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11-7-52

LONDON ENCYCLOPÆDIA. .

11-11-52ME

HAʼLO, 7. s. A red circle round the sun or them saw his own shadow projected upon it, and moon,

no other. The distance was such that all the If the hail be a little fatted, the light transmitted parts of the shadow were easily distinguishable, may grow so strong, at a little less distance than that as the arms, the leg, and the head; but what of twenty-six degrees, as to form a halo about the sun surprised them most was, that the head was or moon; which halo, as often as the hail-stones are adorned with a kind of glory, consisting of three duly figured, may be coloured.

Newton. or four small concentric crowns, of a very lively I saw by reflection, in a vessel of stagnated water, color, each exhibiting all the varieties of the prithree halos, crowns or rings of colours about the sun, mary rainbow, and having the circle of red on like three little rainbows, concentrick to his body. the outside. The intervals between these circles

Id.

continued equal, though the diameters of them Halo, or Corona, in optics, is a luminous all were constantly changing. The last of them circle surrounding the sun, moon, planets, or was very faint; and at a considerable distance fixed stars. Sometimes these circles are white, was another great white circle, which surrounded and sometimes colored like the rainbow. Some- the whole. As near as M. Bouguer could com times one only is visible, and sometimes several pute, the diameter of the first of these circles concentric halos appear at the same time. Those was about 53°, that of the second 11°, that of the which have been seen about Sirius and Jupiter third 17°, and so on; but the diameter of the were never more than 3o, 4o, or 5° in diameter; white circle was about 76o. This phenomenon those which surround the moon are, also, some never appeared but in a cloud consisting of times no more than 30 or 5°; but these, as well frozen particles, and never in drops of rain like as those which surround the sun, are of very dif- the rainbow. When the sun was not in the hoferent magnitudes, viz. of 12° 0', 22° 35', 30° 0', rizon, only part of the white circle was visible, 38° 0', 41° 2', 45° 0', 46° 24', 47° 0', and 90°, as M. Bouguer frequently observed afterwards. or even larger than this. Their diameters also Similar to this curious appearance was one seen sometimes vary during the time of observation, by Dr. M'Fait in Scotland; who observed a and the breadths both of the colored and white rainbow round his shadow in the mist, when he circles are very different, viz of 2°, 4°, or 7o. was upon an eminence above it. In this situaTheir colors are more diluted than those of the tion the whole country round seemed buried unrainbow; and they are in a different order, ac- der a vast deluge, and nothing but the tops of cording to their size. Mr. Huygens observed distant hills appeared here and there above the red next the sun, and a pale blue outwards. food. In those upper regions, the air, he says, Sometimes they are red on the inside and white is at that time very pure and agreeable. At on the outside. M. Weidler observed one that another time he observed a double range of cowas yellow on the inside and white on the out- lors round his shadow. The colors of the outerside. In France one was observed, in 1683, the most range were broad and very distinct, and middle of which was white; after which followed every where about two feet distant from the a border of red, next to it was blue, then green, shadow. Then there was a darkish interval, and the outermost circle was a bright red. In and after that another narrower range of colors, 1728 one was seen of a pale red outwardly, closely surrounding the shadow, which was very then followed yellow, and then green, terminated much contracted. He thinks that these ranges by a white. In Holland, M. Muschenbroeck of colors are caused by the inflection of the says, fifty may be seen in the day-time, al- rays of light, the same that occasioned the ring most every year; but they are difficult to be oh- of light which surrounds the shadow of all boserved, except the eye be so situated, that not dies, observed by M. Maraldi, and this author. the body of the sun, but only the neighbouring Halos may be produced by placing a lighted parts of the heavens, can be seen. Mr. Middle- candle in the midst of steam in cold weather. ton says, that this phenomenon is very frequent If glass windows be breathed upon, and the in North America ; for that there is generally Aame of a candle be placed some feet from it, one or two about the sun every week, and as wbile the spectator is also at the distance of some many about the moon every month. Halos feet from another part of a window, the flame round the sun are very frequent in Russia. M. will be surrounded with a colored halo. And if Æpinus says, that from the 23d of April, 1758, to a candle be placed behind a glass receiver, when the 20th of September, he himself had observed air is admitted into the vacuum within it, at a cerno fewer than twenty-six, and that he has sometimes tain degree of density, the vapor with which it is seen twice as many in the same space of time. loaded will make a colored halo round the flame.

Similar, in some respects, to the halo, was the This was observed by Otto Guericke. In Deremarkable appearance which M. Bouguer de- cember 1756 M. Muschenbroeck observed, that, scribes, as observed on the top of Mount Pichinca, when the glass windows of his room were coverin the Cordilleras. When the sun was just ris- ed with a thin plate of ice on the inside, the ing behind them, so as to appear white, each of moon appearing through it was surrounded with Vol. XI.-Part I.

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a large and variously colored halo; and, open- See Lowthorp's Abridgment, Vol. II., p. 199. ing the window, he found that it arose entirely Sir Isaac Newton mentions it with respect. This from that thin plate of ice, for none was seen

article contains the heads of a discourse which except through it. Dr. Kotelnihow, having, like he afterwards composed, but never quite finished; Dr. Halley, made very accurate observations to and which has been translated, with some addidetermine the number of possible rainbows, tions, by Dr. Smith, from whom the following considers the colored halo, which appears about account is chiefly extracted. Mr. Huygens was a candle, as the same thing with one of those first led to think particularly upon this subject, bows which is formed near the body of the sun, by the appearance of five suns at Warsaw, in but which is not visible on account of his exces- 1658; after which, he says, he hit upon the true sive splendor.

cause of halos and mock suns. If we can conDescartes observes, that the halo never appears ceive any kind of bodies in the atmosphere, when it rains; from which he concludes that this which, according to the known laws of optics, phenomenon is occasioned by the refraction of will, either by reflection or refraction, produce light in the round particles of ice, which are then the appearance in question, when nothing else floating in the atmosphere; and, though these can be found that will do it, we must acquiesce in particles are flat when they fall to the ground, he the hypothesis, and suppose such bodies to exist, thought they must be protuberant in the middle even though we cannot give a satisfactory account before their descent; and according to this pro- of their generation. Two such bodies are astuberancy he imagined that the diameter of the sumed by M. Huygens; one of them a round halo would vary. In treating of meteors, Gas- ball, opaque in the centre, but covered with a sendi supposed, that a halo is of the same nature transparent shell; and the other is a cylinder, of with the rainbow, the rays of light being in both a similar composition. By the help of the forcases twice refracted and once reflected within mer he endeavours to account for halos, and by each drop of rain or vapor, and that all the dif- the latter for those appearances which are called ference there is between them arises from their mock suns. Those bodies which M. Huygens different situation with respect to the observer. requires, in order to explain these phenomena, For whereas, when the sun is behind the spec- are not, however, a mere assumption; for some tator, and consequently the rainbow before him, such, though of a larger size than his purpose rehis eye is in the centre of the circle; when he quires, have been actually found, consisting of views the halo, with his face towards the sun, his snow within and ice without. They are particueye is in the circumference of the circle; so that, larly mentioned by Descartes. The balls with according to the known principles of geometry, the opaque kernel, which he supposed to have the angle under which the object appears, in been the cause of them, he imagines not to exceed this case, must be just half of what it is in the the size of a turnip-seed. otber.

M. Marriotte accounts for the formation of the M. Dechales endeavours to show that the ge- small coronas by the transmission of light through neration of the halo is similar to that of the rain- aqueous vapors, where it suffers two refractions bow. If, says he, a sphere of glass or crystal, without any intermediate reflection. He shows full of water, be placed in the beams of the sun, that light which comes to the eye, after being rethere will not only be two circles of colored light fracted in this manner, will be chiefly that which on the side next the sun, and which constitute falls upon the drop nearly perpendicular; because the two rainbows ; but there will also be another more rays falling upon any given quantity of suron the part opposite to the sun, the rays belong- face in that situation, fewer of them are reflected ing to which afterwards diverge, and form a with small degrees of obliquity, and they are not colored circle, such as will be visible, if the light so much scattered after refraction. The red will that is transmitted through the globe be received always be outermost in these balos, as consisting on a piece of white paper. The reason why the of rays which suffer the least refraction. And colors of the halo are more dilute than those of whereas he had seen, when the clouds were driven the rainbow, he says, is owing principally to their briskly by the wind, halos round the moon, varybeing formed not in large drops of rain, but in ing frequently in their diameter, being sometimes very small vapor; for, if the drops of water were of 2°, sometimes of 3o, and sometimes of 4°; large, the cloud would be so thick, that the rays sometimes also colored, sometimes only white, of the sun could not be regularly transmitted and sometimes disappearing entirely; he conthrough them; and, on the other hand, he ob- cluded that all these variations arose from the served, that when the rainbow is formed by very different thickness of the clouds, through which thin vapors, the colors hardly appear. As for sometimes more and sometimes less light was transthose circles of colors which are sometimes seen mitted. He supposed, also, that the light which round candles, it was his opinion that they are formed them might sometimes be reflected, and owing to nothing but moisture on the eye of the at other times refracted. As to those coronas observer; for that he could never produce this which consist of two orders of colors, he imaappearance by means of vapor only, if he wiped gined that they were produced by small pieces of his eyes carefully; and he had observed that snow, which, when they begin to dissolve, form such circles are visible to some persons and not figures which are a little convex towards their exto others, and to the same persons at one time tremities

. Sometimes, also, the snow will be and not another.

melted in different shapes; and, in this case, the The most considerable and generally received colors of several halos will be intermixed and theory, respecting halos, is that of Huygens, pub- confused ; and such, he says, he had sometimes lished in the English Philosophical Transactions. observed round the sun. M. Marriotte then

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proceeds to explain the larger halo3, viz. thosezdth part of an inch, so that a red-making ray, ihat are about 45° in diameter, and for this pur- in passing through the middle of this globule, pose he has recourse to equiangular prisms of has 250 fits of easy transmission within the gloice, in a certain position with respect to the sun; bule, and ail the red-making rays, which are at and he takes pains to trace the progress of the a certain distance from this middle ray round rays of light for this purpose; but this hypothe. about it, have 249 fits within the globules, and sis is very improbable. In some cases he thought all the like rays at a certain farther distance that these large coronas were caused by hail- round about it have 248 fits, and all those at a stones, of a pyramidal figure; because, after two certain farther distance 247 fits, and so on, these or three of them had been seen about the sun, concentric circles of rays, after their transmisthere fell the same day several such pyramidal sion, falling on a white paper, will make conhail-stones. M. Marriotte explains parhelia bycentric rings of red upon the paper; supposing the help of the same suppositions. See Parhe- the light which passes through one single globule

strong enough to be sensible, and in like manner M. Muschenbroeck concludes his account of the rays of other colors will make rings of other coronas with observing, that some density of colors. Suppose now that in a fair day the sun vapor, or some thickness of the plates of ice, should shine through a thin cloud of such glodivides the light in its transmission through the bules of water or hail, and that the globules are small globules of water, or their interstices, into all of the same size, the sun seen through this its separate colors: but what that density was, cloud ought to appear surrounded with the like or what was the size of the particles which com- concentric rings of colors, and the diameter of posed the vapor, he could not determine. the first ring of red should be 7° 15', that of

Sir Isaac Newton considered the larger and the second 10° 15', that of the third 12° 33', and, less variable appearances of this kind as pro- according as the globules of water are bigger or duced according to the common laws of refrac- less, the ring should be less or bigger.' This tion, but that the less and more variable appear- curious theory our author informs us was conances depend upon the same cause with the firmed by an observation which he made in 1692. colors of thin plates. He concludes his expli- He saw by reflexion, in a vessel of stagnating cation of the rainbow with the following obser- water, three halos, crowns, or rings of colors vation on halos and parhelia :-The light which about the sun, like three little rainbows concencomes through drops of rain by two refractions, tric to his body. The colors of the first or inwithout any reflexion, ought to appear the nermost, were blue next the sun, red without, strongest at the distance of about 26° from the and white in the middle, between the blue and sun, and to decay gradually both ways as the red; those of the second crown were purple distance from him increases. And the same is and blue within, pale red without, and green in to be understood of light transmitted through the middle; and those of the third were pale spherical hailstones : and if the hail be a little blue within, and pale red without. These crowns fatted, as it often is, the transmitted light may enclosed one another immediately, so that their be so strong, at a little less distance than that of colors proceeded in this continual order from 26°, as to form a halo about the sun or moon; the sun outward; blue, white, red ; purple, blue, which halo, as often as the hail-stones are duly green, pale yellow, and red; pale blue, pale figured, may be colored, and then it must be red. The diameter of the second crown, mea red within by the least refrangible rays, and blue sured from the middle of the yellow and red on without by the most refrangible ones; especially one side of the sun to the middle of the same if the hail-stones have opaque globules of snow color on the other side, was go 33', or therein their centres to intercept the light within the abouts. The diameters of the first and third he halo, as Mr. Huygens has observed, and made had not time to measure; but that of the first the inside of it more distinctly defined than it seemed to be about 5° or 6°, and that of the third would otherwise be.' For such hail-stones, about 12°. The like crowns appear sometimes though spherical, by terminating the light by the about the moon: for in the beginning of the snow, may make a halo red within, and colorless year 1664, on February 19th, at night, he saw without, and darker within the red than without, iwo such crowns about her. The diameter of the as halos use to be. For, of those rays which first, or innermost, was about 3°, and that of the pass close by the snow, the red-making ones second about 5° 30. Next about the moon was will be the least refracted, and so come to the eye a circle of white; and next about that the inner in the straightest lines.' Some farther thoughts crown, which was of a bluish green within, next of Sir Isaac Newton's on halos are subjoined to the white, and of a yellow and red without; and the account of his experiments on the colors of next about these colors were blue and green on thick plates of glass which he conceived to be the inside of the outer crown, and red on the similar to those which are exhibited by thin outside of it. At the same time there appeared ones :- As light reflected by a lens quicksil- a halo at the distance of about 22° 35' from the vered on the back side makes the rings of the centre of the moon. It was elliptical; and its colors above described, so it ought to make the long diameter was perpendicular to the horizon, like rings in passing through a drop of water. "verging below farthest from the moon. He was At the first reflexion of the rays within the drop, told that the moon has sometimes three or more some colors ought to be transmitted, as in the concentric crowns or colors encompassing one case of a lens, and others to be reflected back another next about her body. The more equal to the eye. For instance, if the diameter of a the globules of water or ice are to one another, small drop or globule of water be about the the more crowns of colors will appear, and the

AGUS,

colors will be the more lively. The halo, at the Without any halt they marched between the twn distance of 22° 30' from the moon, is of another armies.

Clarendon. sort. By its being oval, and more remote from He might have made a halt 'till his foot and artillery

Id. the moon below than above, he concludes that it came up to him. was made by refraction in some kind of hail or

The heavenly bands snow foating in the air in an horizontal posture,

Down from a sky of jasper lighted now

In Paradise, and on a hill made halt. Milton. the refracting angle being about 50° or 600. Dr. Smith, however, makes it sufficiently evident,

Scouts each coast light armed scour that the reason why this halo appeared oval, and

Each quarter to descry the distant fue,

Where lodged, or whither fed, or if for fight more remote from the moon towards the horizon,

In Motion, or in halt.

Milton. is a deception of sight, and the same with that

Thus inborn broils the factions would engage, which makes the moon appear larger in the ho Or wars of exiled heirs, or foreign rage, rizon.

'Till halting vengeance overtook our age. Dryden. HALORAGUS, in botany, a genus of the te I was forced to halt in this perpendicular march. tragynia order and octandria class of plants :

Addison. CAL. quadrifid above; there are four petals; a Spenser himself affects the obsolete, dry plum, and a quadrilocular nut.

And Sidney's verse halts ill on Roman feet. HALS'ENING, udj. Germ. hals ; Scotch,

Pope Halse, n. s. - hass, the neck. Sound The man who pauses on the paths of treason HAL'SER, n. s. ing harshly; inharmo

Halts on a quicksand, the first step ingulphs him. nious in the throat or tongue. Not in use. Hal

Hill's Henry V. ser, from Sax. þals neck, and geel a rope. It is

HALTER, n. s. & v. a. Sax. þealstre, from now in marine pronunciation corrupted to þals, the neck. A rope to hang malefactors; to hawser. A rope less than a cable.

bind with a cord; to catch in a noose. The crueltee of thee, Quene Medea !

Whom neither halter binds nor burthens charge. Thy litel children hanging by the hals,

Sandys. For thy Jason that wos of love so fals.

He's fed, my lord, and all his powers do yield; Chaucer. Prologue to the Man of Lawe's Tale. And humbly thus, with halters on their necks, A beechen mast then in the bollow base

Expect your highness' doom of life or death. They hoisted, and with well-wreathed halsers hoise

Shakspeare. Their white sails.

Chapman. They were to die by the sword if they stood upon This halsening horny name hath, as Cornuto in defence, and by the halter if they yielded; whereItaly, opened a gap to the scoffs of many. Carew, fore they made choice to die rather as soldiers than No halsers need to bind these vessels here, as dogs.

Hayward. Nor bearded anchors ; for no storms they fear. Were I a drowsy judge, whose dismal note

Dryden. Disgorgeth halter, as a juggler's throat
Doth ribbands.

Cleaveland. HALSTEAD, a market town of Essex, seated

He gets renown, who, to the halter near, on a rising ground, on the Coln, forty-seven miles

Dryden. north-east of London. It has an old church, the But narrowly escapes and buys it dear.

He might have employed his time in the frivolous steeple of which was once burnt down by lightning, but rebuilt at the expense of Robert Fiske, delights of catching moles and haltering frogs.

Atterbury. esq. The town consists of about 800 houses. The inhabitants manufacture says, bays, cali

Halter-Cast is an excoriation of the pasmancoes, &c. There is a free school for forty tern, occasioned by the halter's being entangled boys, and a very antique Bridewell. Its market about a horse's foot, upon his endeavouring to on Friday is noted for corn.

rub his neck with his hinder feet. For the cure, HALT, v. 11., udj. & n. s. 1 Sax. þealt, lame; anoint the place, morning and evening, with HALTER, n. s.

þealtan, to limp. equal quantities of linseed oil and brandy, well To limp, or falter in walking; one who is dis

mixed. abled ; a cripple; to stop suddenly as soldiers

HALTERISTÆ, in antiquity, a kind of in a march; to doubt or hesitate ; to be unde- players at discus. Some take the discus to have cided; to fail or falter; in a religious sense, to been a leaden weight or ball, which the vaulters backslide from former steadfastness.

bore in their hands, to secure and keep themHow long halt ye between two opinions ?

selves the more steady in their leaping. Others 1 Kings.

say the halter was a lump of lead or stone, with All my familiars watched for my halting, saying, a hole or handle fixed to it, by which it might be Peradventure he will be enticed, and we shall prevail carried. Hier. Mercurialis, in his treatise De against hiir.

Jeremiah. Arte Gymnastica, I. ii. c. 12, distinguishes two Bring in hither the poor, the maimed, the halt, and kinds of halteristæ; for, though there was but the blind.

Luke. one halter, there were two ways of applying it. For false Fortune hath played a game The one was to throw or pitch it; the other only At chesse with me, alas the while!

to hold it out at arm's end, and in this posture to The trayteresse, false and full of gylem give themselves divers motions, swinging the That al behoteth and nothing halte,

hand backwards and forwards, according to the She goth upright and yet she halte. Chaucer. The Boke of the Duchesse.

engraven figures thereof given us by Mercurialis. Here's a paper written in his hand;

The halter was of a cylindrical figure, smaller in A halting sonnet of his own pure brain,

the middle, where it was held by one diameter, Fashioned to Beatrice.

Shakspeare.

than at the two ends. It was above a foot long. And will she yet debase her eyes

and there was one for each hand : it was either On me, that halt and am mis-shapen thus ? Id. of iron, stone, or lead. Galen, De Tuend. Vale

tud. lib. i. v. and vi., speaks of this exercise, and pressing them in a press eight or ten days, then shows of what use it is in purging the body of steeping them in juniper water, and drying them peccant humors, making it equivalent both to by the smoke of juniper wood. A ham may be purgation and phlebotomy.

salted in imitation of those of Westphalia, by HALVE, v.a. Dan. halv. See Half. Sprinkling a ham of young pork with salt for one

Halves, interj. Sto divide equally : halves day, to fetch out the blood; then wiping it dry, is an expression by which any one lays claim to and rubbing it with a mixture of 1 lb. of brown an equal share. See Half.

sugar, . lb. of saltpetre, i pint of bay salt, and Have you not seen how the divided dam

3 pints of common salt, well stirred in an iron Runs to the summons of her hungry lamb ?

pan over the fire, till moderately hot; let it lie But, when the twin cries halves, she quits the first. three weeks in this salting, turn it often, then Cleaveland, dry it, and hang it up.

• Smoked hams,' says HALYMOTE properly signifies a holy or

Dr. Willich, are a very strong food, which is not ecclesiastical court. There is a halymote held easily digested. If eaten in proper time, and in in Londou, before the lord mayor and sheriffs, small quantities, they may be a cordial to some for regulating the bakers. It was anciently held vigorous stomachs, especially in the morning, as on Sunday before St. Thomas's day, and hence a substitute for the pernicious hot and buttered called the haly mote, or holy court.

rolls; but boiling renders their digestion still HALYS, in ancient geography, the noblest more difficult. See SMOKING. river of the Hither Asia, through which it has a Ham, Heb. Sn, i.e. crafty. The youngest long course, was the boundary of Cræsus's king- son of Noah, and father of Cush, Mizraim, Phul, dom on the east. Running down from the foot and Canaan; each of whom possessed the counof Mount Taurus, through Cataonia and Cappa- tries peopled by them. Ham, it is believed, had docia, it divided almost the whole of the Lower all Africa for his inheritance, and peopled it with Asia, from the sea of Cyprus down to the Euxine, his posterity. He himself, it is thought, dwelt in according to Herodotus; who seems to extend Egypt; but M. Basnage is of opinion, that neiits course too far. According to Strabo, who was ther Ham nor Mizraim ever were in Egypt, but a Cappadocian, it had its springs in Great Cap- that their posterity settled in this country, and padocia. It separated Paphlagonia from Cap- called it by the name of their ancestor. The also padocia, and received its name, ato tov ados, doubts of his having been worshipped as a god, from salt, because its waters were of a salt taste, by the name of Jupiter Hammon. Be that as from the soil over which they flowed. It is it may, Africa is called the Land of Ham in famous for the defeat of Cræsus, king of Lydia, Psalm lxxviii. 51, cv. 23, cvi. 22. In Plutarch who was misled by this ambiguous response of Egypt is called Chemia; and there are traces of the oracle: Χροισος Αλυν διαβας μεγαλην αρχην the name of Ham or Charm in Psochemmis, and dualvoel; i. e. If Cræsus passes over the Halys Psitta-chemmis, which are cantons of Egypt. he shall destroy a great empire. That empire See EGYPT. proved to be his own. See Cresus.

HAMADAN, or AMADAN, a city of Irak, HAM, n. s.

Saxon, ham; Dutch, Persia, standing on or near the site of the ancient HAM’Ble, v. n. hamme; Lat. hamus. Ecbatana. It was taken and destroyed by Timur, HAM'ATED, adj.

The hip, or

hinder and ever since has been only a secondary place. HAM'STRUNG, N. S. or part of the thigh; the It contains, however, still 10,000 meanly built

HAM'STRING, v.a. thigh of a hog salted: houses, and about 40,000 inhabitants. The wall any thing hooked; set with hooks. Hamble, which surrounded it was not long since destroyed. formerly hamebe, and hamstring to cut the sinews Hamadan is famous for its manufacture of leaof the back part of the thigh ; the tendon of the ther, and is a considerable mart of commerce ham.

between Ispahan and Bagdad, and between the And, thereto hath she laid her faith to borrow;

latter place and Tebraun. Algote o foote is hameled, of thy sorowe.

HAMADRYADES, from apa, together, and Chaucer. Troilus and Creseide.

opus, an oak, a kind of inferior deities revered A player, whose conceit

among the ancient heathens, and believed to preLies in his hamstring, doth think it rich

side over woods and forests, and to be enclosed To hear the wooden dialogue, and sound

under the bark of oaks. They were supposed to Twixt his stretched footing and the scaffoldage. live and die with the trees they were attached to,

Shakspeare. as is observed by Servius on Virgil, Eclog. x. v. Hamstringed behind, unbappy Gyges died; 62, after Mnesimachus, the scholiast of ApolloThen Phalaris is added to his side. Dryden.

nius, &c., who mentions other traditions relating Who has not learned, fresh slurgeon and ham eye Are no rewards for want and infamy? Pope.

to them. The poets often confound the HamaOn the hinder side it is guarded with the two

dryads with the Naiads, Napææ, and rural hamstrings.

Wiseman.

nymphs in general. Festus calls them QuerqueThe ham was much relaxed; but there was some tulanæ, as being sprung from oaks. Pherenicius, contraction remaining.

Id. in Athenæus, lib. iii. calls the vine, fig-tree, and Along this hall, and ap and down, some squatted other fruit trees, hainadryades. This idea among

Upon their hams were occupied at chess.; the ancients, of intellectual beings annexed to Others in monosyllable talk chatted,

trees, accounts for their worship of trees. Livy And some seemed much in love with their own speaks of an ambassador addressing himself to dress. Byron. Don Juan.

an old oak, as to an intelligent person and a Ham, in commerce, &c. Westphalia hams divinity.-Lib. iii. $ 25. are prepared by salting them with salt-petre, HIAMAII, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Syria,

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