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To speak therefore of medicine, and to resume
“ Dives inaccessos ubi solis filia lucos," etc. that we have said, ascending a little higher ; the For in all times, in the opinion of the multitude, ancient opinion that man was microcosmus, an ab- witches, and old women, and impostors, have had a stract or model of the world, hath been fantastically competition with physicians. And what followeth ? strained by Paracelsus and the alchemists, as if there Even this; that physicians say to themselves, as were to be found in man's body certain correspond- Solomon expresseth it upon a higher occasion ; ences and parallels, which should have respect to “ If it befall to me, as befalleth to the fools, why all varieties of things, as stars, planets, minerals, should I labour to be more wise ?” And therefore which are extant in the great world. But thus I cannot much blame physicians, that they use commuch is evidently true, that of all substances which monly to intend some other art or practice, which nature hath produced, man's body is the most ex- they fancy more than their profession. For you tremely compounded. For we see herbs and plants shall have of them, antiquaries, poets, humanists, are nourished by earth and water ; beasts for the statesmen, merchants, divines, and in every of these most part by herbs and fruits; man by the flesh of better seen than in their profession; and no doubt, beasts, birds, fishes, herbs, grains, fruits, water, and upon this ground, that they find that mediocrity and the manifold alterations, dressings, and preparations excellency in their art maketh no difference in proof these several bodies, before they come to be his fit or reputation towards their fortune ; for the food and aliment. Add hereunto, that beasts have weakness of patients, and sweetness of life, and a more simple order of life, and less change of affec- nature of hope, maketh men depend on physicians tions to work upon their bodies; whereas man, in with all their defects. But, nevertheless, these his mansion, sleep, exercise, passions, hath infinite things, which we have spoken of, are courses bevariations ; and it cannot be denied, but that the gotten between a little occasion, and a great deal of body of man of all other things is of the most com- sloth and default; for if we will excite and awake pounded mass. The soul on the other side is the our observation, we shall see, in familiar instances, simplest of substances, as is well expressed; what a predominant faculty the subtilty of spirit hath
over the variety of matter or form: nothing more - Purumque reliquit
variable than faces and countenances, yet men can Æthereum sensum, atque auraï simplicis ignem.”
bear in memory the infinite distinctions of them; So that it is no marvel though the soul so placed nay, a painter with a few shells of colours, and the enjoy no rest, if that principle be true, that "Motus benefit of his eye, and habit of his imagination, can rerum est rapidus extra locum, placidus in loco." imitate them all that ever have been, are, or may But to the purpose : this variable composition of be, if they were brought before him. Nothing man's body hath made it an instrument easy to dis more variable than voices, yet men can likewise temper, and therefore the poets did well to conjoin discern them personally; nay, you shall have a music and medicine in Apollo, because the office of buffoon, or pantomimus, will express as many as he medicine is but to tune this curious harp of man's pleaseth. Nothing more variable than the differing body, and to reduce it to harmony. So then the sounds of words, yet men have found the way to subject being so variable, hath made the art by con reduce them to a few simple letters. So that it is sequence more conjectural; and the art being con not the insufficiency or incapacity of man's mind, jectural, hath made so much the more place to be but it is the remote standing or placing thereof, that left for imposture. For almost all other arts and breedeth these mazes and incomprehensions: for as sciences are judged by acts or master-pieces, as I the sense afar off is full of mistaking, but is exact may term them, and not by the successes and events. at hand, so is it of the understanding; the remedy The lawyer is judged by the virtue of his pleading, whereof is not to quicken or strengthen the organ, and not by the issue of the cause. The master of but to go nearer to the object; and therefore there the ship is judged by the directing his course aright, is no doubt, but if the physicians will learn and use and not by the fortune of the voyage. But the the true approaches and avenues of nature, they physician, and perhaps the politician, hath no par- may assume as much as the poet saith : ticular acts demonstrative of his ability, but is judged most by the event; which is ever but as it is taken:
“Et quoniam variant morbi, variabimus artes:
Mille mali species, mille salutis erunt.” for who can tell, if a patient die or recover, or if a state be preserved or ruined, whether it be art or Which that they should do, the nobleness of their accident? And therefore many times the impostor art doth deserve, well shadowed by the poets, in is prized, and the man of virtue taxed. Nay, we that they made Æsculapius to be the son of the Sun, see the weakness and credulity of men is such, as the one being the fountain of life, the other as the they will often prefer a mountebank or witch before second stream ; but infinitely more honoured by the a learned physician. And therefore the poets were example of our Saviour, who made the body of man clear-sighted in discerning this extreme folly, when the object of his miracles, as the soul was the obthey made Æsculapius and Circe brother and sister, ject of his doctrine. For we read not that ever he both children of the sun, as in the verses, En. vii. 772. vouchsafed to do any miracle about honour or money,
except that one for giving tribute to Cæsar, but “ Ipse repertorem medicinæ talis et artis Fulmine Phæbigenam Stygias detrusit ad undas :"
only about the preserving, sustaining, and healing
the body of man. And again, Æn. vii. 11.
Medicine is a science which hath been, as we
have said, more professed than laboured, and yet and receptacles the humours do find in the parts, more laboured than advanced; the labour having with the differing kind of the humour so lodged been, in my judgment, rather in circle than in pro- and received. And as for the footsteps of diseases, gression. For I find much iteration, but small ad- and their devastations of the inward parts, imposthudition. , It considereth the causes of diseases, with mations, exulcerations, discontinuations, putrefacthe occasions or impulsions; the diseases themselves, tions, consumptions, contractions, extensions, conwith the accidents; and the cures, with the preser- vulsions, dislocations, obstructions, repletions, togevations. The deficiencies which I think good to ther with all preternatural substances, as stones, carnote, being a few of many, and those such as are of nosities, excrescences, worms, and the like ; they a more open and manifest nature, I will enumerate ought to have been exactly observed by multitude and not place.
of anatomies, and the contribution of men's several The first is the discontinuance of the experiencés, and carefully set down, both historiNarrationes ancient and serious diligence of Hippo-cally, according to the appearances, and artificially, medicinales.
crates, which used to set down a narra with a reference to the diseases and symptoms which tive of the special cases of his patients, and how resulted from them, in case where the anatomy is they proceeded, and how they were judged by re of a defunct patient : whereas now, upon opening of covery or death. Therefore having an example bodies, they are passed over slightly and in silence.) proper in the father of the art, I shall not need to In the inquiry of diseases they do
Inquisitio allege an example foreign, of the wisdom of the abandon the cures of many, some as in ulterior de lawyers who are careful to report new cases and de- their nature incurable, and others as morbis insacisions for the direction of future judgments. This past the period of cure; so that Sylla continuance of Medicinal History I find deficient, and the triumvirs never proscribed so many men to which I understand neither to be so infinite as to die, as they do by their ignorant edicts, whereof extend to every common case, nor so reserved, as numbers do escape with less difficulty, than they to admit none but wonders; for many things are did in the Roman proscriptions. Therefore I will new in the manner, which are not new in the kind ; not doubt to note as a deficience, that they inquire and if men will intend to observe, they shall find not the perfect cures of many diseases, or extremimuch worthy to observe.
ties of diseases, but pronouncing them incurable, do In the inquiry which is made by enact a law of neglect, and exempt ignorance from Anatemia comparata.
anatomy, I find much deficience: for discredit.
they inquire of the parts, and their sub Nay farther, I esteem it the office of De euthanasia stances, figures, and collocations ; but they inquire a physician not only to restore health,
exteriore. not of the diversities of the parts, the secrecies of but to mitigate pain and dolors, and not only the passages, and the seats or nestlings of the hu- when such mitigation may conduce to recovery, mours, nor much of the footsteps and impressions but when it may serve to make a fair and easy of diseases; the reason of which omission I suppose passage : for it is no small felicity which Augusto be, because the first inquiry may be satisfied in tus Cæsar was wont to wish to himself, that same the view of one or a few anatomies; but the latter, euthanasia ; and which was specially noted in being comparative and casual, must arise from the the death of Antoninus Pius, whose death was after view of many. And as to the diversity of parts, the fashion and semblance of a kindly and pleasant there is no doubt but the facture or framing of the sleep. So it is written of Epicurus, that after his inward parts is as full of difference as the outward, disease was judged desperate, he drowned his stoand in that is the cause continent of many diseases, mach and senses with a large draught and ingurwhich not being observed, they quarrel many times gitation of wine ; whereupon the epigram was made, with the humours, which are not in fault, the fault “ Hinc Stygias ebrius hausit aquas:" he was not being in the very frame and mechanic of the part, sober enough to taste any bitterness of the Stygian which cannot be removed by medicine alterative, but water. But the physicians, contrariwise, do make must be accommodated and palliated by diets and a kind of a scruple and religion to stay with the medicines familiar. And for the passages and pores, patient after the disease is deplored; whereas, in it is true, which was anciently noted, that the more my judgment, they ought both to inquire the skill, subtile of them appear not in anatomies, because and to give the attendances for the facilitating and they are shut and latent in dead bodies, though they assuaging of the pains and agonies of death. be open and manifest in life : which being supposed, In the consideration of the cures of
Medicina though the inhumanity of anatomia vivorum was by diseases, I find a deficience in the experimentaCelsus justly reproved; yet in regard of the great receipts of propriety, respecting the les. use of this observation, the inquiry needed not by particular cures of diseases; for the physicians him so slightly to have been relinquished altogether, have frustrated the fruit of tradition and experience or referred to the casual practices of surgery, but by their magistralities, in adding, and taking out, might have been well diverted upon dissection of and changing quid pro quo, in their receipts, at beasts alive, which, notwithstanding the dissimili- their pleasures, commanding so over the meditude of their parts, may sufficiently satisfy this in- cine, as the medicine cannot command over the disquiry. And for the humours, they are commonly ease ; for except it be treacle, and mithridatum, and passed over in anatomies as purgaments, whereas it of late diascordium, and a few more, they tie themis most necessary to observe, what cavities, nests, selves to no receipts severely and religiously : for
as to the confections of sale which are in the shops, For Cosmetic, it hath parts civil, and parts effemithey are for readiness, and not for propriety ; for nate: for cleanness of body was ever esteemed to they are upon general intentions of purging, open- proceed from a due reverence to God, to society, and ing, comforting, altering, and not much appropriated to ourselves. As for artificial decoration, it is well to particular diseases; and this is the cause why worthy of the deficiencies which it hath ; being neiempirics and old women are more happy many ther fine enough to deceive, nor handsome to use, times in their cures than learned physicians, because nor wholesome to please. they are more religious in holding their medicines. For Athletic, I take the subject of it largely, that Therefore here is the deficience which I find, that is to say, for any point of ability, whereunto the physicians have not, partly out of their own prac- body of man may be brought, whether it be of actitice, partly out of the constant probations reported vity, or of patience; whereof activity hath two parts, in books, and partly out of the traditions of strength and swiftness : and patience likewise hath empirics, set down and delivered over certain ex two parts, hardness against wants and extremities, perimental medicines for the cure of particular dis- and endurance of pain and torment, whereof we see eases, besides their own conjectural and magistral the practices in tumblers, in savages, and in those descriptions. For as they were the men of the best that suffer punishment: nay, if there be any other composition in the state of Rome, which either faculty which falls not within any of the former being consuls inclined to the people, or being tri- divisions, as in those that dive, that obtain a strange bunes inclined to the senate; so in the matter we power of containing respiration, and the like, I refer now handle, they be the best physicians, which it to this part. Of these things the practices are being learned, incline to the traditions of experi- known, but the philosophy that concerneth them is ence, or being empirics, incline to the methods of not much inquired; the rather, I think, because learning.
they are supposed to be obtained, either by an aptImitatio na
In preparation of medicines, I do find ness of nature, which cannot be taught, or only by turæ in bal. strange, especially, considering how continual custom, which is soon prescribed; which neis, et aquis medicinali. mineral medicines have been extolled, though it be not true, yet I forbear to note any de
and that they are safer for the outward ficiences, for the Olympian games are down long than inward parts, that no man hath sought since, and the mediocrity of these things is for use; to make an imitation by art of natural baths, and as for the excellency of them, it serveth for the medicinable fountains: which nevertheless are con most part but for mercenary ostentation. fessed to receive their virtues from minerals; For arts of Pleasure sensual, the chief deficience and not so only, but discerned and distinguished in them is of laws to repress them. For as it hath from what particular mineral they receive tincture, been well observed, that the arts which flourish in as sulphur, vitriol, steel, or the like ; which nature, times while virtue is in growth, are military, and if it may be reduced to compositions of art, both the while virtue is in state, are liberal, and while virvariety of them will be increased, and the temper of tue is in declination, are voluptuary ; so I doubt, them will be more commanded.
that this age of the world is somewhat upon the But lest I grow to be more particu- descent of the wheel. With arts voluptuary I couple dicinale, sive lar than is agreeable, either to my in- practices jocular ; for the deceiving of the senses de vicibus tention or to proportion; I will conclude is one of the pleasures of the senses.
As for games medicinarum.
this part with the note of one deficience of recreation, I hold them to belong to civil life and more, which seemeth to me of greatest consequence; education. And thus much of that particular human which is, that the prescripts in use are too compen- philosophy which concerns the body, which is but dious to attain their end; for to my understanding, the tabernacle of the mind. it is a vain and flattering opinion to think any medicine can be so sovereign, or so happy, as that the For Human Knowledge, which concerns the receipt or use of it can work any great effect upon Mind, it hath two parts, the one that inquireth of the body of man: it were a strange speech, which the substance or nature of the soul or mind; the spoken, or spoken oft, should reclaim a man from a other that inquireth of the faculties or functions vice to which he were by nature subject; it is thereof. order, pursuit, sequence, and interchange of appli Unto the first of these, the considerations of the cation, which is mighty in nature ; which although original of the soul, whether it be native or advenit require more exact knowledge in prescribing, and tive, and how far it is exempted from laws of matmore precise obedience in observing, yet is recom ter, and of the immortality thereof, and many other pensed with the magnitude of effects. And although points, do appertain ; which have been not more a man would think by the daily visitations of the laboriously inquired than variously reported; so as physicians, that there were a pursuance in the cure; the travail therein taken seemeth to have been yet let a man look into their prescripts and minis rather in a maze than in a way. But although I am trations, and he shall find them but inconstancies, of opinion, that this knowledge may be more really and every day's devices, without any settled provi- and soundly inquired even in nature than it hath dence or project; not that every scrupulous or been; yet I hold, that in the end it must be bounded superstitious prescript is effectual, no more than by religion, or else it will be subject to deceit and every strait way is the way to heaven, but the truth delusion : for as the substance of the soul in the of the direction must precede severity of observance. creation was not extracted out of the mass of heaven
and earth, by the benediction of a producat, but was racle-working faith ; others, that draw nearer to immediately inspired from God; so it is not possible probability, calling to their view the secret passages that it should be, otherwise than by accident, sub- of things, and especially of the contagion that passject to the laws of heaven and earth, which are the eth from body to body, do conceive it should likesubject of philosophy; and therefore the true know. wise be agreeable to nature, that there should be ledge of the nature and state of the soul, must come some transmissions and operations from spirit to by the same inspiration that gave the substance. spirit without the mediation of the senses; whence Unto this part of knowledge touching the soul there the conceits have grown, now almost made civil, of be two appendixes, which, as they have been hand the mastering spirit, and the force of confidence, led, have rather vapoured forth fables than kindled and the like. Incident unto this is the inquiry how truth, divination, and fascination.
to raise and fortify the imagination; for if the imaDivination hath been anciently and fitly divided gination fortified have power, then it is material to into artificial and natural; whereof artificial is, know how to fortify and exalt it. And herein comes when the mind maketh a prediction by argument, in crookedly and dangerously, a palliation of a great concluding upon signs and tokens: natural is, when part of ceremonial magic. For it may be pretended, the mind hath a presentation by an internal power, that ceremonies, characters, and charms, do work, without the inducement of a sign. Artificial is of not by any tacit or sacramental contract with evil two sorts, either when the argument is coupled with spirits, but serve only to strengthen the imagination a derivation of canses, which is rational; or when of him that useth it; as images are said by the it is only grounded upon a coincidence of the effect, Roman church to fix the cogitations, and raise the which is experimental; whereof the latter for the devotions of them that pray before them. But for most part is superstitious ; such as were the heathen mine own judgment, if it be admitted that imaginaobservations upon the inspection of sacrifices, the tion hath power, and that ceremonies fortify imaflights of birds, the swarming of bees, and such as gination, and that they be used sincerely and intenwas the Chaldean astrology, and the like. For tionally for that purpose ; yet I should hold them artificial divination, the several kinds thereof are unlawful, as opposing to that first edict which God distributed amongst particular knowledges. The gave unto man,
“ In sudore vultûs comedes panem astronomer hath his predictions, as of conjunctions, tuum." For they propound those noble effects, aspects, eclipses, and the like. The physician hath which God hath set forth unto man to be bought at his predictions, of death, of recovery, of the acci- the price of labour, to be attained by a few easy and dents and issues of diseases. The politician hath slothful observances. Deficiencies in these knowhis predictions ; " O urbem venalem, et cito peritu- ledges I will report none, other than the general ram, si emptorem invenerit!” which stayed not deficience, that it is not known how much of them long to be performed in Sylla first, and after in is verity, and how much vanity. Cæsar; so as these predictions are now impertinent, The knowledge which respecteth the faculties of and to be referred over. But the divination which the mind of man, is of two kinds: the one respectspringeth from the internal nature of the soul, is ing his understanding and reason, and the other his that which we now speak of, which hath been made will, appetite, and affection; whereof the former to be of two sorts, primitive, and by influxion. produceth direction or decree, the latter action or Primitive is grounded upon the supposition, that the execution. It is true that the imagination is an mind, when it is withdrawn and collected into itself, agent or nuncius in both provinces, both the judiand not diffused into the organs of the body, hath cial and the ministerial. For sense sendeth over to some extent and latitude of prenotion, which therefore imagination before reason have judged, and reason appeareth most in sleep, in ecstasies, and near death, sendeth over to imagination before the decree can and more rarely in waking apprehensions; and is be acted: for imagination ever precedeth voluntary induced and furthered by those abstinences and motion, saving that this Janus of imagination hath observances which make the mind most to consist differing faces; for the face towards reason hath in itself. By influxion, is grounded upon the con the print of truth, but the face towards action hath ceit that the mind, as a mirror or glass, should take the print of good, which nevertheless are faces, illumination from the foreknowledge of God and
“Quales decet esse sororum.” spirits; unto which the same regiment doth likewise conduce. For the retiring of the mind within Neither is the imagination simply and only a mesitself, is the state which is most susceptible of divine senger, but is invested with, or at leastwise usurpeth influxions, save that it is accompanied in this case no small authority in itself, besides the duty of the with a fervency and elevation, which the ancients message. For it was well said by Aristotle, " That noted by fury, and not with a repose and quiet, as the mind hath over the body that commandment, it is in the other.
which the lord hath over a bondman; but that Fascination is the power and act of imagination reason hath over the imagination that commandmore intensive upon other bodies than the body of ment which a magistrate hath over a free citizen," the imaginant: for of that we speak in the proper who may come also to rule in his turn. For we see place; wherein the school of Paracelsus, and the that, in matters of faith and religion, we raise our disciples of pretended natural magic, have been so imagination above our reason, which is the cause intemperate, as they have exalted the power of the why religion sought ever access to the mind by imagination to be much one with the power of mi- similitudes, types, parables, visions, dreams. And
again, in all persuasions, that are wrought by elo as if in the making of an inventory, touching the quence, and other impressions of like nature, which estate of a defunct, it should be set down, That there do paint and disguise the true appearance of things, is no ready money. For as money will fetch all the chief recommendation unto reason is from the other commodities, so this knowledge is that which imagination. Nevertheless, because I find not any should purchase all the rest. And like as the Westscience that doth properly or fitly pertain to the Indies had never been discovered, if the use of the imagination, I see no cause to alter the former di- mariner's needle had not been first discovered, vision. For as for poesy, it is rather pleasure, or though the one be vast regions, and the other a play of imagination, than a work or duty thereof. small motion; so it cannot be found strange, if sciAnd if it be a work, we speak not now of such parts ences be no further discovered, if the art itself of of learning as the imagination produceth, but of invention and discovery hath been passed over. such sciences as handle and consider of the imagi That this part of knowledge is wanting, to my nation; no more than we shall speak now of such judgment, standeth plainly confessed: for first, logic knowledges as reason produceth, for that extendeth doth not pretend to invent sciences, or the axioms to all philosophy, but of such knowledges as do of sciences, but passeth it over with a cuique in sua handle and inquire of the faculty of reason; so as arte credendum. And Celsus asknowledgeth it poesy had its true place. As for the power of the gravely, speaking of the empirical and dogmatical imagination in nature, and the manner of fortifying sects of physicians, “ That medicines and cures were the same, we have mentioned it in the doctrine first found out, and then after the reasons and causes “ De anima,” whereunto most fitly it belongeth: were discoursed ; and not the causes first found out, and lastly, for imaginative or insinuative reason, and by light from them the medicines and cures which is the subject of rhetoric, we think it best to discovered.” And Plato, in his Theætetus, noteth refer it to the arts of reason. So therefore we con well, “ That particulars are infinite, and the higher tent ourselves with the former division, that Human generalities give no sufficient direction; and that Philosophy, which respecteth the faculties of the the pith of all sciences, which maketh the artsman mind of man, hath two parts, Rational and Moral. differ from the inexpert, is in the middle proposi.
The part of Human Philosophy which is Rational, tions, which in every particular knowledge are taken is of all knowledges, to the most wits, the least de from tradition and experience.” And therefore we lightful, and seemeth but a net of subtilty and spi see, that they which discourse of the inventions and nosity : for as it was truly said, that knowledge is originals of things, refer them rather to chance than "pabulum animi ;” so in the nature of men's appe- to art, and rather to beasts, birds, fishes, serpents, tite to this food, most men are of the taste and stoc than to men. mach of the Israelites in the desert, that would fain have returned “ad ollas carnium,” and were weary
“Dictamnum genetrix Cretæa carpit ab Ida,
Puberibus caulem foliis, et flore comantem of manna ; which though it were celestial, yet Purpureo: non illa feris incognita capris, seemed less nutritive and comfortable. So generally
Gramina cum tergo volucres hæsere sagittæ." men taste well knowledges that are drenched in flesh So that it was no marvel, the manner of antiquity and blood, civil history, morality, policy, about the being to consecrate inventors, that the Ægyptians which men's affections, praises, fortunes, do turn and had so few human idols in their temples, but almost are conversant; but this same “lumen siccum" doth all brute ; parch and offend most men's watery and soft natures. But to speak truly of things as they are in worth,
“Omnigenumque Deum monstra, et latrator Anubis,
Contra Neptunum, et Venerem, contraque Minervam,” etc. “ rational knowledges” are the keys of all other arts; for as Aristotle saith aptly and elegantly, And if you like better the tradition of the Grecians, “ That the hand is the instrument of instruments, and ascribe the first inventions to men, yet you will and the mind is the form of forms ;” so these be rather believe that Prometheus first struck the flints, truly said to be the art of arts ; neither do they and marvelled at the spark, than that when he first only direct, but likewise confirm and strengthen : struck the flin he expected the spark; and therefore even as the habit of shooting doth not only enable we see the West-Indian Prometheus had no intellito shoot a nearer shoot, but also to draw a stronger gence with the European, because of the rareness bow.
with them of flint, that gave the first occasion: so The arts intellectual are four in number, divided as it should seem, that hitherto men are rather beaccording to the ends whereunto they are referred; holden to a wild goat for surgery, or to a nightingale for man's labour is to invent that which is sought for music, or to the ibis for some part of physic, or or propounded ; or to judge that which is invented ; to the potlid that flew open for artillery, or generally or to retain that which is judged; or to deliver over to chance, or any thing else, than to logic, for the that which is retained. So as the arts must be four; invention of arts and sciences. Neither is the form art of inquiry or invention; art of examination or of invention which Virgil describeth much other. judgment; art of custody or memory; and art of elocution or tradition.
“Ut varias usus meditando extunderet artes
Paulatim.” Invention is of two kinds, much differing ; the one of arts and sciences, and the other of speech and For if you observe the words well, it is no other arguments. The former of these I do report defi- method than that which brute beasts are capable of cient; which seemeth to me to be such a deficience, and do put in use: which is a perpetual intending