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but either to some reason which we do not now sensible, that majesty maketh the people bow, but know, or to a principle he had set unto himself, that vain-glory boweth to them. he would vary, and try both ways in turn. But the To his confederates abroad he was constant and less blood he drew, the more he took of treasure. just, but not open. But rather such was his inquiry, And as some construed it, he was the more sparing and such his closeness, as they stood in the light toin the one, that he might be the more pressing wards him, and he stood in the dark to them. Yet in the other; for both would have been intolerable. without strangeness, but with a semblance of mutual Of nature assuredly he coveted to accumulate trea. communication of affairs. As for little envies, or sure, and was a little poor in admiring riches. The emulations upon foreign princes, which are frequent people, into whom there is infused, for the preserva- with many kings, he had never any; but went subtion of monarchies, a natural desire to discharge their stantially to his own business. Certain it is, that princes, though it be with the unjust charge of their though his reputation was great at home, yet it was counsellors and ministers, did impute this unto car- greater abroad. For foreigners that could not see dinal Morton and Sir Reginald Bray, who, as it after the passages of affairs, but made their judgments appeared, as counsellors of ancient authority with upon the issues of them, noted that he was ever in him, did so second his humours, as nevertheless they strife, and ever aloft. It grew also from the airs did temper them. Whereas Empson and Dudley which the princes and states abroad received from that followed, being persons that had no reputation their ambassadors and agents here; which were with him, otherwise than by the servile following attending the court in great number : whom he did of his bent, did not give way only, as the first did, not only content with courtesy, reward, and privatebut shape him way to those extremities, for which ness; but, upon such conferences as passed with himself was touched with remorse at his death, and them, put them in admiration, to find his universal which his successor renounced, and sought to purge. insight into the affairs of the world : which though This excess of his had at that time many glosses he did suck chiefly from themselves, yet that which and interpretations. Some thought the continual he had gathered from them all

, seemed admirable rebellions wherewith he had been vexed, had made to every one. So that they did write ever to their him grow to hate his people: some thought it was superiors in high terms, concerning his wisdom and done to pull down their stomachs, and to keep them art of rule: nay, when they were returned, they did low: some, for that he would leave his son a golden commonly maintain intelligence with him. Such a fleece : some suspected he had some high design dexterity he had to impropriate to himself all foreign upon foreign parts : but those perhaps shall come instruments. nearest the truth, that fetch not their reasons so far He was careful and liberal to obtain good inteloff; but rather impute it to nature, age, peace, and ligence from all parts abroad : wherein he did not a mind fixed upon no other ambition or pursuit only use his interest in the liegers here, and his Whereunto I should add, that having every day pensioners, which he had both in the court of Rome, occasion to take notice of the necessities and shifts and other the courts of christendom ; but the infor money of other great princes abroad, it did the dustry and vigilance of his own ambassadors in better, by comparison, set off to him the felicity of foreign parts. For which purpose his instructions full coffers. As to his expending of treasure, he were ever extreme curious and articulate ; and in never spared charge which his affairs required; and them more articles touching inquisition, than touchin his buildings was magnificent, but his rewards ing negotiation : requiring likewise from his amwere very limited : so that his liberality was rather bassadors an answer, in particular distinct articles, upon his own state and memory, than upon the de- respectively to his questions. serts of others.

As for his secret spials, which he did employ both He was of a high mind, and loved his own will, at home and abroad, by them to discover what pracand his own way; as one that revered himself, and tices and conspiracies were against him, surely his would reign indeed. Had he been a priv man, case required it; he had such moles perpetually he would have been termed proud. But in a wise working and casting to undermine him. Neither can prince, it was but keeping of distance, which indeed it be reprehended; for if spials be lawful against he did towards all ; not admitting any near or full lawful enemies, much more against conspirators and approach, either to his power, or to his secrets, for traitors. But indeed to give them credence by oaths he was governed by none. His queen, notwithstand or curses, that cannot be well maintained ; for those ing she had presented him with divers children, and are too holy vestments for a disguise. Yet surely with a crown also, though he would not acknowledge there was this farther good in his employing of these it, could do nothing with him. His mother he flies and familiars; that as the use of them was reverenced much, heard little. For any person cause that many conspiracies were revealed, so the agreeable to him for society, such as was Hastings fame and suspicion of them kept, no doubt, many to king Edward the fourth, or Charles Brandon conspiracies from being attempted. after to king Henry the eighth, he had none: ex Towards his queen he was nothing uxorious, nor cept we should account for such persons, Fox, and scarce indulgent; but companiable and respective, Bray, and Empson, because they were so much with and without jealousy. Towards his children he him ; but it was but as the instrument is much with was full of paternal affection, careful of their educathe work man. He had nothing in him of vain-glory, tion, aspiring to their high advancement, regular to but yet kept state and majesty to the height; being see that they should not want of any due honour

the queen

and respect, but not greatly willing to cast any popu- both well and fair spoken ; and would use strange lar lustre upon them.

sweetness and blandishments of words, where he To his council he did refer much, and sat oft in desired to effect or persuade any thing that he took person ; knowing it to be the way to assist his to heart. He was rather studious than learned; power, and inform his judgment. In which respect reading most books that were of any worth, in the also he was fairly patient of liberty, both of advice, French tongue, yet he understood the Latin, as apand of vote, till himself were declared.

He kept a

peareth in that cardinal Hadrian and others, who strait hand on his nobility, and chose rather to ad- could very well have written French, did use to vance clergymen and lawyers, which were more write to him in Latin. obsequious to him, but had less interest in the people; For his pleasures, there is no news of them; and which made for his absoluteness, but not for his yet by his instructions to Marsin and Stile, touching safety. Insomuch as, I am persuaded, it was one

of Naples, it seemeth he could interrogate of the causes of his troublesome reign; for that his well touching beauty. He did by pleasures, as nobles, though they were loyal and obedient, yet did great princes do by banquets, come and look a little not co-operate with him, but let every man go his upon them, and turn away. For never prince was own way.

He was not afraid of an able man, as more wholly given to his affairs, nor in them more Lewis the eleventh was: but contrariwise, he was of himself: insomuch as in triumphs of justs and served by the ablest men that were to be found ; tourneys, and balls, and masks, which they then without which his affairs could not have prospered called disguises, he was rather a princely and gentle as they did. For war, Bedford, Oxford, Surrey, spectator, than seemed much to be delighted. D'Aubigny, Brooke, Poynings: for other affairs, No doubt, in him, as in all men, and most of all Morton, Fox, Bray, the prior of Lanthony, Warham, in kings, his fortune wrought upon his nature, and Urswick, Hussey, Frowick, and others. Neither his nature upon his fortune. He attained to the did he care how cunning they were that he did em crown, not only from a private fortune, which might ploy; for he thought himself to have the master- endow him with moderation ; but also from the forreach. And as he chose well, so he held them up tune of an exiled man, which had quickened in him well; for it is a strange thing, that though he were all seeds of observation and industry. And his a dark prince, and infinitely suspicious, and his times times being rather prosperous than calm, had raised full of secret conspiracies and troubles ; yet in his confidence by success, but almost marred his twenty-four years' reign, he never put down, or dis nature by troubles. His wisdom, by often evading composed counsellor, or near servant, save only from perils, was turned rather into a dexterity to Stanley the lord chamberlain. As for the disposition deliver himself from dangers, when they pressed of his subjects in general towards him, it stood thus him, than into a providence to prevent and remove with him; that of the three affections, which natu- them afar off. And even in nature, the sight of his rally tie the hearts of the subjects to their sove mind was like some sights of eyes ; rather strong reigns, love, fear, and reverence, he had the last in at hand, than to carry afar off. For his wit increased height, the second in good measure, and so little of upon the occasion : and so much the more, if the the first, as he was beholden to the other two. occasion were sharpened by danger. Again, whe

He was a prince, sad, serious, and full of thoughts, ther it were the shortness of his foresight, or the and secret observations, and full of notes and me- strength of his will, or the dazzling of his suspicions, morials of his own hand, especially touching per or what it was; certain it is, that the perpetual sons. As, whom to employ, whom to reward, whom troubles of his fortunes, there being no more matter to inquire of, whom to beware of, what were the out of which they grew, could not have been without dependencies, what were the factions, and the like; some great defects and main errors in his nature, keeping, as it were, a journal of his thoughts. There customs, and proceedings, which he had enough to is to this day a merry tale ; that his monkey, set on do to save and help with a thousand little industries as it was thought by one of his chamber, tore his and watches. But those do best appear in the story principal note-book all to pieces, when by chance itself. Yet take his with all his defects, if a man it lay forth: whereat the court, which liked not should compare him with the kings his concurrents those pensive accounts, was almost tickled with in France, and Spain, he shall find him more politic sport.

than Lewis the twelfth of France, and more entire He was indeed full of apprehensions and suspi. and sincere than Ferdinando of Spain. But if you cions; but as he did easily take them, so he did shall change Lewis the twelfth for Lewis the ele. easily check them and master them ; whereby they venth, who lived a little before, then the consort is were not dangerous, but troubled himself more than more perfect. For that Lewis the eleventh, Ferdiothers. It is true, his thoughts were so many, as nando, and Henry, may be esteemed for the tres they could not well always stand together; but that magi of kings of those ages. To conclude, if this which did good one way, did hurt another. Nei- king did no greater matters, it was long of himself: ther did he at sometimes weigh them aright in their for what he minded he compassed. proportions. Certainly, that rumour which did him He was a comely personage, a little above just so much mischief, that the duke of York should be stature, well and straight limbed, but slender. His saved, and alive, was, at the first, of his own nour countenance was reverend, and a little like a churchishing; because he would have more reason not to man: and as it was not strange or dark, so neither reign in the right of his wife. He was affable, and was it winning or pleasing, but as the face of one

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well disposed. But it was to the disadvantage of | shall possess quietly that, that we now strive for.” the painter, for it was best when he spake.

But that, that was truly divine in him, was that he His worth may bear a tale or two, that may put had the fortune of a true christian, as well as of a upon him somewhat that may seem divine. When great king, in living exercised, and dying repentant : the lady Margaret his mother had divers great so as he had a happy warfare in both conflicts, suitors for marriage, she dreamed one night, that both of sin, and the cross. one in the likeness of a bishop in pontifical habit He was born at Pembroke castle, and lieth buried did tender her Edmund earl of Richmond, the king's at Westminster, in one of the stateliest and daintiest father, for her husband, neither had she ever any monuments of Europe, both for the chapel, and for child but the king, though she had three husbands. the sepulchre. So that he dwelleth more richly One day when king Henry the sixth, whose inno- dead, in the monument of his tomb, than he did cency gave him holiness, was washing his hands at alive in Richmond, or any of his palaces. I could a great feast, and cast his eye upon king Henry, wish he did the like in this monument of his fame. then a young youth, he said; “ This is the lad that|





After the decease of that wise and fortunate thing as any great and mighty subject, who might king, Henry the seventh, who died in the height of any way eclipse or overshade the imperial power. his prosperity, there followed, as useth to do, when And for the people and state in general, they were the sun setteth so exceeding clear, one of the fair- in such lowness of obedience, as subjects were like est mornings of a kingdom that hath been known to yield, who had lived almost four and twenty years in this land, or any where else. A young king, under so politic a king as his father; being also about eighteen years of age, for stature, strength, one who came partly in by the sword ; and had so making, and beauty, one of the goodliest persons of high a courage in all points of regality; and was his time. And though he were given to pleasure, ever victorious in rebellions and seditions of the yet he was likewise desirous of glory; so that there people. The crown extremely rich and full of was a passage open in his mind, by glory, for virtue. treasure, and the kingdom like to be so in a short Neither was he unadorned with learning, though time. For there was no war, no dearth, no stop of therein he came short of his brother Arthur. He trade, or commerce; it was only the crown which had never any the least pique, difference, or jealousy had sucked too hard, and now being full, and upon with the king his father, which might give any the head of a young king, was like to draw less. occasion of altering court or council upon the Lastly, he was inheritor of his father's reputation, change ; but all things passed in a still.

He was

which was great throughout the world, He had the first heir of the white and red rose; so that strait alliance with the two neighbour states, an there was no discontented party now left in the ancient enemy in former times, and an ancient friend, kingdom, but all men's hearts turned towards him : Scotland and Burgundy. He had peace and amity and not only their hearts, but their eyes also; for he with France, under the assurance, not only of treaty was the only son of the kingdom. He had no and league, but of necessity and inability in the brother; which though it be a comfortable thing French to do him hurt, in respect that the French for kings to have, yet it draweth the subjects' eyes a king's designs where wholly bent upon Italy; so little aside. And yet being a married man in those that it may be, truly said, there had scarcely been young years, it promised hope of speedy issue to seen, or known, in many ages, such a rare concursucceed in the crown. Neither was there any queen rence of signs and promises, and of a happy and mother, who might share any way in the govern flourishing reign to ensue, as were now met in this ment, or clash with his counsellors for anthority, young king, called after his father's name, Henry while the king intended his pleasure. No such I the eighth.




By the decease of Elizabeth, queen of England, Neither did there want a concurrence of divers the issues of king Henry the eighth failed, being rare external circumstances, besides the virtues and spent in one generation, and three successions. For condition of the person, which gave great reputation that king, though he were one of the goodliest per- to this succession. A king in the strength of his sons of his time, yet he left only by his six wives years, supported with great alliances abroad, estabthree children; who reigning successively, and lished with royal issue at home, at peace with all dying childless, made place to the line of Margaret, the world, practised in the regiment of such a kinghis eldest sister, married to James the fourth king dom, as might rather enable a king by variety of of Scotland. There succeeded therefore to the king- accidents, than corrupt him with affluence or vaindom of England, James the sixth, then king of Scot- glory; and one that besides his universal capacity land, descended of the same Margaret both by father and judgment, was notably exercised and practised and mother : so that by a rare event in the pedi- in matters of religion and the church: which in grees of kings, it seemed as if the Divine Providence, these times, by the confused use of both swords, are to extinguish and take away all envy and note of a become so intermixed with considerations of estate, stranger, had doubled upon his person, within the as most of the counsels of sovereign princes or recircle of one age, the royal blood of England, by publics depend upon them: but nothing did more fill both parents.

This succession drew towards it the foreign nations with admiration and expectation of eyes of all men, being one of the most memorable his succession, than the wonderful and, by them, accidents that had happened a long time in the unexpected consent of all estates and subjects of christian world. For the kingdom of France having England, for the receiving of the king without the been reunited in the age before in all the provinces least scruple, pause, or question. For it had been thereof formerly dismembered ; and the kingdom generally dispersed by the fugitives beyond the seas, of Spain being, of more fresh memory, united and who, partly to apply themselves to the ambition of made entire, by the annexing of Portugal in the foreigners, and partly to give estimation and value person of Philip the second ; there remained but to their own employments, used to represent the this third and last union, for the counterpoising of state of England in a false light, that after queen the power of these three great monarchies; and the Elizabeth's decease there must follow in England disposing of the affairs of Europe thereby to a more nothing but confusions, interreigns, and perturbassured and universal peace and concord. And this ations of estate, likely far to exceed the ancient calaevent did hold men's observations and discourses mities of the civil wars between the houses of Lanthe more, because the island of Great Britain, divided caster and York, by how much more the dissensions from the rest of the world, was never before united were like to be more mortal and bloody, when in itself under one king, notwithstanding the people foreign competition should be added to domestical ; be of one language, and not separate by mountains and divisions for religion to matter of title to the or great waters ; and notwithstanding also that the crown. And in special, Parsons the Jesuit, under a uniting of them had been in former times industri. disguised name, had not long before published an ously attempted both by war and treaty. Therefore express treatise, wherein, whether his malice made it seemed a manifest work of Providence, and a case him believe his own fancies, or whether he thought of reservation for these times; insomuch that the it the fittest way to move sedition, like evil spirits, vulgar conceived that now there was an end given, which seem to foretell the tempest they mean to and a consummation to superstitious prophecies, the move ; he laboured to display and give colour to all belief of fools, but the talk sometimes of wise men, the vain pretences and dreams of succession which and to an ancient tacit expectation, which had by he could imagine ; and thereby had possessed many tradition been infused and inveterated into men's abroad that knew not the affairs here with those minds. But as the best divinations and predictions his vanities. Neither wanted there here within this are the politic and probable foresight and conjectures realm, divers persons both wise and well affected, of wise men, so in this matter the providence of king who, though they doubted not of the undoubted right, Henry the seventh was in all men's mouths ; who yet setting before themselves the waves of people's being one of the deepest and most prudent princes hearts, guided no less by sudden and temporary of the world, upon the deliberation concerning the winds, than by the natural course and motion of the marriage of his eldest daughter into Scotland, had, waters, were not without fear what might be the by some speech uttered by him, showed himself event. For queen Elizabeth being a princess of sensible and almost prescient of this event.

extreme caution, and yet one that loved admiration

above safety ; and knowing the declaration of a suc king's title, made account their cause was amended. cessor might in point of safety be disputable, but in Again, such as might misdoubt they had given the point of admiration and respect assuredly to her king any occasion of distaste, did contend by their fordisadvantage ; had from the beginning set it down wardness and confidence to show, it was but their fastfor a maxim of estate, to impose a silence touching ness to the former government, and that those affecsuccession. Neither was it only reserved as a secret tions ended with the time. The papists nourished of estate, but restrained by severe laws, that no man their hopes, by collating the case of the papists in Engshould presume to give opinion, or maintain argn- land, and under queen Elizabeth, and the case of ment touching the same: so, though the evidence the papists in Scotland under the king : interpreting of right drew all the subjects of the land to think that the condition of them in Scotland was the less one thing; yet the fear of danger of law made no grievous, and divining of the king's government man privy to others' thought. And therefore it re here accordingly; besides the comfort they minisjoiced all men to see so fair a morning of a king-tered to themselves from the memory of the queen dom, and to be thoroughly secured of former appre- his mother. The ministers, and those which stood hensions; as a man that awaketh out of a fearful for the presbytery, thought their cause had more dream. But so it was, that not only the consent, sympathy with the discipline of Scotland than the but the applause and joy was infinite, and not to be hierarchy of England, and so took themselves to be expressed, throughout the realm of England upon a degree nearer their desires.

Thus had every this succession : whereof the consent, no doubt, may condition of persons some contemplation of benefit, be truly ascribed to the clearness of the right; but which they promised themselves; over-reaching the general joy, alacrity, and gratulation, were the perhaps, according to the nature of hope, but yet effects of differing causes. For queen Elizabeth, not without some probable ground of conjecture. although she had the use of many both virtues and At which time also there came forth in print the demonstrations, that might draw and knit unto her king's book, entitled, Bao lekòv Awpov: containing the hearts of her people ; yet nevertheless carrying matter of instruction to the prince his son touching a hand restrained in gift, and strained in points of the office of a king : which book falling into every prerogative, could not answer the votes either of man's hand, filled the whole realm, as with a good servants, or subjects to a full contentment; especially perfume or incense, before the king's coming in; in her latter days, when the continuance of her for being excellently written, and having nothing of reign, which extended to five and forty years, might affectation, it did not only satisfy better than pardiscover in people their natural desire and inclin. ticular reports touching the king's disposition, but ation towards change : so that a new court and a far exceeded any formal or curious edict or declaranew reign were not to many unwelcome. Many tion, which could have been devised of that nature, were glad, and especially those of settled estate and wherewith princes in the beginning of their reigns fortune, that the fears and uncertainties were over do use to grace themselves, or at least express themblown, and that the die was cast. Others, that had selves gracious in the eyes of their people. And made their way with the king, or offered their ser this was for the general the state and constitution vice in the time of the former queen, thought now of men's minds upon this change: the actions the time was come for which they had prepared: and themselves passed in this manner. generally all such as had any dependence upon the late earl of Essex, who had mingled the service of his own ends with the popular pretence of advancing the

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