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mine. But these are crude and ignorant specula- which we usually see, is merely by accident, and tions. For flame, if there were nothing else, except that the air about, by quenching the sides of the it were in very great quantity, will be suffocate with flame, crusheth it, and extenuateth it into that form; any hard body, such as a pellet is, or the barrel of for of itself it would be round; and therefore smoke a gun; so as the flame would not expel the hard is in the figure of a pyramis reversed; for the air body ; but the hard body would kill the flame, and quencheth the flame and receiveth the smoke. Note not suffer it to kindle or spread. But the cause of also, that the flame of the candle, within the flame this so potent a motion, is the nitre, which we call of the spirit of wine, is troubled; and doth not only otherwise saltpetre, which having in it a notable open and move upwards, but moveth waving, and to crude and windy spirit, first by the heat of the fire and fro; as if flame of its own nature, if it were not suddenly dilateth itself; and we know that simple quenched, would roll and turn, as well as move upair, being preternaturally attenuated by heat, will wards. By all which it should seem, that the celesmake itself room, and break and blow up that which tial bodies, most of them, are true fires or flames, as resisteth it; and secondly, when the nitre hath the Stoics held; more fine, perhaps, and rarified, dilated itself, it bloweth abroad the flame, as an in-than our flame is. For they are all globular and ward bellows. And therefore we see that brimstone, determinate ; they have rotation; and they have the pitch, camphire, wild-fire, and divers other inflam- colour and splendour of flame: so that flame above mable matters, though they burn cruelly, and are is durable, and consistent, and in its natural place ; hard to quench, yet they make no such fiery wind but with us it is a stranger, and momentary, and as gunpowder doth: and on the other side, we see impure: like Vulcan that halted with his fall. that quick-silver, which is a most crude and watery body, heated, and pent in, hath the like force with Experiment solitary touching the different force of gunpowder. As for living creatures, it is certain,

flame in the midst and on the sides. their vital spirits are a substance compounded of an airy and famy matter; and though air and flame 32. Take an arrow, and hold it in flame for the being free, will not well mingle; yet bound in by a space of ten pulses, and when it cometh forth you body that hath some fixing, they will. For that you shall find those parts of the arrow which were on may best see in those two bodies, which are their the outsides of the flame more burned, blacked, and aliments, water and oil; for they likewise will not turned almost into a coal, whereas that in the midst well mingle of themselves ; but in the bodies of of the flame will be as if the fire had scarce touched plants, and living creatures, they will. It is no it. This is an instance of great consequence for marvel therefore, that a small quantity of spirits in the discovery of the nature of flame ; and showeth the cells of the brain, and canals of the sinews, are manifestly, that flame burneth more violently toable to move the whole body, which is of so great wards the sides than in the midst : and, which is mass, both with so great force, as in wrestling, more, that heat or fire is not violent or furious, but leaping; and with so great swiftness, as in playing where it is checked and pent. And therefore the division upon the lute. Such is the force of these Peripatetics, howsoever their opinion of an element two natures, air and flame, when they incorporate. of fire above the air is justly exploded, in that point

they acquit themselves well: for being opposed, that Experiment solitary touching the secret nature of if there were a sphere of fire, that encompassed the flame.

earth so near hand, it were impossible but all things

should be burnt up; they answer, that the pure 31. Take a small wax candle, and put it in a elemental fire, in its own place, and not irritated, is socket of brass or iron; then set it upright in a por- but of a moderate heat. ringer full of spirit of wine heated : then set both the candle and spirit of wine on fire, and you shall Experiment solitary touching the decrease of the see the flame of the candle open itself, and become

natural motion of gravity, in great distance from four or five times bigger than otherwise it would the earth ; or within some depth of the earth. have been; and appear in figure globular, and not in pyramis. You shall see also, that the inward 33. It is affirmed constantly by many, as a usual flame of the candle keepeth colour, and doth not wax experiment, that a lump of ore, in the bottom of a any whit blue towards the colour of the outward mine, will be tumbled and stirred by two men's flame of the spirit of wine. This is a noble instance; strength; which if you bring it to the top of the wherein two things are most remarkable; the one, earth, will ask six men's strength at the least to stir that one flame within another quencheth not; but is it. It is a noble instance, and is fit to be tried to a fixed body, and continueth as air or water do. the full; for it is very probable, that the motion of And therefore flame would still ascend upwards in gravity worketh weakly, both far from the earth, one greatness, if it were not quenched on the sides : and also within the earth : the former, because the and the greater the flame is at the bottom, the appetite of union of dense bodies with the earth, in higher is the rise. The other, that flame doth not respect to the distance, is more dull: the latter, bemingle with flame, as air doth with air, or water cause the body hath in part attained its nature when with water, but only remaineth contiguous; as it it is some depth in the earth. For as for the moving cometh to pass betwixt consisting bodies. It ap- to a point or place, which was the opinion of the peareth also, that the form of a pyramis in flame, | ancients, it is a mere vanity.

Experiment solitary touching the contraction of

prepared and used. The quantity of that which is bodies in bulk, by the mixture of the more liquid taken doth also cause purging; as we see in a great body with the more solid.

quantity of new milk from the cow; yea, and a great

quantity of meat; for surfeits many times turn to 34. It is strange how the ancients took up expe- purges, both upwards and downwards. Therefore riments upon credit, and yet did build great matters we see generally, that the working of purging meupon them. The observation of some of the best of dicines cometh two or three hours after the medicines them, delivered confidently, is, that a vessel filled taken; for that the stomach first maketh a proof, with ashes will receive the like quantity of water, whether it can concoct them. And the like happenthat it would have done if it had been empty. But eth after surfeits, or milk in too great quantity. this is utterly untrue, for the water will not go in 37. A second cause is mordication of the orifices by a fifth part. And I suppose, that that fifth part of the parts ; especially of the mesentery veins; as is the difference of the lying close, or open, of the it is seen, that salt, or any such thing that is sharp ashes; as we see that ashes alone, if they be hard and biting, put into the fundament, doth provoke the pressed, will lie in less room : and so the ashes with part to expel ; and mustard provoketh sneezing ; air between, lie looser; and with water, closer. and any sharp thing to the eyes provoketh tears. For I have not yet found certainly, that the water And therefore we see that almost all purgers have itself, by mixture of ashes or dust, will shrink or a kind of twitching and vellication, besides the gripdraw into less room.

ing which cometh of wind. And if this mordica

tion be in an over-high degree, it is little better than Experiment solitary touching the making vines more

the corrosion of poison ; as it cometh to pass somefruitful.

times in antimony, especially if it be given to bodies 35. It is reported of credit

, that if you lay good not replete with humours; for where humours store of kernels of grapes about the root of a vine, abound, the humours save the parts. it will make the vine come earlier and prosper 38. The third cause is attraction: for I do not better, It may be tried with other kernels laid deny, but that purging medicines have in them a diabout the root of a plant of the same kind; as figs, rect force of attraction; as drawing plaisters have kernels of apples, &c. The cause may be, for that in surgery : and we see sage or betony bruised, the kernels draw out of the earth juice fit to nourish sneezing powder, and other powders, or liquor, which the tree, as those that would be trees of themselves, the physicians call errhines, put into the nose, draw though there were no root ; but the root being of phlegm and water from the head; and so it is in apogreater strength robbeth and devoureth the nourish- phlegmatisms and gargarisms that draw the rheum ment, when they have drawn it: as great fishes de- down by the palate. And by this virtue, no doubt, vour little.

some purgers draw more one humour, and some Experiments in consort touching purging medicines. barb draweth choler ; sena melancholy; agaric

another, according to the opinion received: as rhu36. The operation of purging medicines, and the phlegm, &c.; but yet, more or less, they draw procauses thereof, have been thought to be a great miscuously. And note also, that besides sympathy secret ; and so, according to the slothful manner of between the purger and the humour, there is also men, it is referred to a hidden propriety, a specifical another cause, why some medicines draw some huvirtue, and a fourth quality, and the like shifts of mour more than another. And it is, for that some ignorance. The causes of purging are divers; all medicines work quicker than others : they that draw plain and perspicuous; and throughly maintained by quick, draw only the lighter and more fluid humours; experience. The first is, that whatsoever cannot and they that draw slow, work upon the more tough be overcome and digested by the stomach, is by the and viscous humours. And therefore men must bestomach either put up by vomit, or put down to the ware how they take rhubarb, and the like, alone guts; and by that motion of expulsion in the stomach familiarly; for it taketh only the lightest part of and guts, other parts of the body, as the orifices of the humour away, and leaveth the mass of humours the veins, and the like, are moved to expel by con more obstinate. And the like may be said of wormsent. For nothing is more frequent than motion of wood, which is so much magnified. consent in the body of man. This surcharge of the 39. The fourth cause is flatuosity; for wind stomach is caused either by the quality of the stirred moveth to expel: and we find that, in effect, medicine, or by the quantity. The qualities are all purgers have in them a raw spirit or wind; three: extreme bitter, as in aloes, coloquintida, &c.; which is the principal cause of tortion in the stomach loathsome and of horrible taste, as in agaric, black and belly. And therefore purgers lose, most of hellebore, &c.; and of secret malignity, and dis- them, the virtue, by decoction upon the fire; and agreement towards man's body, many times not ap- for that cause are given chiefly in infusion, juice, or pearing much in the taste, as in scammony, mecho- powder. achan, antimony, &c. And note well, that if there be 40. The fifth cause is compression or crushing; any medicine that purgeth, and hath neither of the as when water is crushed out of a spunge: so we first two manifest qualities, it is to be held suspected see that taking cold moveth looseness by contraction as a kind of poison ; for that it worketh either by cor of the skin and outward parts; and so doth cold rosion, or by a secret malignity, and enmity to na likewise cause rheums, and defluxions from the ture; and therefore such medicines are warily to be head; and some astringent plaisters crush out puru


lent matter. This kind of operation is not found in the liver and reins; where, by heating and opening, many medicines: myrobalanes have it; and it may it sendeth down urine more plentifully. be the barks of peaches; for this virtue requireth an astriction; but such an astriction as is not grate

Experiments in consort touching meats and drinks ful to the body; for a pleasing astriction doth rather

that are most nourishing. bind in the humours than expel them : and there 45. We have spoken of evacuating of the body; fore, such astriction is found in things of a harsh we will now speak something of the filling of it by taste.

restoratives in consumptions and emaciating diseases. 41. The sixth cause is lubrefaction and relaxation. In vegetables, there is one part that is more nourAs we see in medicines emollient ; such as are milk, ishing than another; as grains and roots nourish honey, mallows, lettuce, mercurial, pellitory of the more than the leaves ; insomuch as the order of the wall, and others. There is also a secret virtue of Folietanes was put down by the pope, as finding relaxation in cold: for the heat of the body bindeth leaves unable to nourish man's body. Whether the parts and humours together, which cold relax- there be that difference in the flesh of living creaeth: as it is seen in urine, blood, pottage, or the tures, is not well inquired : as whether livers, and like; which, if they be cold, break and dissolve. other entrails, be not more nourishing than the outAnd by this kind of relaxation, fear looseneth the ward flesh. We find that amongst the romans, a belly; because the heat retiring inwards towards the goose's liver was a great delicacy ; insomuch as they heart, the guts and other parts are relaxed ; in the had artificial means to make it fair and great; but same manner as fear also causeth trembling in the whether it were more nourishing appeareth not. It sinews. And of this kind of purgers are is certain, that marrow is more nourishing than fat. medicines made of mercury.

And I conceive that some decoction of bones and 42. The seventh cause is abstersion; which is sinews, stamped and well strained, would be a very plainly scouring off, or incision of the more vis-nourishing broth: we find also that Scotch skinck, cous humours, and making the humours more fluid; which is a pottage of strong nourishment, is made and cutting between them and the part: as is found with the knees and sinews of beef, but long boiled : in nitrous water, which scoureth linen cloth speedily jelly also, which they use for a restorative, is chiefly from the foulness. But this incision must be by a made of knuckles of veal. The pulp that is within sharpness, without astriction : which we find in salt, the crawfish or crab, which they spice and butter, wormwood, oxymel, and the like.

is more nourishing than the flesh of the crab or 43. There be medicines that move stools, and not crawfish. The yolks of eggs are clearly more urine; some other, urine, and not stools. Those nourishing than the whites. So that it should that purge by stool, are such as enter not at all, or seem, that the parts of living creatures that lie little, into the mesentery veins; but either at the more inwards, nourish more than the outward flesh; first are not digestible by the stomach, and therefore except it be the brain : which the spirits prey too move immediately downwards to the guts; or else much upon, to leave it any great virtue of nourishare afterwards rejected by the mesentery veins, and ment. It seemeth for the nourishing of aged men, so turn likewise downwards to the guts; and of these or men in consumptions, some such thing should be two kinds are most purgers. But those that move devised, as should be half chylus, before it be put urine, are such as are well digested of the stomach, into the stomach. and well received also of the mesentery veins ; so 46. Take two large capons; parboil them upon they come as far as the liver, which sendeth urine a soft fire, by the space of an hour or more, till in to the bladder, as the whey of blood : and those effect all the blood be gone. Add in the decoction medicines being opening and piercing, do fortify the the pill of a sweet lemon, or a good part of the pill operation of the liver, in sending down the wheyey of a citron, and a little mace. Cut off the shanks, part of the blood to the reins. For medicines uri- and throw them away. Then with a good strong native do not work by rejection and indigestion, as chopping-knife mince the two capons, bones and all, solutive do.

as small as ordinary minced meat; put them into a 44. There be divers medicines, which in greater large neat boulter; then take a kilderkin, sweet and quantity move stool, and in smaller, urine: and so well seasoned, of four gallons of beer, of 8s. strength, contrariwise, some that in greater quantity move new as it cometh from the tunning; make in the urine, and in smaller, stool. Of the former sort is kilderkin a great bung-hole of purpose: then thrust rhubarb, and some others. The cause is, for that into it the boulter, in which the capons are, drawn rhubarb is a medicine which the stomach in a small out in length; let it steep in it three days and three quantity doth digest and overcome, being not flatu- nights, the bung-hole open, to work, then close the ous nor loathsome, and so sendeth it to the mesen-bung-hole, and so let it continue a day and a half ; tery veins; and so being opening, it helpeth down then draw it into bottles, and you may drink it well urine: but in a greater quantity, the stomach cannot after three days bottling; and it will last six weeks: overcome it, and so it goeth to the guts. Pepper approved. It drinketh fresh, flowereth and mantby some of the ancients is noted to be of the second leth exceedingly; it drinketh not newish at all; it sort; which being in small quantity, moveth wind is an excellent drink for a consumption, to be drunk in the stomach and guts, and so expelleth by stool; either alone, or carded with some other beer. It but being in greater quantity, dissipateth the wind; quencheth thirst, and hath no whit of windiness. and itself getteth to the mesentery veins, and so to | Note, that it is not possible, that meat and bread,

either in broths, or taken with drink, as is used, poached, or rare boiled, they need no other preparashould get forth into the veins and outward parts, tion or mixture ; yet they may be taken also raw, so finely and easily, as when it is thus incorporate, when they are new laid, with Malmsey, or sweet and made almost a chylus aforehand.

wine : you shall do well to put in some few slices of 47. Trial would be made of the like brew with eryngium roots, and a little ambergrice; for by this potatoe roots, or burr roots, or the pith of artichokes, means, besides the immediate faculty of nourishwhich are nourishing meats: it may be tried also ment, such drink will strengthen the back, so that with other flesh; as pheasant, partridge, young it will not draw down the urine too fast; for too pork, pig, venison, especially of young deer, &c. much urine doth always hinder nourishment.

48. A mortress made with the brawn of capons, 54. Mincing of meat, as in pies, and buttered stamped and strained, and mingled, after it is made, minced meat, saveth the grinding of the teeth; and with like quantity, at the least, of almond butter, is therefore, no doubt, it is more nourishing, especially an excellent meat to nourish those that are weak ; in age, or to them that have weak teeth ; but the better than blanckmanger, or jelly; and so is the cul- butter is not so proper for weak bodies ; and therelice of cocks, boiled thick with the like mixture of fore it were good to moisten it with a little claret almond butter ; for the mortress or cullice, of itself, wine, pill of lemon or orange, cut small, sugar, and is more savoury and strong, and not so fit for a very little cinnamon or nutmeg. As for chuets, nourishing of weak bodies; but the almonds, that which are likewise minced meat, instead of butter are not of so high a taste as flesh, do excellently and fat, it were good to moisten them, partly with qualify it.

cream, or almond, or pistacho milk; or barley, or 49. Indian maiz hath, of certain, an excellent maiz-cream ; adding a little coriander seed and spirit of nourishment; but it must be throughly caraway seed, and a very little saffron.

The more boiled, and made into a maiz-cream like a barley- full handling of alimentation we reserve to the due cream. I judge the same of rice, made into a cream; place. for rice is in Turkey, and other countries of the east, We have hitherto handled the particulars which most fed upon; but it must be throughly boiled in yield best, and easiest, and plentifullest nourishment; respect of the hardness of it, and also because other and now we will speak of the best means of conveywise it bindeth the body too much.

ing and converting the nourishment. 50. Pistachoes, so they be good, and not musty, 55. The first means is, to procure that the nourishjoined with almonds in almond milk, or made into ment may not be robbed and drawn away; wherein a milk of themselves, like unto almond milk, but that which we have already said is very material ; more green, are an excellent nourisher: but you to provide that the reins draw not too strongly an shall do well to add a little ginger, scraped, because over great part of the blood into urine. - To this add they are not without some subtile windiness. that precept of Aristotle, that wine be forborn in all

51. Milk warm from the cow, is found to be a consumptions; for that the spirits of the wine do great nourisher, and a good remedy in consumptions: prey upon the roscid juice of the body, and interbut then you must put into it, when you milk the common with the spirits of the body, and so deceive cow, two little bags; the one of powder of mint, the and rob them of their nourishment. And therefore other of powder of red roses; for they keep the milk if the consumption growing from the weakness of somewhat from turning or curdling in the stomach; the stomach do force you to use wine, let it always and put in sugar also, for the same cause, and part- be burnt that the quicker spirits may evaporate; or, ly for the taste's sake; but you must drink a good at the least, quenched with two little wedges of gold, draught, that it may stay less time in the stomach, six or seven times repeated. Add also this provilest it curdle: and let the cup into which you milk sion, that there be not too much expense of the the cow, be set in a greater cup of hot water, that nourishment, by exhaling and sweating; and thereyou may take it warm. And cow milk thus prepared, fore if the patient be apt to sweat, it must be gently I judge to be better for a consumption, than ass milk, restrained. But chiefly Hippocrates's rule is to be which, it is true, turneth not so easily, but it is a followed, who adviseth quite contrary to that which little harsh ; marry it is more proper for sharpness is in use : namely, that the linen or garment next of urine, and exulceration of the bladder, and all the flesh be, in winter, dry and oft changed; and in manner of lenifyings. Woman's milk likewise is summer seldom changed, and smeared over with oil; prescribed, when all fail; but I commend it not, as for certain it is, that any substance that is fat, doth being a little too near the juice of man's body, to be a little fill the pores of the body, and stay sweat in a good nourisher; except it be in infants, to whom some degree: but the more cleanly way is, to have it is natural.

the linen smeared lightly over with oil of sweet 52. Oil of sweet almonds, newly drawn, with almonds; and not to forbear shifting as oft as is fit. sugar, and a little spice, spread upon bread toasted, 56. The second means is, to send forth the is an excellent nourisher: but then to keep the oil nourishment into the parts more strongly; for which from frying in the stomach, you must drink a good the working must be by strengthening of the draught of mild beer after it; and to keep it from stomach ; and in this, because the stomach is chiefly relaxing the stomach too much, you must put in a comforted by wine and hot things, which otherwise little powder of cinnamon.

hurt; it is good to resort to outward applications to 53. The yolks of eggs are of themselves so well the stomach : wherein it hath been tried, that the prepared by nature for nourishment, as, so they be quilts of roses, spices, mastic, wormwood, mint, &c.

are nothing so helpful, as to take a cake of new some degree of youth : for as we have often said, bread, and to bedew it with a little sack, or Alicant; death cometh upon living creatures like the torment and to dry it; and after it be dried a little before the of Mezentius : fire, to put it within a clean napkin, and to lay it to Mortua quin etiam jungebat corpora vivis, the stomach; for it is certain, that all flour hath a Componens manibusque manus, atque oribus ora. potent virtue of astriction ; in so much as it harden

Æn, viii, 485. eth a piece of flesh, or a flower, that is laid in it: For the parts in man's body easily reparable, as and therefore a bag quilted with bran is likewise spirits, blood, and flesh, die in the embracement of very good; but it drieth somewhat too much, and the parts hardly reparable, as bones, nerves, and therefore it must not lie long.

membranes; and likewise some entrails, which they 57. The third means, which may be a branch of reckon amongst the spermatical parts, are hard to the former, is to send forth the nourishment the repair: though that division of spermatical and better by sleep. For we see, that bears, and other menstrual parts be but a conceit. And this same creatures that sleep in the winter, wax exceeding observation also may be drawn to the present purfat: and certain it is, as it is commonly believed, that pose of nourishing emaciated bodies : and therefore sleep doth nourish much; both for that the spirits gentle frication draweth forth the nourishment, by do less spend the nourishment in sleep, than when making the parts a little hungry, and heating them; living creatures are awake; and because, that which whereby they call forth nourishment the better. is to the present purpose, it helpeth to thrust out This frication I wish to be done in the morning. the nourishment into the parts. Therefore in aged It is also best done by the hand, or a piece of scarmen, and weak bodies, and such as abound not with let wool, wet a little with oil of almonds, mingled choler, a short sleep after dinner doth help to nour with a small quantity of bay-salt, or saffron : we see ish; for in such bodies there is no fear of an over that the very currying of horses doth make them hasty digestion, which is the inconvenience of post- fat, and in good liking. meridian sleeps. Sleep also in the morning, after 59. The fifth means is, to further the very act of the taking of somewhat of easy digestion, as milk assimilation of nourishment; which is done by some from the cow, nourishing broth, or the like, doth outward emollients, that make the parts more apt further nourishment: but this would be done sitting to assimilate. For which I have compounded an upright, that the milk or broth may pass the more ointment of excellent odour, which I call Roman speedily to the bottom of the stomach.

ointment; vide the receipt. The use of it would 58. The fourth means is to provide that the parts be between sleeps ; for in the latter sleep the parts themselves may draw to them the nourishment assimilate chiefly. strongly. There is an excellent observation of Aristotle ; that a great reason why plants, some of

Experiment solitary touching Filum medicinale. them, are of greater age than living creatures, is 60. There be many medicines, which by themfor that they yearly put forth new leaves and boughs: selves would do no cure, but perhaps hurt; but bewhereas living creatures put forth, after their period ing applied in a certain order, one after another, of growth, nothing that is young, but hair and do great cures. I have tried, myself, a remedy for nails, which are excrements, and no parts. And the gout which hath seldom failed, but driven it it is most certain, that whatsoever is young, doth away in twenty-four hours space : it is first to apdraw nourishment better than that which is old ; ply a poultis, of which vide the receipt, and then a and then that which is the mystery of that observa- bath, or fomentation, of which vide the receipt; and tion, young boughs, and leaves, calling the sap up then a plaister, vide the receipt. The poultis reto them, the same nourisheth the body in the pas- laxeth the pores, and maketh the humour apt to sage. And this we see notably proved also, in that exhale. The fomentation calleth forth the humour the oft cutting or polling of hedges, trees, and by vapours; but yet in regard of the way made by herbs, doth conduce much to their lasting. Transfer the poultis draweth gently; and therefore draweth therefore this observation to the helping of nour the humour out, and doth not draw more to it; for ishment in living creatures: the noblest and princi it is a gentle fomentation, and hath withal a mixture, pal use whereof is, for the prolongation of life; re though very little, of some stupefactive. The plaisstoration of some degree of youth ; and inteneration ter is a moderate astringent plaister, which repelof the parts : for certain it is, that there are in living leth new humour from falling. The poultis alone creatures parts that nourish and repair easily, and would make the part more soft and weak, and apter parts that nourish and repair hardly: and you must to take the defluxion and impression of the humour. refresh and renew those that are easy to nourish, The fomentation alone, if it were too weak, withthat the other may be refreshed, and, as it were, out way made by the poultis, would draw forth drink in nourishment in the passage.

Now we see

little ; if too strong, it would draw to the part, as that draught oxen, put into good pasture, recover well as draw from it. The plaister alone would pen the flesh of young beef; and men after long ema the humour already contained in the part, and so ciating diets wax plump and fat, and almost new: cxasperate it, as well as forbid new humour. Thereso that you may surely conclude, that the frequent fore they must be all taken in order, as is said. and wise use of those emaciating diets, and of purg- The poultis is to be laid to for two or three hours ; ings, and perhaps of some kind of bleeding, is a the fomentation for a quarter of an hour, or someprincipal means of prolongation of life, and restoring what better, being used hot, and seven or eight

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