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of the articles of confederation proposed by Mr. Patterson-Both debated - The

amendments of Mr. Patterson rejected --Large majority agree to form a new

system of government---To be divided into three great departments, legisla-

tive, executive and judicial-Legislative divided into two branches, house of

representatives and senate-Convention divided on the subject of the represent-

ation of the states in the senate-Sketch of the debate on this question--- States

equally divided upon it--- The subject referred to a large committee --Commit-

tee report a compromise between the large and small states---This finally

adopted by a majority of the convention---Sketch of the powers granted to

congress---General government prohibited from doing certain acts--- The

powers of the states restricted---The organization of an executive attended

with great difficulty---Outlines of the first plan adopted by the convention---

This afterwards rejected and a new plan formed and eventually adopted---

Powers given to the executive---Judicial department to consist of a supreme

court and interior courts--- In what cases they have jurisdiction---Constitution

eventually different, in many respects, from what the members first con-

templated--- Difference between the articles of confederation and the constitu-

tion-States divided on the subject of importing slaves, and on the subject of

the powers of congruss, relative to navigation acts---These differences seitled

by mutual concessi. 28---General Washington's influence in the convention---

Constitution considered by state contentions---People greatly divided in some

of the states---Adopted by three states unanimously---By large majorities in

four states--- Rhode Island refuses to call a convention--- The other tive states

much divided---Doubtful for a time whether they would ratify it without pre-

vious amendments---Massachusetts adopts it, and recommends certain amend-

ments---Convention of New Hampshire meet and adjourn---The system

strongly opposed in New York, Virginia and North Carolina, without previous

anieadments--- Is warmly debated in the conventions of those states---New

Hampshire follows the example of Massachusetts-.-Virginia and New York

adopt it in the same manner by small majorities--- North Carolina refuses her

assent unless amended,

224

CHAPTER XIX.

Statez institute forms of government agreeably to the advice of congress--

States of Connecticut and Rhode Island proceed according to their charters--

Massachusetts at first conform to their charter as far as practicable--New

Hampshire, South Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware,

Maryland, and North Carolina, establish new governments in the course of the

year 1776--- Those of New Hampshire, South Carolina, and New Jersey, lim-

ited to the continuance of the disputes with Great Britain---General principles

and outlines of these constitutions---New York establishes a government in

1777---Its general features---Constitution of Massachusetts not finally com-

pleted until 1730--- Vermont not a part of the union until 1791---Claimed by

New York and New Hampshire--Declares independence in 1777---Outlines

of her constitution, formed in 1796---Constitution of Georgia as established in

1789--- After the formation and adoption of the general government, principles

of making constitutions better understood--Pennsylvania, New Hampshire,

South Carolina, and Delaware, revise and alter their systems of governinent, 293

CHAPTER XX.

First congress under the new constitution meet at New York, on the 4th of

March, 1789---George Washington chosen president, and John Adams vice-

president--- President's inaugural speech, and answers of both houses---Con-

gress lay tonnage and other duties---Give a preference to American shipping---

Establish different departments---Determine the question about the removal

of the heads of these departments--- Power of removal vested in the presi-

dent alone---Debate on this subject--- The senate about equally divided upon

it---Amendments to the constitution proposed--- A national judiciary establish-

Page.

ed---Its powers and jurisdiction---Vessels of North Carolina and Rhode Island

placed on the same footing with those of the United States, until the 15th of

January, 1790---Congress direct the secretary of the treasury to report, at their

next session, a plan for the support of public credit---Request the president to

recommend the observance of a day of public thanksgiving and prayer---Ad-

journ to the first Monday of January, 1790---North Carolina adopts the con-

stitution in November---Speech of the president at the opening of the second

session of congress---He recommends the promotion of such manufactures,

as would render the United States independent on others for essential arti-

cles, the establishment of a good militia system, and adequate provision for

the support of public credit--- Financial plan of the secretary of the treas-

ury, submitted to the house in January-Outlines of this plan-Secretary

recomniends funding the debt of the United States, and the assumption of the

state debts—This creates great divisions and long debates in congress-Motion

to discriminate between the original holders and the assignees of the domestic

debt negatived-Assumption of the state debts violently opposed-Debates

on this question-Finally carried-Terms of funding the debts--Commission-

ers appointed to setile the accounts between the states, and principles of set-

tlement adopted-Census of the inhabitants to be taken on the first Monday

of August, 1790—Third session commences the first Monday of December,

1790–Vermont and Kentucky admitted into the union-National bank es-

tablished-Strongly opposed as unconstitutional-Cabinet divided on the

question--President decides in favor of its constitutionality-Duties laid on

spirits distilled within the United States—Opposed in congress, and in some

of the states-Speech of the president at the opening of the first session of the

second congress in October, 1791--Ratio of representation settled--Difference

between the houses and the president as to the constitutional rule of apportion-

ment-Gen. St. Clair and his army defeated by the Indians--Opposition to

the internal duties increases—The two great parties in the United States

more distinctly marked--Cabinet divided--An inquiry into the official conduct

of the secretary of the treasury, instituted in the house of representatives,

Charges exhibited against him-Negatived by a large majority-Supreme

court decides, that a state is liable to a suit in favor of individuals--An amend-

ment altering the constitution in this respect proposed and adopted— The

first term of president Washington's administration expires on the 4th of

March, 1793,

317

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many Americans-President accused of sacrificing the interests of France-

Great mass of the people, when informed of the ihreat of the French minis-

ter to appeal to them, express their indignation at this, and support the presi-

dent,

356

CHAPTER XXII.

Political relations with Great Britain under the new government--The president

informally sounds the British government relative to the inexecution of the

treaty, and a commercial intercourse--Discriminating duties in the United

States claim the attention of the British ministry--Referred to the committee

of trade and plantations in September, 1789--Report of the committee on this

subject, and also with regard to the terms of a commercial treaty with the Uni-

ted States-West India trade not to be open to the Americans, nor the princi-

ple admitted that free ships should make free goods-English minister arrives

in the United States--Enters into discussion with the secretary of state on the

subject of the treaty-- This discussion broken off, by the new state of things

in Europe--- British orders of June 8th, 1793, relative to certain articles of pro-

visions destined to France--- American government remonstrates against these

orders-- Treaties between Great Britain and Russia, and other powers on this

subject--Similar orders issued by Russia and other nations in Europe - Reasons

given in justification of them--Answers of some of the European neutrals-

Algerine cruizers let loose upon American commerce in the Atlantic, in conse-

quence of a truce between Algiers and Portugal-- This truce made by a British

agent--Many American vessels captured, and their crews made slaves--

Speech of the president at the opening of congress in December, 1793--Re-

port of the secretary of state concering foreign restrictions on American com-

merce---Mr. Jefferson resigns--Mr. Madison's commercial resolutions--New

British orders respecting the West India trade--American vessels bound to the

West Indies taken and condemned--Congress divided as to the mode of resist-

ing these aggressions on neutral rights, and obtaining satisfaction and indem-

nity-- Various plans proposed in the house of representatives-- British estab-

lish a new military post at the rapids of the Miami of the lake--Mr. Jay nomi-

nated minister extraordinary to London--Reasons of the president for this

mission--Mr. Jay's instructions--Non-intercourse bill passed by the house,

but rejected in the senate--Congress take measures of defense--Lay additional

internal taxes--Pass acts to prevent the violation of the neutrality and sove-

reignty of the country---Fauchet arrives as successor to Gevet---Has orders to

send Genet to France --Requests liberty of the president to take him by force

or stratagem---President refuses his request---Views of the French government

not changed---Mr. Morris recalled from France, and Mr. Munroe appointed

his successor--- His instructions,

390

CHAPTER XXIII.

Insurrection in the western counties of Pennsylvania—The marshall unable to

execute process-House of the inspector burnt by the insurgents—Judge

Wilson declares that the opposition to the laws was too powerful to be sup-

pressed by ordinary judicial proceedings—Fifteen thousand militia ordered out

to suppress the insurrection--Commissioners appointed to offer terms to the

insurgents—Mail robbed-Meeting at Braddock's field-Proceedings of the

meeting at Parkinson's ferry--Commissioners hold a conference with a com-

Inittee of the insurgents-Question submitted to the people whether they

'would obey the laws—The result not satisfactory, and a military force

marches into the country- The insurgents submit without resistance-Gen-

eral Wayne obtains a complete victory over the Indians-Congress meet in

November, 1794—Speech of the president-Difference in the house concern-

ing the answer to the speech--House refuse to approve of the conduct of the

executive towards foreign nations, or to censure self-created societies- Plan

of the secretary of the treasury for the redemption of the pablic debt-Adopt-

Page.

ed by congress-Secretaries of the treasury and of war resign-Negociations

with Spain renewed--These interrupted by Spain's joining the coalition against

France-American commerce suffers from panish depredations-- This pro-

duces new causes of complaint--Treaty finally concluded in October, 1795---

Negociations with Algiers for the release of American captives---Exorbitant

demands of the Dey resisted--- The business of procuring the release of the

first captives placed in the hands of a religious order in France, but without

success---Treaty made with the Dey in September, 1795--- Prisoners not final-

ly released until 1796,

421

CHAPTER XXIV.

Mr. Jay concludes a treaty with Great Britain in November, 1794–Outlines

of the treatyThe senate advise its ratification, with the exception of

one article--Treaty made public soon after-Creates great dissatisfaction

-Meetings of the citizens held and resolutions of disapprobation adopted

Addresses presented to the president requesting him not to sanction it-Views

of the president on the subject of the treaty, and of the opposition to it-Rat-

ifies it the 14th of August-Congress meet in December- President's speech

at the opening of the session-Adet presents the colors of France to the pre-

sident-Speeches on this occasion-Petitions against the British treaty circu-

lated and signed by the people-Presented to the house of representatives,

Copy of the treaty laid before the house-Resolution submitted to the house

calling on the president for Mr. Jay's instructions, with his correspondence-

Long debates on this resolution--Finally adopted— President refuses the pa-

pers~Ilis reasons for this refusal-House pass a resolution declaratory of

their rights respecting treaties-Resolution submitted to the house, declar-

ing it expedient to make provision for carrying the treaty into effect-Oc-

casions long debates---Finally carried by a small majority,

CHAPTER XXV.

Conduct of France with respect to the British treaty-French government con-

sider the treaty of 1778, at an end, after the ratification of the treaty with

Great Britain—The ultimate measures of the directory not taken until the final

vote of the house of representatives to carry it into effect-Directory require

the aid of Holland and Spain in defeating the treaty-Conduct of these na-

tions—Treaty of alliance, offensive and defensive, between France and Spain

-Spain delays fulfilling her treaty with the United States—Attempts to in-

duce the western people to form an independent empire-Instructions of the

Spanish governor to his agent on this subject-France supposed to be concern-

ed in this plan--General Washington declines being a candidate for the presi-

dency-People divided with respect to his successor-French minister sup-

posed to interfere in the election--- President Washington's last speech to con-

gress---He recommends among other things, the establishment of a navy.--

Answers of both houses express great respect for his character, and a high

sense of his eminent services -- French depredations on American commerce---

President submits to congress a review of the conduct of the French govern-

ment towards the United States.--His farewell address on retiring from office, 479

APPENDIX.

No. 1, omitted.

No. 2.

Letter to the president of congress, from the British commissioners, June 10th,

1778,

501

No. 3.

Instructions to Dr. Franklin, minister plenipotentiary of the United States, to the

court of France, October 22, 1778,

503

No. 4.

Plan for reducing the province of Canada, referred to in the instructions of Hon.

B. Franklin, minister to the court of France, October, 1778,

505

No. 5, omitted.

No. 6.

Extract from a statement made to congress, by the French minister Gerard, con-

cerning negociations for peace, in July, 1779,

508

No. 7.

Instructions to Mr. Adams, in negociating a treaty of commerce with Great Brit-

ain, August 14th, 1779,

Instructions of Mr. Jay, for negociating with the court of Spain, in September,

1779,

511

No. 9.

Statement of the claim of the United States to the western country as far as the

river Mississippi, as well as their right to the navigation of that river, drawn

up by congress, in October, 1780, in answer to the extraordinary claim of the

Spanish court; and transmitted to the American minister at Madrid,

512

No. 10.

Memorial of the French minister to congress, concerning the offered mediation

of the empress of Russia and emperor of Germany,

519

No. 11,

Report of a committee appointed by congress to confer with the French minister,

on the subject of the mediation offered by the empress of Russia, and emperor

of Germany, &c. made in May, 1781,

520

No. 12.

A fragment of Polybius. From his treatise on the Athenian government. This

was presented by Sir William Jones, to Dr. Franklin at Paris, about the last of

June, 1782. It was, no doubt, drawn by him, and was supposed to be an in-

direct mode of sounding Dr. Franklin, as to terms of accommodation with

Great Britain, short of an express and open acknowledgment of the indepen-

dence of the United States,

525

No. 13.

Letter of Barbe de Marbois, charge d'affaires in America, to count de Vergennes,

which was intercepted and placed in the hands of the American negociators at

Paris, in September, 1782,

528

No. 14, omitted.

No. 15.

Letter and representation of congress to the king of France, November 22d, 1780, 531

No. 16, omitted.

No. 17.

In the formation of treaties of amity and commerce with the different nations of

Europe, the ministers plenipotentiary of the United States, in May, 1784, were

instructed to procure stipulations to the following effect,

534

No. 18, omitted.

No. 19.

A list of the members who attended the general convention, which formed the

new constitution, in 1787,

537

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