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and we see the astrologers pretend to judge of the or call, shall inherit the dignity, as well as the son fortune of the party by the time of the nativity. In born after. But the son of an attainted person, laws, we may not unfitly apply the case of legitima- born before the attainder, shall not inherit, as the tion to the case of naturalization ; for it is true that after-born shall, notwithstanding charter of pardon. the common canon law doth put the ante-natus and The reason of estate is, that any restriction of the the post-natus in one degree. But when it was moved ante-nati is temporary, and expireth with the generato the parliament of England, “ Barones una voce tion; but if you make it in the post-nati also, you responderunt, Nolumus leges Angliæ mutare.” And do but in substance pen a perpetuity of separation. though it must be confessed that the ante-nati and Mr. Speaker, in this point I have been short, be. post-nati are in the same degree in dignities ; yet cause I little expected this doubt, as to point of were they never so in abilities: for no man doubts, convenience; and therefore will not much labour, but the son of an earl or baron, before his creation where I suppose there is no greater opposition.

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It seemeth God hath reserved to your Majesty's and properly applied to your Majesty's acts times two works, which amongst the works of kings “natam te rege Britanniam ; natam Hiberniam. have the supreme pre-eminence; the union, and the For he spake improperly of deliverance and plantation of kingdoms. For although it be a great preservation; but in these acts of yours it may fortune for a king to deliver or recover his kingdom verified more naturally. For indeed unions from long continued calamities: yet in the judgment plantations are the very nativities or birth-days of those that have distinguished of the degrees of kingdoms : wherein likewise your Majesty hath yd sovereign honour, to be a founder of estates or a fortune extraordinary, and differing from forma kingdoms, excelleth all the rest. For, as in arts examples in the same kind. For most part of ania and sciences, to be the first inventor is more than and plantations of kingdoms have been founded to illustrate or amplify; and as in the works of the effusion of blood : but your Majesty shall built God, the creation is greater than the preservation; in solo puro, et in area pura, that shall need and as in the works of nature, the birth and nativity sacrifices expiatory for blood; and therefore, is more than the continuance : so in kingdoms, the doubt, under a higher and more assured blete first foundation or plantation is of more noble dig- Wherefore, as I adventured, when I was less kau. nity and merit than all that followeth. Of which and less particularly bound to your Majesty, foundations there being but two kinds; the first, since by your undeserved favour I have been that maketh one of more ; and the second, that write somewhat touching the union, which maketh one of none : the latter resembling the cre- Majesty was pleased graciously to accept and whe ation of the world, which was de nihilo ad quid ; since I have to my power seconded by my travai and the former, the edification of the church, which not only in discourse, but in action : so I am then was de multiplici ad simplex, vel ad unum : it hath encouraged to do the like, touching this matter pleased the Divine Providence, in singular favour to plantation ; hoping that your Majesty will, 11 your Majesty, to put both these kinds of foundations or the weakness of my ability, discern the si regenerations into your hand: the one, in the union my affection, and the honest and fert: of the island of Britain ; the other, in the plantation have to see your Majesty's person, 112 of great and noble parts of the island of Ireland. blessed and exalted above those of Which enterprises being once happily accomplished, genitors. And I was the rath then that which was uttered by one of the best ora- by the remembrance that w? tors, in one of the worst verses,“ O fortunatam tice deceger natam me consule Romam!" may be far more truly

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· a country vast, and for the use of man's in a place, one of them ants of the other: workthe more continually on ; when, if work fail in one

fast by; the ways will be ľ carriages to these seats or je to a number of dispersed infinite other helps and easewe comprehended in cogitation, ty and society of people; whereas stered, as is projected, every man nucopia in himself for all things he ch cannot but breed much difficulty, iste. at will draw out of the inhabited country provisions and victuals, and many necesPfause they shall be sure of utterance :

in the dispersed habitations, every man - kon only upon that that he brings with him,

y do in provisions of ships. wirdly, the charge of bawnes, as they call them, be made about every castle or house, may be ared, when the inhabitants shall be congregated only into towns.

And lastly, it will be a means to secure the coun

try against future perils, in case of any revolt and of defection: for by a slight fortification of no great

of charge, the danger of any attempts of kierns and and sword-men may be prevented; the omission of which

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cipal parts. The first, the invitation and encourage For honour or countenance, if I shall mention to ment of undertakers; the second, the order and your Majesty, whether in wisdom you shall think policy of the project itself. For as in all engines convenient, the better to express your affection to of the hand there is somewhat that giveth the motion the enterprise, and for a pledge thereof, to add the and force, and the rest serveth to guide and govern earldom of Ulster to the prince's titles, I shall but the same: so it is in these enterprises or engines of learn it out of the practice of king Edward I. who estate. As for the former of these, there is no doubt, first used the like course, as a mean the better to but next unto the providence and finger of God, restrain the country of Wales : and I take it, the which writeth these virtuous and excellent desires prince of Spain hath the addition of a province in in the tables of your Majesty's heart; your autho- the kingdom of Naples : and other precedents I rity and affection is primus motor in this cause ; think there are: and it is like to put more life and and therefore the more strongly and fully your Ma- encouragement into the undertakers. jesty shall declare yourself in it, the more shall you Also, considering the large territories which are quicken and animate the whole proceeding. For to be planted, it is not unlike your Majesty will think this is an action, which as the worthiness of it doth of raising some nobility therewhich, if it be done bear it, so the nature of it requireth it to be carried merely upon new titles of dignity, having no manner in some height of reputation, and fit in mine opinion of reference to the old; and if it be done also withfor pulpits and parliaments, and all places to ring out putting too many portions into one hand : and and resound of it. For that which may seem vanity lastly, if it be done without any great franchises or in some things, I mean matter of fame, is of great commands, I do not see any peril can ensue thereof. efficacy in this case.

As on the other side, it is like it may draw some But now let me descend to the inferior spheres, persons of great estate and means into the action, and speak what co-operation in the subjects or un to the great furtherance and supply of the charges dertakers may be raised and kindled, and by what thereof.

Therefore to take plain grounds, which are And lastly, for knighthood, to such persons as the surest; all men are drawn into actions by three have not attained it; or otherwise knighthood, with things, pleasure, honour, and profit. But before I pur some new difference and precedence, it may, no sue these three motives, it is fit in this place to inter- doubt, work with many. And if any man think, lace a word or two of the quality of the undertakers : that these things which I propound, are aliquid wherein my opinion simply is, that if your Majesty nimis for the proportion of this action, I confess shall make these portions of land, which are to be plainly, that if your Majesty will have it really and planted, as rewards or as suits, or as fortunes for effectually performed, my opinion is, you cannot those that are in want, and are likeliest to seek after bestow too much sunshine upon it. For “lunæ them; that they will not be able to go through with radiis non maturescit botrus." Thus much for the charge of good and substantial plantations, but honour. will deficere in opere medio; and then this work For profit, it will consist in three parts: will succeed, as Tacitus saith, “ acribus initiis, fine First, The easy rates that your Majesty shall be incurioso." So that this must rather be an adven- pleased to give the undertakers of the land they ture for such as are full, than a setting up of those shall receive. that are low of means: for those men indeed are fit Secondly, The liberties which you may be pleased to perform these undertakings, which were fit to to confer upon them. When I speak of liberties, I purchase dry reversions after lives or years, or such mean not liberties of jurisdiction; as counties paas were fit to put out money upon long returns. latine, or the like, which it seemeth hath been the

I do not say, but that I think the undertakers error of the ancient donations and plantations in themselves will be glad to have some captains, or that country, but I mean only liberties tending to men of service, intermixed among them for their commodity ; as liberty to transport any of the comsafety; but I speak of the generality of undertakers, modities growing upon the countries new planted; which I wish were men of estate and plenty. liberty to import from hence all things appertaining

Now therefore it followeth well to speak of the to their necessary use, custom-free; liberty to take aforesaid three motives. For it will appear the timber or other materials in your Majesty's woods more, how necessary it is to allure by all means there, and the like. undertakers : since those men will be least fit, which The third is, ease of charge; that the whole mass are like to be most in appetite of themselves; and of charge doth not rest upon the private purse of those most fit, which are like least to desire it. the undertakers.

First, therefore, for pleasure: in this region or For the two former of these I will pass them over; tract of soil, there are no warm winters, nor orange- because in that project, which with good diligence trees, nor strange beasts, or birds, or other points of and providence hath been presented to your Majesty curiosity or pleasure, as there are in the Indies and by your ministers of that kingdom, they are in my the like : so as there can be found no foundation opinion well handled. made upon matter of pleasure, otherwise than that For the third, I will never despair, but that the the very general desire of novelty and experiment parliament of England, if it may perceive, that this in some stirring natures may work somewhat; and action is not a flash, but a solid and settled pursuit

, therefore it is the other two points, of honour and will give aid to a work so religious, so politic, and profit, whereupon we are wholly to rest.

so profitable. And the distribution of charge, if it

be observed, falleth naturally into three kinds of satisfaction to some principal undertakers, if they charge, and every of those charges respectively may be admitted of that council. ought to have his proper fountain and issue. For Secondly, There is a clause wherein the underas there proceedeth from your Majesty's royal takers are restrained, that they shall execute the bounty and munificence, the gift of the land, and plantation in person ; from which I must dissent, if the other materials; together with the endowment I will consent with the grounds I have already taken. of liberties; and as the charge which is private, as For it is not probable that men of great means and building of houses, stocking of grounds, victual, and plentiful estate will endure the travel, diseasements, the like, is to rest upon the particular undertakers: and adventures of going thither in person : but 80 whatsoever is public, as building of churches, rather, I suppose, many will undertake portions as walling of towns, town houses, bridges, causeways, an advancement for their younger children or kinsor highways, and the like, ought not so properly to folks; or for the sweetness of the expectation of a lie upon particular persons, but to come from the great bargain in the end, when it is overcome. And public estate of this kingdom ; to which this work therefore, it is like they will employ sons, kinsfolks, is like to return so great an addition of glory, servants, or tenants, and yet be glad to have the strength, and commodity.

estate in themselves. And it may be, some again For the project itself, I shall need to speak the will join their purses together, and make as it were less, in regard it is so considerately digested already a partnership or joint adventure; and yet man forth for the county of Tyrone: and therefore my labour some one person by consent, for the executing of shall be but in those things wherein I shall either the plantation. add to, or dissent from that which is set down; Thirdly, There is a main point, wherein I fear which will include five points or articles.

the project hath made too much of the line and comFirst, they mention a commission for this plant- pass, and will not be so natural and easy to execute, ation : which of all things is most necessary, both to nor yet so politic and convenient: and that is, that direct and appease controversies, and the like. the buildings should be sparsim upon every portion;

To this I add two propositions : the one, that and the castle or principal house should draw the which perhaps is meant, though not expressed, that tenements and farı about it as it were into villages, the commissioners should for certain times reside hamlets, or endships; and that there should be and abide in some habitable town of Ireland, near only four corporate towns for the artificers and in distance to the country where the plantation shall tradesmen. be; to the end, both that they may be more at hand, My opinion is, that the buildings be altogether in for the execution of the parts of their commission ; | towns, to be compounded as well of husbandries as and withal it is like, by drawing a concourse of of arts. My reasons are, people and tradesmen to such towns, it will be some First, when men come into a country vast, and help and commodity to the undertakers for things void of all things necessary for the use of man's they shall stand in need of: and likewise it will be life, if they set up together in a place, one of them a more safe place of receit and store, wherein to will the better supply the wants of the other: workunlade and deposit such provisions as are after to folks of all sorts will be the more continually on be employed.

work without loss of time; when, if work fail in one The second is, that your Majesty would make a place, they may have it fast by; the ways will be correspondency between the commission there, and made more passable for carriages to these seats or a council of plantation here: wherein I warrant towns, than they can be to a number of dispersed myself by the precedent of the like council of plant- solitary places; and infinite other helps and easeation for Virginia ; an enterprise in my opinion ments, scarcely to be comprehended in cogitation, differing as much from this, as Amadis de Gaul will ensue in vicinity and society of people; whereas differs from Cæsar's Commentaries. But when I if they build scattered, as is projected, every man speak of a council of plantation, I mean some persons must have a cornucopia in himself for all things he chosen by way of reference, upon whom the labour must use ; which cannot but breed much difficulty, may rest, to prepare and report things to the coun. and no less waste. cil of estate here, that concern that business. For Secondly, it will draw out of the inhabited country although your Majesty have a grave and sufficient of Ireland provisions and victuals, and many necescouncil in Ireland ; from whom, and upon whom, saries; because they shall be sure of utterance : the commissioners are to have assistance and de- whereas in the dispersed habitations, every man pendence; yet that supplies not the purpose whereof must reckon only upon that that he brings with him, I speak. For, considering, that upon the advertise as they do in provisions of ships. ments, as well of the commissioners, as of the coun Thirdly, the charge of bawnes, as they call them, cil of Ireland itself, there will be many occasions to to be made about every castle or house, may be crave directions from your Majesty and your privy spared, when the inhabitants shall be congregated council here, which are busied with a world of only into towns. affairs; it cannot but give greater expedition, and And lastly, it will be a means to secure the counsome better perfection unto such directions and try against future perils, in case of any revolt and resolutions, if the matters may be considered of defection: for by a slight fortification of no great aforehand, by such as may have a continual care of charge, the danger of any attempts of kierns and the cause. And it will be likewise a comfort and sword-men may be prevented; the omission of which

point, in the last plantation of Munster, made the of that condition, as are like to give fines, and unwork of years to be but the spoil of days. And if dertake the charge of building. For I am persuaded, any man think it will draw people too far off from that the people transported will consist of gentlemen the grounds they are to labour, it is to be under and their servants, and of labourers and hinds, and stood, that the number of the towns be increased not of yeomen of any wealth. And therefore the accordingly; and likewise, the situation of them be charge of buildings, as well of the tenements and as in the centre, in respect of the portions assigned farms, as of the capital houses themselves, is like to to them : for in the champaign countries of England, rest upon the principal undertakers. Which will be where the habitation useth to be in towns, and not recompensed in the end to the full and with much dispersed, it is no new thing to go two miles off to advantage, if they make no long estates or leases. plough part of their grounds; and two miles com And therefore this article to receive some qualification. pass will take up a good deal of country.

Fifthly, I should think it requisite that men of The fourth point, is a point wherein I shall differ experience in that kingdom should enter into some from the project rather in quantity and proportion, particular consideration of the charges and pro than in matter. There is allowed to the undertaker, visions of all kinds, that will be incident to the within the five years of restraint, to alien a third plantation; to the end, that thereupon some advice part in fee farm, and to demise another third for may be taken for the furnishing and accommodating forty years: which I fear will mangle the portions, them most conveniently, aiding private industry and and will be but shift to make money of two parts; charge with public care and order. whereas, I am of opinion, the more the first under Thus I have expressed to your Majesty those taker is forced to keep in his own hands, the more simple and weak cogitations, which I have had in the work is like to prosper. For first, the person myself touching this cause, wherein I most humbly liable to the state here to perform the plantation, is desire your pardon, and gracious acceptance of my the immediate undertaker. Secondly, the more his good affection and intention. For I hold it for a profit dependeth upon the annual and springing rule, that there belongeth to great monarchs, from commodity, the more sweetness he will find in put- faithful servants, not only the tribute of duty, but ting forward manurance and husbanding of the the oblations of cheerfulness of heart. And so I grounds, and therefore is like to take more care of pray the Almighty to bless this great action, with it. Thirdly, since the natives are excluded, I do your Majesty's care; and your care with happy not see that any persons are like to be drawn over

success.

A REPORT

MADB

BY SIR FRANCIS BACON, KNIGHT,

IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS,

OF A SPEECH DELIVERED BY THE EARL OF SALISBURY; AND ANOTHER SPEECH DELIVERED BY THE EARL OF

NORTHAMPTON, AT A CONFERENCE CONCERNING

THE PETITION OF THE MERCHANTS UPON THE SPANISH GRIEVANCES.

PARLIAMENT 5 JACOBI.

And it please you, Mr. Speaker, I do not find causes of estate did use a speech that contained a myself any ways bound to report that which passed world of matter ; but how I shall be able to make a at the last conference touching the Spanish griev- globe of that world, therein I fear mine own strength. ances, having been neither employed to speak, nor His lordship took the occasion of this, which I appointed to report in that cause. But because it is shall now report, upon the answer which was by us put upon me by a silent expectation, grounded upon made to the amendments propounded upon the bill nothing, that I know, more than that I was observed of hostile laws; quitting that business with these diligently to take notes ; I am content, if that pro- few words; that he would discharge our expectavision which I made for mine own remembrance tion of reply, because their lordships had no warmay serve this house for a report, not to deny you rant to dispute. Then continuing his speech, he fell that sheaf that I have in haste bound up. It is true, into this other cause, and said ; that being now to that one of his Majesty's principal counsellors in I make answer to a proposition of ours, as we had

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