You owe this strange intelligence ? or why, frequently relates facts that throw light upon the Upon this blasted heuth you stop our way history of those times, which Clarendon, though
With such prophetick greeting ? Shakspeare. he drew every thing from the most authentic Some woods of oranges, and heaths of rosemary, records, bas omitted. will smell a great way into the sea.
Bacon. Cornwall hath quail, rail, partridge, pheasant, English divine of considerable abilities, born in
HEATHCOTE (Ralph), D.D., a learned heath-cock, and powte.
Carew's Survey. Health and long life have been found rather on the
1721. He was educated and graduated at Campeak of Derbyshire, and the heaths of Staffordshire, bridge. He wrote, 1. A Treatise against the than fertile soils.
Hutchinsonians; 2. A Sketch of Lord BolingNot heath-pout, or the rarer bird
broke's Philosophy; 3. Sylva, or the Wood : Which Phasis or Ionia yields,
and several other pieces. More pleasing morsels would afford
HEA’THEN, n. s. & adj.
Teut. heyden; Than the fat olives o: my fields. Dryden. HEA'THENISH, adj. Swed. and Dan. In Kent they cut up the heath in May, burn it, and HEA'THENISHLY, adv. spread the ashes. Mortimer's Husbandry.
HEA'THENISM, n. S. This sort of land they order the same way with the Gentiles; nations as yet unacquainted with
εθνικος, εθνος. The heathy land.
Christianity: paganism : wild, savage, rapaOft with bolder wing they soariog dare The purple heath.
cious, cruel, untaught. Heat (Benjamin), L.L.D., an eminent thanks to thy holy name.
Deliver us from the heathen, that we may give
1 Chron. xvi. 35. lawyer, town clerk of Exeter, and author of se
Under an hethen castel at the last, veral learned works, was educated at Oxford,
(of which the name in my text I not find) where he took his degree in civil law, 31st of Custance and eke her child the see up cast. March 1762. He wrote, 1. An Essay towards Almighty God, that saved all mankind, a demonstrative Proof of the Divine Existence, Have on Custance and on hire child some mind, Unity, and Attributes; to which is premised, A That fallen is in hethen hond eftsone short Defence of the Argument commonly In point to spill, as I shall tell you sone called à priori, 1740. 2. Notæ sive Lectiones, ad
Chaucer. The Man of Lawes Tale. opera Tragicorum Græcorum veterum, Æschyli,
The Moors did trcail under their heathenish feet &c. 1752, 4to., a work w!.ich places the author's whatever little they found yet there standing.
Spenser. learning and critical skili in a very conspicuous
When the apostles of our Lord and Saviour were light. 3. The Case of the County of Devon
ordained to alter the laws of heathenish religion, with respect to the Consequences of the New chosen they were, St. Paul excepted; the rest unExcise Duty on Cyder and Perry. Published schooled altogether, and unlettered men. Hooker. by the direction of a Committee appointed at a General Meeting of that County to superintend be a ground of assent, men have reason to be heathens
If the opinions of others whom we think well of, the Application for the Repeal of that Duty, in Japan, Mahometans in Turkey, papists in Spain, 1763, 410. 4. A Revisal of Shakspeare's Text, and protestants in England.
Locke. wherein the alterations introduced into it by the In a paper of morality, I consider how I may remore modern editors and critics are particularly commend the particular virtues I treat of, by the considered : 8vo. 1765.
precepts or examples of the ancient heathens. Heath (James), an English historian, born
Addigon. in 1629 at London; where his father, who was
That execrable Cromwell made a heathenish or rathe king's cutler, lived. He was educated at ther inhuman edict against the episcopal clergy, that Westminster school, and became a student of they should neither preach, pray in publick, baptize,
South, Christ Church, Oxford, in 1646. In 1648 he was
marry, bury, nor teach schools. ejected by the parliamentary visitors for his ad Heathens, See MYSTERIES, MYTHOLOGY, herence to the royal cause; and then marrying, and POLYTHEISM. was obliged to write books and correct the press HEATHFIELD, Lord, See Eliott. to maintain his family. He died of a consump
HEATH-PEAS. See OROBUS. tion and dropsy at London in August 1664, and HEATOTOTL, in ornithology, the name of left several children. His chief works were, 1. an American bird, described by Nieremberg, A brief Chronicle of the late Intestine War in and called also avis venti. It is remarkable for the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and a very large and round crest of whitish feathers Ireland, &c., 1661, 8vo.; afterwards enlarged, on its head Its breast is of a brownish-gray; and completed from 1637 to 1663, in 4 parts, its belly white, and its feet yellow; its tail is 1663, in 8vo. To this was again added a con round when expanded, and is variegated with tinuation from 1663 10 1675, by John Philips, black and white; its back and wings are black.
HEAVE, v. a., v. 11., & n. 8.1 Pret. heaved,
He died in fight; HEAVE'-OFFERING, n. s.
| anciently hove; Fought next my person, as in consort fought, part. heaved, or hoven; Sax. heavian ; Ger. Save when he heaved his shield in my defence, heben, from the absolute particle ha, signifying
And on his naked side received my wound. high, which is the radical meaning of the word;
He heaves for breath, which, from his langs supand thus to heave is to lift, carry, raise, cause to
And fetched from far, distends his lab'ring side. swell, to force up from the breast, to exalt, to
Id. puff or elate, to pant, to labor, to keck, to feel a
No object affects my imagination so much as the tendency to vomit; heave, an exertion, lift,
sea or ocean : I cannot soe the heaving of this prostruggle, &c.; heave-offering, an offering amongst digious bulk of waters, even in a calm, without a the Jews,
very pleasing astonishment.
Addison. Ye sball offer a cake of the first of your dough for
Why dost thou frown upon me? an heave-offering, as ye do the heave-offering of the
My blood runs cold, my heart forgets to heave, threshing floor.
Frequent for breath his panting bosom heaves. Prior. Chaucer. Prologue to Canterbury Tales.
The heaving tide
In widened circles beats on either side. Gay. So daunted, when the giant saw the knight,
The glittering fiony swarms, His heavy hand he heaved up on high,
That heave our friths and crowd upon our shores. And him to dust thought to have battered quite.
The church of England had struggled and heaved Now we bear the king
at a reformation ever since Wickliff's days. Tow'rd Calais : grant him there ; and there being
And souls immortal must for ever heave
At something great; the glitter, or the gold,
The praise of mortals, or the praise of Heaven.
Young. My heart into my mouth.
Awaking with a start There's matter in these sighs; these profound
The waters heave around me, and on high heaves
The winds lift up their voices. You must translate ; 'tis fit we understand them,
Byron. Childe Harold. Made she no verbal quest ?
Thou glorious mirror, where the Almighty's form
Glasses itself in tempests; in all time, Yes, once or twice she heaved the name of father
Calm or convulsed-in breeze, or gale, or storm, Pantingly forth, as if it prest her heart. Id.
Icing the pole, or in the torrid clime
The image of Eternity.
I. Almost to bursting.
Id. As You Like It.
Saxbeofon, 'Tis such as you, That creep like shadows by him, and do sigh
HEAV'enly, adj. & adv. which seems to be At each his needless heavings ; such as you
HEAV'EN-WARD, adv. derived from peopo, Nourish the cause of his awaking.
HEAV'EN-BEGOT, adj. the places over head. Poor shadow-painted queen!
Heav'En-Born, adj. See HEAVE. Heaven One heaved on high, to be hurled down below.
HEAV'EN-BRED, adj. is a word especially Id.
HEAV'EN-BUILT, adj. connectedwithChrisThe Scots, heaved up into high hope of victory,
HEAVÖEN-DIRECTED. J tianity; the residence took the English for foolish birds fallen into their net, of the Almighty; in all its derivations properly forsook their hill, and marched into the plain. applied only to moral and spiritual subjects;
Hayward. whilst celestial, as derived from calum, is deSo stretched out buge in length the arch fiend scriptive of the visible firmament, and applicable lay,
to many subjects illustrated in the heathen myChained on the burning lake ; nor ever thence
thology, where heavenly would be evidently Had risen, or heaved his head, but that the will And high permission of all-ruling heaven
improper : it has, however, been used by authors Left him at large,
without this distinction to denote the sky, the But, after nany strains and heaves,
pagan gods, or whatever is high and exalted : He got up to his saddle eaves. Hudibras. the compounds are sufficiently obvious in their
Thou hast made my curdled blood run back, meanings. My heart heave up, my hair to rise in bristles. Certes heven is yeveu to hem that will labour, and
Dryder. not to idel folk. Chaucer. The Persones Tale. The wand'ring breath was on the wing to part;
the heavenly armitage Weak was the pulse, and hardly heaved the heart.
Which on a rock so high ystonds,
In strange se-out from all londs-
That, to maken the pilgrimage, And with heaved hands, forgetting gravity,
Is called a long perilous viage. They bless her wanton eyes.
Id. Dreame. None could guess whether the next heuve of the Such were the goddesses which ye did see : earthquake would settle them on the first foundation, But that fourth mayed, which there amidst them or swallow them.
traced, The groans of ghosts that cleave the earth with Who can aread what creature mute she be ; pain,
Whether a creature, or a goddesse graced And heuve it up: they pant and stick half way. With heavenly gifts from heaven first cnraced.
Spenser. Fueric Queene.
It is a knell,
I prostrate lay, That summons thee to heaven, or to hell.
By various doubts impelled, or to obey, Shakspeare. Macbeth. Or to object; at length, my inournful look, 0, for a muse of fire, that would ascend
Heavenwurd erect, determined, thus I spoke. The brightest heaven of invention. Shakspeare.
Prior. Much is the force of heuven-bred poesy. Id.
Last night (I vow to Hearen 'tis true)
Bounce from the fire a coffin flew.
O sacred weapon; left for truth's defence;
To all but hearen-directed hands denied :
The muse may give it, but the gods must guide.
His arms had wrought the destined fall
Of sacred Troy, and razed her heaven-built wall.
Oh! heaven-born sisters! source of art! As I can of those mysteries which heaven
Who charm the sense, or mend the heart; Will not have earth to know.
Who led fair Virtue's train along, The words are taken more properly for the air and Moral truth, and mystick song!
Id. ether than for the heavens. Raleigh's History. Who taught that heaven-directed spire to rise? Id. Thus they in heaven, above the starry sphere,
In these deep solitudes and awful cells,
Milton. And ever-musing Melancholy reigns,
What means this tumult in a vestal's veins ! I.
Heaven gives us friends to bless the present scene; Left him at large.
Resumes them, to prepare us for the next. Young. Truth and peace and love shall ever shine
When Juno's charms the prize of beauty claim, About the supreme throne
Shall aught in earth, shall aught in heaven contend? Of him, t'whose happy-making sight alone,
Id. All heaven and earth are still-though not in sleep,
But breathless, as we grow when feeling most;
And silent, as we stand in thoughts too deep All yet left of that revolted rout,
All heaven and earth are still : From the high host Heaven fallen, in station stood, or just array, Of stars, to the lulled lake and mountain-coast, Sublime with expectation.
All is concentered in a life intense.
Byron. Childe Harold.
HEAVEN, among Christian divines and phiof virtue virtuous, so doth the love of the world
omnipresent Deity affords a nearer and more make one become worldly.
immediate view of himself, and a more sensible
Temple. empyrean heaven, from that splendor with which
Id. it is supposed to be invested; and of this place
HEAVEN, among Pagans, was considered as
the residence only of the celestial gods, into
Dryden which no mortals were admitted after death,
unless they were deified. As for the souls of
Heaven, in astronomy, called also the æthereal Heavens ! what a spring was in his arm, to throw ! and starry heaven, is that immense region ilow high he held his shield, and rose at every blow. wherein the stars, planets, and comets, are dis
posed. See Astronomy. This is what Moses If I am heaven-begot, assert your son
calls the firmament, speaking of it as the work By some sure sign.
Id. Adoring first the genius of the place,
of the second day's creation; at least it is thus Then carth, the mother of the heavenly raco. Id. the word vape is usually rendered by his inter
If once a fever fires his sulphurous blood, preters, though somewhat improperly, arising In every fit he feels the hand of God,
from the ancient notion of the heavens being And heaven-born flame.
Id. Juvenal. firm or solid. But the word properly signifies This act, with shouts heaven high, the friendly no more than expanse or exter.sion; a term very band
well adapted by the sacred historian to the imApplaud.
pression which the heavens make on our senses; Not Maro's muse, who sung the mighty man;
whence, in other parts of Scripture, the heaven Nor Pindar's heavenly lyre, nor Horace when a swan.
is compared to a curtain, or a tent stretched out
to dwell in. The LXX first added to this idea TAMERLANE. The world !-'twould be too little for thy pride!
of expansion that of firm or solid ; rendering it Thou would'st scale heaven.
by sepawpa, according to the philosophy of those BAJAZET. I would :- Away! my soul
times; in which they ave been very injudiciously Disdains thy conference. Rowe's Tamerlane. followed by the modern translators. Des Cartes,
Kircher, &c., demonstrated this heaven not to be And every comfort possible in this cas solid but fluid; but they still supposed it full, They don to hire, with all hir besinesse,
Al for to make hire leve hire hevincsse. or perfectly dense, without any vacuity, and
Id, The Frankeleines Trio. cantoned out into many vortices. But others
-Doughter, stint thin hevinesse. have overturned, not only the solidity, but the
Among the goddes highe it is affermed, supposed plenitude of the heavens. Sir Isaac
And by eterne word written and confermed, Newton has abundantly shown the heavens void
Thou shalt be wedded unto on of tho, of almost all resistance, and, consequently, of al That han for thee so mochel care and wo; most all matter : this he proves from the phe But unto which of hem I may not tell. nomena of the celestial bodies; from the planets
1. The Knightes Tale. persisting in their motions without any sensible We are, at the hearing of some, more inclined unto diminution of their velocity; and the comets sorrow and heaviness ; of some more mollified and freely passing in all directions towards all parts softened in mind.
Hooker. of the heavens. Heaven, taken in a general
I would not be accounted so hase minded, or heavy sense, for the whole expanse between our earth headed, that I will confess that any of them is for and the remotest regions of the fixed stars, may valour, power, or fortune, better than myself.
Knolles. be divided into two very unequal parts, accord
Let not your cars despise my tongue for ever, ing to the matter found therein; viz. the atmo
Which shall possess them with the heaviest sound sphere, or aerial heaven, possessed by air ; and that ever yet they heard. Shakspeare. Macbeth. the æthereal heaven, possessed by a thin, unre
the cause be not good, the king himself hath a sisting medium, called æther. Heaven is also heary reckoning to make.
Id. Henry V. used, in astronomy, for an orb, or circular region, Pray for this good man, and for his issue, of the æthereal heaven. The ancient astronomers Whose heavy hand hath bowed you to the grave, supposed as many different heavens as they ob And beggared yours for ever. Shakspeare. served motions therein. These they supposed Our strength is all gone into heaviness,
That makes the weight.
Id. all to be solid, as thinking they could not otherwise sustain the bodies fixed in them; and
But let thy spiders that suck up thy venom,
And heavy gaited toads lie in their way. Id. spherical, that being the most proper form for
I came hither to transport the tydings, motion. Thus they had seven heavens for the
Which I have heavily borne.
Id. seven planets; viz. the heavens of the Moon,
Against ill chances men are ever merry; Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and
But heaviness foreruns the good event.
Id. Saturn. The eighth was for the fixed stars, which Let us not burthen our remembrance with they called the firmament. Ptolemy adds a An heaviness that's gone.
Id. ninth heaven, which he called the primum mobile. Why looks your grace so heavily to-day? Two crystalline heavens were added by king Al -0, I have past a miserable night.
Id. phonsus X., &c., to account for some irregulari This heavy headed revel, East and West, ties in the motions of the other heavens : and,
Make us traduced, and taxed of other nations. Id. lastly, an empyrean heaven was drawn over the Hearing that there were forces coming against him, whole, for the residence of the Deity; which and not willing that they should find his men heavy made the number twelve. But others admitted and laden with booty, he returned unto Scotland.
Bacon's Henry VII. many more heavens, according as their different
The subject is concerning the heaviness of several views and hypotheses required. Eudoxus sup- bodies, or the proportion that is required betwixt any posed twenty-three, Callippus thirty, Regiomon- weight and the power which may move it. Wilkins. tanus thirty-three, Aristotle forty-seven, and Fra Mersennus tells us, that a little child, with an en. castor no less than seventy. The astronomers, gine of an hundred double pulleys, might move this however, did not much concern themselves earth, though it were much heavier than it is. Id. whether the heavens they thus allowed of were Fair, tall, his limbs with due proportion joined ; real or not; provided they served a purpose in But of a heavy, dull, degenerate nuind.
He would not violate that sweet recess, accounting for any of the celestial motions, and
And found besides a welcome heaviness, agreed with the phenomena.
Which seized his eyes.
Id. HEAV'ILY, udv. Sax. þeafig; Teut. hevig.
I put into thy hands what has been the diversion of HEAV'INESS, n. s. The primary idea some of my idle and heavy hours.
Locke. Heav'y, adj. & adv. S weight, and 'is opposed What means this heaviness that hangs upon me? to whatever is light, airy, cheerful; as depressed; This lethargy that creeps through all my senses ? dull; drowsy; oppressive; burdensome; slug
Addison. gish; indigestible; rich in soil when applied to
My heavy eyes, you say, confess lands; heavy, adverb for heavily.
A heart to love and grief inclined. Prior. Heaciness in the heart of man maketh it stoop; but
Ease must be impracticable to the envious : they lie a good word maketh it glad.
Prov. xii. 25.
under a double misfortune; common calamities and
common blessings fall heavily upon them. Collier. Ye greatly rejoice; though now for a season ye are A sensation of drousiness, oppression, heaviness, in heaviness, througu manifold temptations.
and lassitude, are signs of a tou plentiful meal. 1 Pet. i. 6.
Arbuthnot. Menclaus bore an heavy hand over the citizens, As Alexandria exported many commodities, so it having a malicious mind.
2 Mac. v.
received some, which, by reason of the fatness and Nature, the vicaire of the almightie Lorde, heaviness of the ground, Egypt did not produce ; such That hote and colde ; hevie, light; moiste, and dric, as metals, wood, and pitch.
Id. Hath knit, by even number of accorde,
Such preparations as retain the oil or fat, are most In esic voice, began to speke and saie.
heavy to the stomach, which makes baked meat bard Chaucer. The Assemblee of Foules. of digestion.