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for it appears that he had in notion a triple good, an private friends : so that the end of such an instituhospital, and a school, and maintaining of a preacher: tion will be, that it will make the place a receptacle which individuals refer to these three general heads; of the worst, idlest, and most dissolute persons of relief of poor, advancement of learning, and propa- every profession, and to become a cell of loiterers, gation of religion. Now then if I shall set before and cast serving-men, and drunkards, with scandal your Majesty, in every of these three kinds, what it rather than fruit to the commonwealth. And of this is that is most wanting in your kingdom; and what is kind I can find but one example with us, which is like to be the most fruitful and effectual use of such the alms-knights of Windsor ; which particular a beneficence, and least like to be perverted; that, would give a man small encouragement to follow I think, shall be no ill scope of my labour, how that precedent. meanly soever performed; for out of variety repre Therefore the best effect of hospitals is, to make sented, election may be best grounded.
the kingdom, if it were possible, capable of that law, Concerning the relief of the poor; I hold some that there be no beggar in Israel: for it is that number of hospitals, with competent endowments, kind of people that is a burden, an eye-sore, a scanwill do far more good than one hospital of an ex dal, and a seed of peril and tumult in the state. But orbitant greatness: for though the one course will chiefly it were to be wished, that such a beneficence be the more seen, yet the other will be the more towards the relief of the poor were so bestowed, as felt. For if your Majesty erect many, besides the not only the mere and naked poor should be susobserving the ordinary maxim, “ Bonum, quo com tained, but also, that the honest person which hath munius, eo melius," choice may be made of those hard means to live, upon whom the poor are now towns and places where there is most need, and so charged, should be in some sort eased: for that were the remedy may be distributed as the disease is dis a work generally acceptable to the kingdom, if the persed. Again, greatness of relief, accumulated in public hand of alms might spare the private hand of one place, doth rather invite a swarm and surcharge tax: and therefore, of all other employments of that of poor, than relieve those that are naturally bred kind, I commend most houses of relief and correction, in that place; like to ill tempered medicines, that which are mixt hospitals; where the impotent draw more humour to the part than they evacuate person is relieved, and the sturdy beggar buckled from it. But chiefly I rely upon the reason that I to work; and the unable person also not maintained touched in the beginning, that in these great hos to be idle, which is ever joined with drunkenness pitals the revenues will draw the use, and not the and impurity, but is sorted with such works as he use the revenues; and so, through the mass of the can manage and perform ; and where the uses are wealth, they will swiftly tumble down to a misem not distinguished, as in other hospitals; whereof ployment. And if any man say, that in the two hos some are for aged and impotent, and some for chil. pitals in London there is a precedent of greatness dren, and some for correction of vagabonds; but are concurring with good employment; let him con- general and promiscuous : so that they may take off sider that those hospitals have annual governors, poor of every sort from the country as the country that they are under the superior care and policy of breeds them: and thus the poor themselves shall such a state as the city of London ; and chiefly, find the provision, and other people the sweetness that their revenues consist not upon certainties, but of the abatement of the tax. Now if it be objected, upon casualties and 'free gifts : which gifts would that houses of correction in all places have not done be withheld, if they appeared once to be perverted; the good expected, as it cannot be denied, but in so as it keepeth them in a continual good behaviour most places they have done much good, it must be and awe to employ them aright; none of which remembered that there is a great difference between points do match with the present case.
that which is done by the distracted government of The next consideration may be, whether this in- justices of peace, and that which may be done by a tended hospital, as it hath a more ample endowment settled ordinance, subject to a regular visitation, as than other hospitals have, should not likewise work this may be. And besides, the want hath been upon a better subject than other poor; as that it commonly in houses of correction of a competent should be converted to the relief of maimed soldiers, and certain stock, for the materials of the labour, decayed merchants, householders aged, and destitute which in this case may be likewise supplied. churchmen, and the like; whose condition, being of Concerning the advancement of learning, I do a better sort than loose people and beggars, deserveth subscribe to the opinion of one of the wisest and both a more liberal stipend and allowance, and some greatest men of your kingdom: That for grammar proper place of relief, not intermingled or coupled schools there are already too many, and therefore with the basest sort of poor; which project, though no providence to add where there is excess : for the specious, yet in my judgment will not answer the great number of schools which are in your highdesignment in the event, in these our times. For ness's realm, doth cause a want, and doth cause certainly few men in any vocation, which have been likewise an overflow ; both of them inconvenient, somebody, and bear a mind somewhat according to and one of them dangerous. For by means thereof the conscience and remembrance of that they have they find want in the country and towns, both of been, will ever descend to that condition, as to profess servants for husbandry, and apprentices for trade: to live upon alms, and to become a corporation of and on the other side, there being more scholars declared beggars; but rather will choose to live ob- bred, than the state can prefer and employ ; and the scurely, and as it were to hide themselves with some active part of that life not bearing a proportion to
the preparative, it must needs fall out, that many most learned of kings, may claim some degree of persons will be bred unfit for other vocations, and elevation. unprofitable for that in which they are brought up; Concerning propagation of religion, I shall in few which fills the realm full of indigent, idle, and wanton words set before your Majesty three propositions ; people, which are but “ materia rerum novarum.” none of them devices of mine own, otherwise than
Therefore, in this point, I wish Mr. Sutton's in that I ever approved them; two of which have been tention were exalted a degree; that that which in agitation of speech, and the third acted. he meant for teachers of children, your Majesty The first is a college for controversies, whereby should make for teachers of men ; wherein it hath we shall not still proceed single, but shall, as it been my ancient opinion and observation, that in were, double our files ; which certainly will be found the universities of this realm, which I take to be of in the encounter. the best endowed universities of Europe, there is The second is a receipt, I like not the word seminothing more wanting towards the flourishing state nary, in respect of the vain vows, and implicit obeof learning, than the honourable and plentiful | dience, and other things tending to the perturbation salaries of readers in arts and professions. In which of states, involved in that term, for converts to the point, as your Majesty's bounty already hath made reformed religion, either of youth or otherwise ; for a beginning, so this occasion is offered of God to I doubt not but there are in Spain, Italy, and other make a proceeding. Surely readers in the chair countries of the papist, many whose hearts are are as parents in sciences, and deserve to enjoy a touched with a sense of those corruptions, and an condition not inferior to their children that embrace acknowledgment of a better way; which grace is the practical part; else no man will sit longer in many times smothered and choked, through a worldly the chair, than till he can walk to a better prefer- consideration of necessity and want; men not knowment: and it will come to pass as Virgil saith, ing where to have succour and refuge. This like
wise I hold a work of great pidy, and a work of “Ut patrum invalidi referant jejunia nati.”
great consequence; that we also may be wise in our For if the principal readers, through the meanness generation; and that the watchful and silent night of their entertainment, be but men of superficial may be used as well for sowing of good seed, as learning, and that they shall take their place but in of tares. passage, it will make the mass of sciences want the The third is, the imitation of a memorable and chief and solid dimension, which is depth ; and to religious act of queen Elizabeth ; who finding a part become but pretty and compendious habits of practice. of Lancashire to be extremely backward in religion, Therefore I could wish that in both the universities, and the benefices swallowed up in impropriations, the lectures as well of the three professions, divinity, did, by decree in the duchy, erect four stipends of law, and physic; as of the three heads of science, 1001. per annum apiece for preachers well chosen philosophy, arts of speech, and the mathematics ; | to help the harvest, which have done a great deal were raised in their pensions unto 1001. per annum of good in the parts where they have laboured. Neiapiece : which though it be not near so great as ther do there want other corners in the realm, that they are in some other places, where the greatness would require for a time the like extraordinary help. of the reward doth whistle for the ablest men out of Thus have I briefly delivered unto your Majesty all foreign parts to supply the chair ; yet it may be mine opinion touching the employment of this chaa portion to content a worthy and able man; if herity ; whereby that mass of wealth, which was in be likewise contemplative in nature, as those spirits the owner little better than a stack or heap of muck, are that are fittest for lectures. Thus may learning may be spread over your kingdom to many fruitful in your kingdom be advanced to a farther height ; purposes ; your Majesty planting and watering, and learning, I say, which under your Majesty, the God giving the increase.
DELIVERED BY THE KING'S ATTORNEY
SIR FRANCIS BACON,
IN THE LOWER HOUSE,
WHEN THE HOUSE WAS IN GREAT HEAT, AND MUCH TROUBLED ABOUT THE UNDERTAKERS;
WHICH WERE THOUGHT TO BE SOME ABLE AND FORWARD GENTLEMEN; WHO, TO INGRATIATE THEMSELVES WITH THE KING, WERE SAID TO HAVE UNDERTAKEN, THAT THE KING'S BUSINESS SHOULD PASS IN THAT
HOUSE AS HIS MAJESTY COULD WISH.
(IN THE PARLIAMENT 12 JACOBI.]
nature of a fly that sat upon the spoke of a chariot MR. SPEAKER,
wheel, and said to herself, “ What a dust do I I have been hitherto silent in this matter of raise ?” So, for my part, I think that all this dust undertaking, wherein, as I perceive, the house is is raised by light rumours and buzzes, and not much enwrapped.
upon any solid ground. First, because, to be plain with you, I did not The second reason that made me silent was, bewell understand what it meant, or what it was; and cause this suspicion and rumour of undertaking I do not love to offer at that, that I do not throughly settles upon no person certain. It is like the birds conceive. That private men should undertake for of Paradise that they have in the Indies, that have the commons of England! why, a man might as no feet; and therefore they never light upon any well undertake for the four elements. It is a thing place, but the wind carries them away: and such a so giddy, and so vast, as cannot enter into the brain thing do I take this rumour to be. of a sober man: and especially in a new parlia And lastly, when that the king had in his two ment; when it was impossible to know who should several speeches freed us from the main of our fears, be of the parliament: and when all men, that know in affirming directly that there was no undertaking never so little the constitution of this house, do to him; and that he would have taken it to be no know it to be so open to reason, as men do not less derogation to his own majesty than to our know when they enter into these doors what mind merits, to have the acts of his people transferred to themselves will be of, until they hear things argued particular persons; that did quiet me thus far, that and debated. Much less can any man make a these vapours were not gone up to the head, howpolicy of assurance, what ship shall come safe home soever they might glow and estuate in the body. into the harbour in these seas. I had heard of Nevertheless, since I perceive that this cloud still undertakings in several kinds. There were under- hangs over the house, and that it may do hurt, as takers for the plantations of Derry and Colerane in well in fame abroad as in the king's ear, I resolved Ireland, the better to command and bridle those with myself to do the part of an honest voice in parts. There were, not long ago, some undertakers this house, to counsel you what I think to be for for the north-west passage: and now there are some the best. undertakers for the project of dyed and dressed Wherein first, I will speak plainly of the percloths; and, in short, every novelty useth to be nicious effects of the accident of this bruit and strengthened and made good by a kind of under- opinion of undertaking, towards particulars, towards taking : but for the ancient parliament of England, the house, towards the king, and towards the people. which moves in a certain manner and sphere, to be Secondly, I will tell you, in mine opinion, what undertaken, it passes my reach to conceive what it undertaking is tolerable, and how far it may be jusshould be. Must we be all dyed and dressed, and tified with a good mind; and on the other side, this no pure whites amongst us? Or must there be a new same ripping up of the question of undertakers, how passage found for the king's business by a point of far it may proceed from a good mind, and in what the compass that was never sailed by before ? Or kind it may be thought malicious and dangerous. must there be some forts built in this house that Thirdly, I will give you my poor advice, what may command and contain the rest ? Mr. Speaker, I means there are to put an end to this question of know but two forts in this house which the king undertaking; not falling for the present upon a preever hath; the fort of affection, and the fort of rea- cise opinion, but breaking it, how many ways there son: the one commands the hearts, and the other be by which you may get out of it, and leaving the commands the heads; and others I know none. Il choice of them to a debate at the committee. think Æsop was a wise man that described the And lastly, I will advise you how things are to
be handled at the committee, to avoid distraction good affections and confidence of his Majesty towards and loss of time.
his people; I say,
that such person doth rather merit For the first of these, I can say to you but as the well, than commit any error. Nay farther, if any Scripture saith, “ Si invicem mordetis, ab invicem man hath, out of his own good mind, given an opinion consumemini ;” if ye fret and gall one another's touching the mind of the parliament in general ; reputation, the end will be, that every man shall go how it is probable they are like to be found, and hence, like coin cried down, of less price than he that they will have a due feeling of the king's came hither. If some shall be thought to fawn wants, and will not deal drily or illiberally with upon the king's business openly, and others to cross him; this man, that doth but think of other men's it secretly, some shall be thought practisers that minds as he finds his own, is not to be blamed. would pluck the cards, and others shall be thought Nay farther, if any man hath coupled this with papists that would shuffle the cards; what a misery good wishes and propositions, that the king do comis this, that we should come together to fool one fort the hearts of his people, and testify his own another, instead of procuring the public good! love to them, by filing off the harshness of his pre
And this ends not in particulars, but will make rogative, retaining the substance and strength; and the whole house contemptible: for now I hear men to that purpose, like the good housekeeper in the say, that this question of undertaking is the pre- Scripture, that brought forth old store and new, dominant matter of this house. So that we are now hath revolved the petitions and propositions of the according to the parable of Jotham in the case of last parliament, and added new; I say, this man the trees of the forest, that when question was, hath sown good seed; and he that shall draw him Whether the vine should reign over them ? that into envy for it, sows tares. Thus much of the right might not be: and whether the olive should reign hand. But on the other side, if any shall mediately over them? that might not be: but we have ac or immediately infuse into his Majesty, or to others, cepted the bramble to reign over us. For it seems that the parliament is, as Cato said of the Romans, that the good vine of the king's graces, that is not " like sheep, that a man were better drive a flock so much in esteem; and the good oil, whereby we of them than one of them :" and however they may should salve and relieve the wants of the estate and be wise men severally, yet in this assembly they crown, that is laid aside too; and this bramble of are guided by some few, which if they be made and contention and emulation, this Abimelech, which, assured, the rest will easily follow : this is a plain as was truly said by an understanding gentleman, is robbery of the king of honour, and his subjects of a bastard, for every fame that wants a head, is filius thanks, and it is to make the parliament vile and populi, this must reign and rule amongst us. servile in the eyes of their sovereign ; and I count
Then for the king, nothing can be more opposite, it no better than a supplanting of the king and ex diametro, to his ends and hopes, than this: for kingdom. Again, if a man shall make this impresyou have heard him profess like a king, and like a sion, that it shall be enough for the king to send us gracious king, that he doth not so much respect some things of show that may serve for colours, and his present supply, as this demonstration that the let some eloquent tales be told of them, and that will people's hearts are more knit to him than before. serve ad faciendum populum ; any such person will Now then if the issue shall be this, that whatsoever find that this house can well skill of false lights, and shall be done for him shall be thought to be done that it is no wooing tokens, but the true love already but by a number of persons that shall be laboured planted in the breasts of the subjects, that will make and packed; this will rather be a sign of diffidence them do for the king. And this is my opinion and alienation, than of a natural benevolence and touching those that may have persuaded a parliaaffection in his people at home; and rather matter of ment. Take it on the other side, for I mean in all disreputation, than of honour abroad. So that, to speak things to deal plainly, if any man hath been diffiplainly to you, the king were better call for a new dent touching the call of a parliament, thinking that pair of cards, than play upon these if they be packed. the best means were, first for the king to make his
And then for the people, it is my manner ever to utmost trial to subsist of himself, and his own look as well beyond a parliament as upon a parlia- means ; I say, an honest and faithful heart might ment; and if they abroad shall think themselves consent to that opinion, and the event, it seems, doth betrayed by those that are their deputies and attor not greatly discredit it hitherto. Again, if any man neys here, it is true we may bind them and conclude shall have been of opinion, that it is not a particuthem, but it will be with such murmur and insatis-lar party that can bind the house ; nor that it is not faction as I would be loth to see.
shows or colours can please the house ; I say, that These things might be dissembled, and so things man, though his speech tend to discouragement, yet left to bleed inwards; but that is not the way to it is coupled with providence. But, by your leave, cure them. And therefore I have searched the sore, if any man, since the parliament was called, or in hope that you will endeavour the medicine. when it was in speech, shall have laid plots to cross
But this to do more throughly, I must proceed to the good will of the parliament to the king, by posmy second part, to tell you clearly and distinctly sessing them that a few shall have the thanks, and what is to be set on the right hand, and what on that they are, as it were, bought and sold, and be. the left, in this business.
trayed; and that that which the king offers them First, if any man hath done good offices to advise are but baits prepared by particular persons; or have the king to call a parliament, and to increase the raised rumours that it is a packed parliament; to
the end nothing may be done, but that the parlia- selves, I do not see much gained by it, because it ment may be dissolved, as gamesters used to call goes no farther than ourselves; yet if any thing can for new cards, when they mistrust a pack : I say, be wisely conceived to that end, I shall not be these are engines and devices, naught, malign, and against it; but I think the purpose of it is fittest to seditious.
be, rather that the house conceives that all this is Now for the remedy ; I shall rather break the but a misunderstanding, than to take knowledge matter, as I said in the beginning, than advise that there is indeed a just ground, and then to seek, positively. I know but three ways. Some mes by a protestation, to give it a remedy. For prosage of declaration to the king ; some entry or testations, and professions, and apologies, I never protestation amongst ourselves; or some strict and found them very fortunate ; but they rather increase punctual examination. As for the last of these, I suspicion than clear it. assure you I am not against it, if I could tell where Why then the last part is, that these things be to begin, or where to end. For certainly I have handled at the committee seriously and temperately ; often seen it, that things when they are in smother wherein I wish that these four degrees of questions trouble more than when they break out. Smoke were handled in order. blinds the eyes, but when it blazeth forth into flame First, whether we shall do any thing at all in it, it gives light to the eyes. But then if you fall to or pass by it, and let it sleep ? an examination, some person must be charged, some Secondly, whether we shall enter into a particular matter must be charged ; and the manner of that examination of it ? matter must be likewise charged; for it may be in Thirdly, whether we shall content ourselves with a good fashion, and it may be in a bad, in as much some entry or protestation among ourselves ? difference as between black and white : and then And fourthly, whether we shall proceed to a how far men will ingenuously confess, how far they message to the king; and what ? will politicly deny, and what we can make and Thus I have told you my opinion. I know it gather upon their confession, and how we shall had been more safe and politic to have been silent ; prove against their denial; it is an endless piece of but it is perhaps more honest and loving to speak. work, and I doubt that we shall grow weary of it. The old verse is, Nam nulli tacuisse nocet, nocet
For a message to the king, it is the course I like esse locutum. But by your leave, David saith, Silui best, so it be carefully and considerately handled : a bonis, et dolor meus renovatus est. When a man for if we shall represent to the king the nature of speaketh, he may be wounded by others; but if he this body as it is, without the veils and shadows holds his peace from good things he wounds himself. that have been cast upon it, I think we shall do him So I have done my part, and leave it to you to do honour, and ourselves right.
that which you shall judge to be the best. For any thing that is to be done amongst our
HIS LORDSHIP'S SPEECH
IN THE PARLIAMENT,
BEING LORD CHANCELLOR,
THE SPEAKER'S EXCUSE.
MR. SERJEANT RICHARDSON, The king hath heard and observed your grave Secondly, His Majesty doth so much rely upon and decent speech, tending to the excuse and dis- the wisdoms and discretions of those of the house ablement of yourself for the place of Speaker. In of commons, that have chosen you with an unanianswer whereof, his Majesty hath commanded me to mous consent, that his Majesty thinks not good to say to you, that he in no sort admit of the same. swerve from their opinion in that wherein them
First, Because if the party's own judgment should selves are principally interested. be admitted in case of elections, touching himself, Thirdly, You have disabled yourself in so good it would follow, that the most confident and over and decent a fashion, as the manner of your speech weening persons would be received; and the most hath destroyed the matter of it. considerate men, and those that understand them And therefore the king doth allow of the elecselves best, would be rejected.
tion, and admit you for speaker.