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8 | Pounds.
160 On 17 6 1.659 10.4187 56-65 34.18 8.32 51.5 75
1.036 86.85 60 13.75 113.22 8610.677 0.369 Ox 1600 12:5 1.539 76.95 88 19.14
38 0.912 0.84
right. left. Sheep
850.172 174-5 20 4.593 36.56 65 0.094 0.07 0.012 Doe
4 2 19
right. left. 52 0 66 8 1•172 0.196 144.7 11.9 4.34 33.61 97 0.106 0.041 0.034 2d 24 5 72 81 0.185 130.9 6.48 3.7
0.1020-031 0.009 3d 18
0.633 0.118 130 7.8 2.3 19.8 0.07 0.022 0.009 4th 124 03 05 10.101 120 6.7 1.85 11.1
0.061 0.015 0·007
HEART-ACH, n. s.
Compounds HEART-BREAK, N. S.
of heart with HEART-BREAKER, n. s.
other words, HEART-BREAKING, adj., n. S.
for the most HEART-BURNED, adj.
part expressing HEART-BURNING, n. S.
their own pecuHEART-RENDING, adj.
Trar meanings, HEART-ROBBING, adj.
and implying HEART'-SICK, adj.
various degrees Heart'-SORE, adj.
of suffering or HEART -STRUCK, adj.
pleasure, sorrow HEART-SWELLING, adj.
discontent. HEART-WOUNDED, adj. Heartburn, pain HEART'-WOUNDING, adj. at the stomach HEART-DEAR, adj.
arising from aciHEART-EASE, n. s.
dity, and figuHEART -EASING, adj. ratively secret HEART'-FELT, adj.
discontent or HEART-QUELLING, adj.
enmity : heartHEART'-STRING, n. s. dear, sincerely HEART'-WHOLE, adj. beloved; hcartHEART's'-EASE, n. S.
quelling, conHEART-PEASE, n. S.
quering the affection; heart-robbing, ecstatic to a degree depriving of thought; heart-string, ligaments or nerves supposed to sustain the heart, properly the vessels by which it is suspended; heartwhole, affections yet unfixed, or vitals yet unimpaired; the other words are too ohvious to require specific illustration. Heart-breaker is an obsolete word or cant term for a woman's curls, supposed to break the heart of all her lovers; heart's-ease, the name of a flower; heart-pease, a plant.
Those piteous plaints and sorrowful sad time,
Id. Faerie Queene.
And let fair Venus, that is queen of love,
He was by Jove deprived
Id. Better a little chiding than a great deal of heart. break.
How tartly that gentleman looks! I never can see HEART'ED, adj.
Derived from beart him but I am heart-burned an hour after.
HEART'EN, d. a. Hearted, an epithet
Shakspeare. Hearti'ly, adv. which derives its force How, out of tune on the strings ?
HEARTI'NESS, n. S. from the words with — Not so; but yet so false, that he grieves my very HEART'LESS, adj. >which it is joined, im
HEART'LESSLY, adv. plying intensity of feelCupid hath clapt him o' th' shoulder, but I'll warrant him heart-whole.
HEART'LESSNESS, n. s. ing, as lion-hearted;
HEART'Y, adj. hard-bearted: hearten, The time was, father, that you broke
HEARTY-HALE, adj. When you were more endeared to it than now;
to encourage, animate, When your own Percy, when my heart-dear Harry,
or renovate : heartily, cordially; fully; sincerely; Threw many a northward look to see his father eagerly: heartless implies defect in these qualiBring up his powers; but he did long in vain ! ties, as spiritless; cowardly; without feeling;
Id. dejected: hearty, undissembled; zealous; healthy; What greater heart-breaking and confusion can strong; vigorous; durable. Hearty-hale, good there be to one, than to have all his secret faults laid for the heart; an old word. open, and the sentence of condemnation passed upon him?
• Nay, Sire! quod he, “but swiche thing as I can
With hertly wille, for I wol not rebelle If we be heart-sick, or afflicted with an uncertain
Agein your lust, a tale wol I telle. soul, then we are true desirers of relief and mercy.
Have me excused if I speke amis :
Chaucer. The Squieres Tale. thee to be sad 'till thy heart-strings crack. Id.
* Avoy,' quod she; ‘fy on you herteles ! That grates my heart-strings; what should dis
Alas,' quod she, ' for, by that God above, content him ?
Now han ye lost myn herte and all my love; Except he thinks I live too long. Denham.
I cannot love a coward, by my faith.' He added not; for Adam, at the news
Id. The Nonnes Preestes Tale. Heart-struck, with chilling gripe of sorrow stood, That all his senses bound!
Vein-healing verven, and head-purging dill,
Sound savory, and basil hearty hale. Spenser. But come, thou goddess, fair and free, In heav'n ycleped Euphrosyne,
I joyed oft to chase the trembling pricket, And by men heart-easing mirth.
Or hunt the heartless hare 'uill she were tame. ld. Like Samson's heart-breakers, it grew
Then hopeless, heartless, 'gan the cunning thief, In time to make a nation rue. Huibras. Persuade us die, to stint all further strife. Heart rending news, and dreadful to those few
Faerie Queene. Who her resemble, and her steps pursue ;
My royal father, cheer these noble lords, That death should licence have to rage among
And hearten those that fight in your defence : The fair, the wise, the virtuous, and the young!
Unsheath your sword, good father, cry, St. George. Waller.
Shakspeare. You have not seen me yet, and therefore I am
What, art thou drawn among these heartless hinds: confident you are heart-whole.
Turn thee, Benvolio ; look upon thy death.
I bear no malice for my death; Heart's-ease is a sort of violet that blows all Sum
But those that sought it, I could wish more Chris. mer, and often in Winter: it sows itself. Mortimer.
tians; Fine clean chalk is one of the most noble absor
Be what they will, I heartily forgive them. Id. bents, and powerfully corrects and subdues the acrid This entertainment may a free face put on : derive humours in the stomach : this property renders it a liberty from heartiness, and well become the agent. very serviceable in the cardialgia, or heart-burning.
Woodward. This rare man, Tydides, would prepare ;
That he might conquer, heartened him. Chapman. That tears my heart-strings; but he shall be found, . Oak, and the like true hearty timber, being strong My arms shall hold him.
Granville. in all positions, may be better trusted in cross and What nothing earthly gives, or can destroy, transverse works.
Wotton. The soul's calm sun-shine, and the heart-felt joy, The ground one year at rest ; forget not then Is virtue's prize.
With richest dung to hearten it again. May's Virgil. Mean time the queen, without reflection due,
Thousands besides stood mute and heartless there, Heart-wounded, to the bed of state withdrew. Id. Meu valiant all ; nor was I used to fear. Cowley. In great changes, when right of inheritanoe is
The anger of an enemy represents our faults, or broke, ther will remain much heart-burning and dis
admonishes us of our duty, with more heartiness than content among the meaner people.
the kindness of a friend. Swift.
They did not bring that hearty inclination to peace, HEART-BURN, in medicine, is more usually which they hoped they would have done. called cardialgia. In surfeits, or upon swallow
Clarendon. ing without due mastication, or when by any Palladius blaming those that were slow, heartening accident the saliva is vitiated, too scanty, or not them that were forward, but especially with his own intimately mixed with the food, the fermentation example leading them, made an impression into the becomes tumultuous, the stomach swells with squadron.
Sidney. air, and this extraordinary commotion, being at
The peasants were accustomed to payments, and tended with an unusual heat, brings on the grew heartless as they grew poor, Temple. uneasiness called the heart-burn: which is re
Heartless they fought, and quitted soon their medied by whatever promotes a greater secretion while ours with easy victory were crowned.
ground, of saliva, or helps to mix it with our aliment.
Dryder The testaceous powders, as oyster-shells, chalk, But the kind hosts their entertainment grace &c., are the usual remedies for the heart-burn. With hearty welcome and an open face ;
In all they did, you might discern with ease
After they came down into the valley, and found A willing mind, and a desire to please.
the intolerable heats there, and knew no means of Thus heartened well, and feshed npon his prey, lighter apparel, they were forced to go naked. The youth may prove a man another day. Id.
Bacon. As for my eating heartily of the food, know that Where now he flings about his burning heat anxiety has hindered my eating 'till this moment, As in a furnace some ambitious fire Addison. Whose vent is stopt.
Ben Jonson. If to be sad is to be wise,
The cold and heat Winter and Summer shows; I do most heartily despise
Autumn by fruits, and Spring by flowers he knows. Whatever Socrates has said,
Cowley. Or Tully writ, or Wanley read. Prior. Virtue's a faint green-sickness to brave souls, He ne'er like bullies coward hearted,
Dastards their hearts, their active heat controls. Attacks in publick to be parted. Gay.
Marvell. Where his judgment led him to oppose men on a
They, seing what forces were in the city with them, publick account, he would do it vigorously and heartily; before practices might be used to dissever them.
issued against the tyrant while they were in this heat, yet the opposition ended there. Atterbury.
Sidney. Whose laughs are hearty, though his jests are
Mark well the flowering almonds in the wood;
The glebe will answer to the sylvan reign; And loves you best of all things but his borse. Pope.
Great heats will follow, and large crops of grain. Every man may pretend to any employment, pro
Dryden. vided he has been loud and frequent in declaring himself hearty for the government.
Feigned zeal, you saw, set out the speedier pace;
But the last heat, plain dealing won the race. Id. HEARTH, n. s. Sax. beond; Swed. hærd; A noble emulation heats your breast, Teut. herd. The pavement of a room on which And your own fame now robs you of
your rest. Id. a fire is made ; the ground under the chimney.
The continual agitations of the spirits must needs Hooped out of Rome : now this extremity be a weakening of any constitution, especially in Hath brought me to this hearth. Shakspeare. age: and many causes are required for refreshment Cricket, to Windsor chimneys shalt thou leap,
betwixt the heats.
Id. Where thou findest fires unraked, and hearths un.
What can more gratify the Phrygian foe swept,
Than those distempered heats ?
Id. There pinch the maids as blue as bilberry.
Ia. I'll stake my fortune with him at a heat, Good luck befriend thee, son ; for at thy birth
And give him not the leisure to forget. Id. The fairy ladies danced upon the hearth. Milton.
When he was well heated the younger champion The vanquished fires withdraw from every place;
could not stand before him; and we find the elder Or, full with feeding, sink into a sleep:
contended not for the gift, but for the honour.
Id. Each household genius shews again its face, And from the hearths the little lares creep. Dryden.
Heat is a very brisk agitation of the insensible
parts of the object, which produces in us that sensaHEAT, n. s. & v.a. / Sax. þear, þær; Dan. tion from whence we denominate the object hot; so
Heat'er, n. s. heete. The sensation what in our sensation is heat, in the object is nothing caused by the approach or touch of fire; the but motion.
Locke. cause of this sensation; hot weather; state of any Hops lying undried heats them, and changes their body under the action of fire; a violent action colour.
Mortimer. unintermitted ; a course at a race; pimples in the
The heats smiths take of their iron are a blood-red face; agitation ; vehemence of action ; passion; heat, a white flame heat, and a sparkling or welding
Moron. faction; ardor: to warm, either literally or figu
They the turned lines on golden anvils beat, ratively; to agitate the blood and spirits with
Which look as if they struck them at a heat. action : heater, an iron made hot, and put into a
Tate. box-iron, to smooth linen.
It might have pleased in the heat and hurry of his He commanded that they should heat the furnace rage, but must have displeased in cool sedate reflection. une seven times more than it was wont to be heated,
South. Dan. iii. 19.
Plead it to her Nowe hote as fire, nowe cold as ashes ded;
With all the strength and heat of eloquence Nowe hote for colde, now colde for hete again;
Fraternal love and friendship can inspire. Now cold as yse; and now, as coles red,
Addison's Cato. For hete I brenne. And thus betwixen twaine, We have spilt no blood but in the heat of the battle, I possed am and al forcaste in paine,
or the chase.
Atterbury. So that my hete, full plainly as I fele,
Whatever increaseth the density of the blood, even Of grevous colde is caused every dele!
without increasing its celerity, heats, because a denser Chaucer. Complaint of the Blacke Knight. body is hotter than a rarer.
Arbuthnot. The sword which is made fiery doth not only cut
One playing at bazard, drew a huge heap of gold; by reason of the sharpness which simply it hath, but but in the heat of play never observed a sharper, who also burns by means of that heat which it hath from swept it into his hat.
The word heat is used to signify the sensation we The friend hath lost his friend ;
bave when we are near the fire, as well as the cause And the best quarrels, in the heat, are curst
of that sensation, which is in the fire itself: and By those that feel their sharpness. Shakspeare. thence we conclude, that there is a sort of heat in the They are in a most warlike preparation, and hope fire resembling our own sensation.
Watts. to come upon them in the heat of their division. Id.
Yet could I seat me by this ivied stone Thou art going to Lord Timon's feast.
Till I had bodied forth the heated mind,
Byron's Childe Harold.,
Heat, in physiology, is a term that has been expanded by heat, it is equally evident that its used both for the peculiar sensation felt on the parts must have separated from each other. The approach of bodies in a state of combustion, and immediate cause of the phenomena of heat, tben, for the cause of that sensation : in which last is motion, and the laws of its communication sense it is synomymous with fire. In the for- are precisely the same as the laws of the commumer sense it is opposed to cold. la modern nication of motion. science the term fire has been abandoned ; but Since all inatter may be made to fill a smaller the term heat is generally taken for the supposed volume, by cooling, it is evident that the partinatural agent that produces the sensation we cles of matter must have space between them; call by this name ; for a great second cause, and since every body can communicate the power therefore, of some of the most important opera- of expansion to a body of a lower temperature, tions of nature, or as synonymous with the term that is, can give an expansive motion to its parcaloric.
ticles, it is a probable inference that its own parThe great question among philosophers of ticles are possessed of motion; but, as there is modern times has been whether this is to be re no change in the position of its parts as long as garded as a distinct subtile fluid, or entity; or its temperature is uniform, the motion, if it exist, whether it is a property of matter universally must be a vibratory or undulatory motion, or a diffused, and operating in a vibratory or intes- motion of the particles round their axes, or a tine motion of its particles. The latter is the motion of particles round each other. opinion of Sir Humphry Davy on this intricate • It seems possible to account for all the phe point; and, as he has many claims to our atten- nomena of heat, if it be supposed that in solids the tion on such a subject, we shall here transcribe particles are in a constant state of vibratory motion, his views respecting it. Calorific repulsion,' he the particles of the hottest bodies moving with says, ' has been accounted for, by supposing a the greatest velocity, and through the greatest subtile fluid capable of combining with bodies, space; that in liquids and elastic Anids, besides and of separating their parts from each other, the vibratory motion, which must be conceived which has been named the matter of heat, or greatest in the last, the particles have a motion caloric.
round their own axes, with different velocities, • Many of the phenomena admit of a happy the particles of elastic fluids moving with the explanation on this idea, such as the cold pro- greatest quickness; and that in ethereal subduced during the conversion of solids into fluids stances, the particles move round their own or gases, and the increase of temperature con- axes, and separate from each other, penetrating nected with the condensation of gases and Auids.' in right lines through space. Temperature may In the former case we say the matter of heat is be conceived to depend upon the velocities of absorbed or combined, in the latter it is extruded the vibrations ; increase of capacity, on the or disengaged from combination. But there motion being performed in greater space; and are other facts which are not so easily reconciled the diminution of temperature, during the conto the opinion. Such are the production of heat by version of solids into Auids or gases, may be friction and percussion; and some of the chemical explained on the idea of the loss of vibratory changes which have been just referred to. These motion, in consequence of the revolution of parare, the violent heat produced in the explosion ticles round their axes, at the moment when the of gunpowder, where a large quantity of aeriform body becomes liquid or aeriform; or from the loss matter is disengaged; and the fire which appears of rapidity of vibration, in consequence of the in the decomposition of the euchlorine gas, or motion of the particles through greater space. protoxide of chlorine, though the resulting gases • If a specific fuid of heat be admitted, it occupy a greater volume.
must be supposed liable to most of the affections • When the temperature of bodies is raised by which the particles of common matter are friction, there seems to be no diminution of assuined to possess, to account for the phenotheir capacities, using the word in its common mena ; such as losing its motion when combining sense; and in many chemical changes, connected with bodies, producing motion when transmitted with an increase of temperature, there appears from one body to another, and gaining projecto be likewise an increase of capacity. A piece of tile motion when passing into free space; so iron made red-hot, by hammering, cannot be that many hypotheses must be adopted to strongly heated a second time by the same account for its agency, which renders this view means, unless it has been previously introduced of the subject less simple than the other. Very into a fire. This fact has been explained by delicate experiments have been made, wbich supposing that the fluid of heat has been pressed show that bodies, when heated, do not increase out of it, by the percussion, which is recovered in in weight. This, as far as it goes, is an evidence the fire; but this is a very rude mechanical idea: against a subtile elastic fuid producing the calothe arrangements of its parts are altered by ham- rific expansion ; but it cannot be considered as mering in this way, and it is rendered brittle. decisive, on account of the imperfection of our By a moderate degree of friction, as would ap- instruments. A cubical inch of inflammable pear from Rumford's experiments, the same air requires a good balance to ascertain that it piece of metal may be kept hot for any length of has any sensible weight, and a substance bearing time; so that if heat be pressed out, the quan- the same relation to this, that this bears to platity must be inexhaustible. When any body is tinum, could not perhaps be weighed by any cooled, it occupies a smaller volume than before; method in our possession.' it is evident, therefore, that its parts must have Sir William Herschel, and Sir H. Englefield, approached to each other: when the border is on the other hand, have been supposed to
establish the materiality of caloric: or at least hid in mystery, we are well acquainted with to have made it appear co-existent with light. many of its properties and effects. We shall, in Herschel found that when similar thermometers this paper, chiefly attend to them as displayed were placed in the different parts of the solar I. In the distribution of heat. II. In the general beam, decomposed by the prism into the primi- sympathies of heat with the different forms of uve colors, they indicated different temperatures. He estimates the power of heating in the red
PART I. rays to be to that of the green rays as fifty-five to twenty-six, and to that of the violet rays as OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAT. fifty-five to sixteen. And in a space beyond the
Newton, in his Opuscula, suggests a law rered rays, where there is no visible light, the increase of temperature is greatest of all. Thus specting the communication of heat which has a thermometer in the full red ray rose 70 Fahr. long served as a basis for the calculation of phiin ten minutes; beyond the confines of the body exposed to a constant cooling cause, such
losophers. He assumes, a priori, that a heated colored beam entirely, it rose in an equal time
as the uniform action of a current of air, ought 9o. His experiments were repeated by Sir H.
to lose at each instant a quantity of heat proEnglefield Mr. Berard, however, came to a conclusion that of the ambient air; and that consequently
portional to the excess of its temperature above somewhat different. To render his experiments its losses of heat, in equal and successive pormore certain, and their effects more sensible, this tions of time, ought to forin a decreasing geophilosopher availed himself of the heliostat, an
metrical progression. Martin, in his Essays on instrument by which the sunbeam can be steadily Heat, pointed out, however, long ago the inaccudirected to one spot during the whole of its diurnal period. Ile decomposed by a prism the racy of this law, and Erxlebeu proved, by very sunbeam, reflected from the mirror of the heliostat, and placed a sensible thermometer in each supposed law increases more and more as we
consider greater differences of temperatures : he of the seven colored rays. The calorific faculty concludes that we should fall into very great was found to increase progressively from the
errors if we extended the law much beyond the violet to the red portion of the spectrum, in temperature at which it has been verified. Yet which the maximum heat existed, and not be- Mr. Leslie since, in his Researches on Heat, has yond it, in the unilluminated space.
made this law the basis of several determigreatest rise in the thermometer took place while nations; and Messrs. Dulong and Petit have inits bulb was still entirely covered by the last red vestigated the true law in a masterly manner. rays; and it was observed progressively to sink
They employed in this research mercurial theras the bulb entered into the dark. Finally, on
mometers, whose bulbs were froin 0.8 of an inch placing the bulb quite out of the visible spectrum, to 2.6; the latter containing about three pounds where Herschel fixed the maximum of heat, the of mercury. They found, by preliminary trials, elevation of its temperature above the ambient that the ratio of cooling was not affected by the air was found, by M. Berard, to be only one size of the bulb, and that it held also in compafifth of what it was in the extreme red ray. He risons of mercury, with water, with absolute afterwards made similar experiments on the alcohol, and with sulphuric acid, through a range double spectrum produced by Island crystal, of temperature from 60° to 300 of the centiand also on polarised light, and he found in both grade scale; so that the ratio of the velocity of cases that the calorific principle accompanied cooling between 60° and 50°, and 40° and the luminous molecules ; and that, in the 30°, was sensibly the same. On cooling water positions where light ceased to be reflected, heat in a tin plate, and in a glass sphere, they found also disappeared.
the law of cooling to be more rapid in the forNewton has shown that the different refran- mer, at temperatures under the boiling point; gibility of the rays of light may be explained by but, by a very remarkable casualty, the contrary supposing them composed of particles differing effect takes place in bodies heated to high temin size, the largest being at the red, and the peratures, when the law of cooling in tin plates smallest at the violet extremity of the spectrum. becomes least rapid. Hence, generally, that The same great man has put the query, Whether which cools by a most rapid law at the lower light and common matter are not convertible part of the scale, becomes the least rapid at high into each other? and, adopting the idea that the temperatures. Mr. Leslie, says these gentlemen, phenomena of sensible heat depend upon vibra- obtained such inaccurate results respecting this tions of the particles of bodies, supposes that a question, because he did not make experiments certain intensity of vibrations may send off par, on the cooling of bodies raised to high tempeticles into free space; and that particles in rapid ratures. They terminate their preliminary remotion in right lines, in losing their own motion, searches by experiments on the cooling of water may communicate a vibratory motion to the par- in three tin-plate vessels of the same capacity, ticles of terrestrial bodies. In this way we can the first of which was a sphere, the second and seadily conceive how the red rays should im- third cylinders; from which we learn that the pinge most forcibly, and therefore excite the law of cooling is not affected by the difference greatest degree of heat. This controversy on the of shape. nature of heat is, therefore, far from being set The researches on cooling in a vacuum were tled. There is little room, as Dr. Ure has ob- made with an exhausted balloon; and a comserved, for being dogmatic on either side. But, pensation was calculated for the minute quantity if the essence of this most important cause be of residuary gas. The following series was ob