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he will keep himself within the strength of his ages hence, how by these two sea-journeys we have opinion, and the better maintain the rest. But this braved him, and objected him to scorn: so that no place advertiseth me not to handle the matter in a blood can be so frozen or mortified, but must needs common place. I will not deliver unto you that take flames of revenge upon so mighty a disgrace. which, upon a probatum est, hath wrought upon So as this concurrence of occurrents, all since our myself, knowing your affections to be like mine own. last assembly, some to deliver and free our enemies, There hath fallen out, since the last parliament, some to advance and bring him on his way, some to four accidents or occurrents of state; things published tempt and allure him, some to spur on and provoke and known to you all; by every one whereof it him, cannot but threaten an increase of our peril in seemeth to me, in my vulgar understanding, that great proportion. the danger of this realm is increased: which I Lastly, Mr. Speaker, I will but reduce to the mespeak not by way of apprehending fear, for I know mory of this house one other argument, for ample I speak to English courages; but by way of pressing and large providing and supplying treasure : and provision : for I do find, Mr. Speaker, that when this it is : kingdoms and states are entered into terms and I see men do with great alacrity and spirit proresolutions of hostility one against the other; yet ceed when they have obtained a course they long they are many times restrained from their attempts wished for and were restrained from. Myself can by four impediments :

remember both in this honourable assembly, and in The first is by this same aliud agere: when they all other places of this realm, how forward and affechave their hands full of other matters, which they tionate men were to have an invasive war. Then have embraced, and serveth for a diversion of their we would say, a defensive war was like eating and hostile purposes.

consuming interest, and needs we would be advenThe next is, when they want the commodity or turers and assailants; “ Habes quod tota mente pe. opportunity of some places of near approach. tisti:” shall we not now make it good ? especially

The third, when they have conceived an apprehen- when we have tasted so prosperous fruit of our sion of the difficulty and churlishness of the enter- desires. prise, and that it is not prepared to their hand. The first of these expeditions invasive was

And the fourth is, when a state, through the age achieved with great felicity, ravished a strong and of the monarch, groweth heavy and indisposed to famous port in the lap and bosom of their high actions of great peril and motion : and this dull hu- countries ; brought them to such despair as they mour is not sharpened nor inflamed by any provoca- fired themselves and their Indian fleet in sacrifice, tions or scorns. Now if it please you to examine, as a good odour and incense unto God for the great whether by removing the impediments, in these four and barbarous cruelties which they have committed kinds, the danger be not grown so many degrees upon the poor Indians, whither that fleet was sailnearer us by accidents, as I said, fresh, and all dated ing ; disordered their reckonings so, as the next since the last parliament.

news we heard of was nothing but protesting of bills Soon after the last parliament, you may be pleased and breaking credit. to remember how the French king revolted from his The second journey was with notable resolution religion ; whereby every man of common understand-borne up against weather and all difficulties : and ing may infer, that the quarrel between France and besides the success in amusing him and putting him Spain is more reconcilable, and a greater inclination to infinite charge, sure I am it was like a Tartar's of affairs to a peace than before : which supposed, or Parthian's bow, which shooteth backward, and it followeth, Spain shall be more free to intend his had a most strong and violent effect and operation malice against this realm.

both in France and Flanders ; so that our neighSince the last parliament, it is also notorious in bours and confederates have reaped the harvest of every man's knowledge and remembrance, that the it; and while the life-blood of Spain went inward Spaniards have possessed themselves of that avenue to the heart, the outward limbs and members treniand place of approach for England, which was never bled, and could not resist. And lastly, we have a in the hands of any king of Spain before ; and that perfect account of all the noble and good blood that is Calais; which in true reason and consideration of was carried forth, and of all our sea-walls and good estate of what value or service it is, I know not; shipping, without mortality of persons, wreck of but in common understanding, it is a knocking at vessels, or any manner of diminution. And these our doors.

have been the happy effects of our so long and so Since the last parliament also that ulcer of Ireland, much desired invasive war. which indeed brake forth before, hath run on and To conclude, Mr. Speaker, therefore, I doubt not raged more : which cannot but be a great attractive but every man will consent that our gift must bear to the ambition of the council of Spain, who by for these two marks and badges: the one, of the danger mer experience know of how tough a complexion this of the realm by so great a proportion, since the last realm of England is to be assailed ; and therefore, parliament, increased; the other, of the satisfaction as rheums and fluxes of humours, is like to resort to we receive in having obtained our so earnest and that part which is weak and distempered.

ardent desire of an invasive war. And lastly, it is famous now, and so will be many

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Having great cause at this time, to be moved with in the conceit of any fabulous narration or tradition, diversity of affections, we do in first place condole that this whole island of Great Britain was ever with all our loving subjects of England, for the loss united under one sovereign prince before this day. of their so virtuous and excellent queen; being a Which as we cannot but take as a singular honour prince that we always found a dear sister, yea a and favour of God unto ourselves ; so we may conmother to ourself in many her actions and advices.ceive good hope that the kingdoms of christendom A prince, whom we hold and behold as an excellent standing distributed and counterpoised, as by this pattern and example to imitate in many her royal last union they now are, it will be a foundation of virtues and parts of government; and a prince whose the universal peace of all christian princes : and days we could have wished to have been prolonged; that now the strife that shall remain between them, we reporting ourselves not only to the testimony of shall be but an emulation who shall govern best, our royal heart, but to the judgment of all the and most to the weal and good of his people. world, whether there ever appeared in us any am Another great cause of our just rejoicing is, the bitious or impatient desire to prevent God's appointed assured hope that we conceive, that whereas our time. Neither are we so partial to our own honour, kingdom of Ireland hath been so long time torn and but that we do in great part ascribe this our most afflicted with the miseries of wars, the making and peaceable and quiet entrance and coming to these prosecuting of which wars hath cost such an infinite our crowns, next under the blessing of Almighty God, deal of blood and treasure of our realm of England and our undoubted right, to the fruit of her Majesty's to be spilt and consumed thereupon; we shall be peaceable and quiet government, accustoming the able, through God's favour and assistance, to put a people to all loyalty and obedience. As for that which speedy and an honourable end to those wars. And concerneth ourhelves, we would have all our loving it is our princely design and full purpose and resosubjects know, that we do not take so much glad- lution, not only to reduce that nation from their ness and contentment in the devolving of these king. rebellion and revolt, but also to reclaim them from doms unto our royal person, for any addition or their barbarous manners to justice and the fear of increase of glory, power, or riches, as in this, that God; and to populate, plant, and make civil all the it is so manifest an evidence unto us, especially provinces in that kingdom : which also being an the manner of it considered, that we stand, though action that not any of our noble progenitors, kings unworthy, in God's favour, who hath put more of England, hath ever had the happiness thoroughly means into our hands to reward our friends and ser to prosecute and accomplish, we take so much to vants, and to pardon and obliterate injuries, and to heart, as we are persuaded it is one of the chief comfort and relieve the hearts and estates of our causes, for the which God hath brought us to the people and loving subjects, and chiefly to advance | imperial crown of these kingdoms. the holy religion and church of Almighty God, and Further, we cannot but take great comfort in the to deserve well of the christian commonwealth. state and correspondence which we now stand in of And more especially we cannot but gratulate and peace and unity with all christian princes, and otherrejoice in this one point, that it hath pleased God wise, of quietness and obedience of our own people to make us the instrument, and, as it were, the cor at home : whereby we shall not need to expose that ner-stone, to unite these two mighty and warlike na our kingdom of England to any quarrel or war, but tions of England and Scotland into one kingdom. rather have occasion to preserve them in peace and For although these two nations are situate upon the tranquillity, and openness of trade with all foreign continent of one island, and are undivided either by nations. seas or mountains, or by diversity of language; and Lastly and principally, we cannot but take unalthough our neighbour kingdoms of Spain and speakable comfort in the great and wonderful conFrance have already had the happiness to be re sent and unity, joy and alacrity, wherewith our united in the several members of those kingdoms loving subjects of our kingdom of England have reformerly disjoined: yet in this island it appeareth ceived and acknowledged us their natural and lawful not in the records of any true history, no nor scarcely | king and governor, according to our most clear and

undoubted right, in so quiet and settled manner, as, the city of London, the chamber of that our king. if we had been long ago declared and established dom; assuring them, that we will be unto that city, successor, and had taken all men's oaths and ho- by all means of confirming and increasing their mages, greater and more perfect unity and readiness happy and wealthy estate, not only a just and gracould not have been. For considering with our cious sovereign lord and king, but a special and selves, that notwithstanding difference of religion, bountiful patron and benefactor. or any other faction, and notwithstanding our absence And we on our part, as well in remuneration of so far off, and notwithstanding the sparing and re all their loyal and loving affections, as in discharge served communicating of one another's minds; yet of our princely office, do promise and assure them, all our loving subjects met in one thought and voice, that as all manner of estates have concurred and without any the least disturbance or interruption, consented in their duty and zeal towards us, so it yea, hesitation or doubtfulness, or any show thereof; shall be our continual care and resolution to preserve we cannot but acknowledge it is a great work of and maintain every several estate in a happy and God, who hath an immediate and extraordinary flourishing condition, without confusion or overdirection in the disposing of kingdoms and flows of growing of any one to the prejudice, discontentment, people's hearts.

or discouragement of the rest: and generally in all Wherefore, after our most humble and devout estates we hope God will strengthen and assist us, thanks to Almighty God, by whom kings reign, not only to extirpate all gross and notorious abuses who hath established us king and governor of and corruptions, of simonies, briberies, extortions, these kingdoms; we return our hearty and affec- exactions, oppressions, vexations, burthensome pay. tionate thanks unto the lords spiritual and temporal, ments, and overcharges, and the like; but farther the knights and gentlemen, the cities and towns, to extend our princely care to the supply of the very and generally unto our commons, and all estates and neglects and omissions of any thing that may tend degrees of that our kingdom of England, for their to the good of our people. So that every place and so acceptable first-fruits of their obedience and service that is fit for the honour or good of the comloyalties offered and performed in our absence; monwealth shall be filled, and no man's virtue lest much commending the great wisdom, courage, and idle, unemployed, or unrewarded; and every good watchfulness used by the peers of that our kingdom, ordinance and constitution, for the amendment of according to the nobility of their bloods and line the estate and times, be revived and put in execution. ages, many of them mingled with the blood royal ; In the mean time, minding by God's leave, all delay and therefore in nature affectionate to their rightful set apart, to comfort and secure our loving subjects king; and likewise of the counsellors of the late in our kingdom of England by our personal presence queen, according to their gravity and oath, and the there, we require all our loving subjects joyfully to spirit of their good mistress, now a glorious saint in expect the same: and yet so, as we signify our will heaven, in carrying and ordering our affairs with and pleasure to be, that all such ceremonies and that fidelity, moderation, and consent, which in them preparations as shall be made and used to do us hath well appeared ; and also the great readiness, honour, or to express gratulation, be rather comely concord, and cheerfulness in the principal knights and orderly, than sumptuous and grious; and for and gentlemen of several counties, with the head the expressing of magnificence, that it be rather officers of great cities, corporations, and towns: and employed and bestowed upon the funeral of the late do take knowledge by name of the readiness and queen, to whose memory, we are of opinion, too good zeal of that our chiefest and most famous city, / much honour cannot be done or performed.





As it is a manifest token, or rather a substantial not only indissoluble, but also most comfortable and effect, of the wrath and indignation of God, when happy amongst the people. kingdoms are rent and divided, which have formerly We therefore in all humbleness acknowledge, been entire and united under one monarch and go that it is the great and blessed work of Almighty vernor; so, on the contrary part, when it shall God, that these two ancient and mighty realms of please the Almighty, by whom kings reign as his England and Scotland, which by nature have no true deputies and lieutenants, to enlarge his commissions but an imaginary separation, being both situate and of empire and sovereignty, and to commit those na- comprehended in one most famous and renowned tions to one king to govern, which he hath for- island of Great Britany, compassed by the ocean, merly committed to several kings, it is an evident without any mountains, seas, or other boundaries of argument of his great favour both upon king and nature, to make any partition, wall, or trench, beupon people : upon the king, inasmuch as he may tween them, and being also exempted from the first with comfort conceive that he is one of those servants curse of disunion, which was the confusion of to whom it was said, “ Thou hast been faithful in the tongues, and being people of a like constitution of less, I will make thee lord of more;” upon the people, mind and body, especially in warlike prowess and because the greatness of kingdoms and dominions, disposition; and yet nevertheless have in so many especially not being scattered, but adjacent and ages been disjoined under several kings and governcompact, doth ever bring with it greater security from ors, are now at the last by right inherent in the outward enemies, and greater freedom from inward commixture of our blood, united in our person and burdens, unto both which people under petty and generation ; wherein it hath pleased God to anoint weak estates are more exposed; which so happy fruit us with the oil of gladness and gratulation above of the union of kingdoms is chiefly to be understood, our progenitors, kings of either nation. Neither when such conjunction or augmentation is not wrought can we sufficiently contemplate and behold the pasby conquest and violence, or by pact and submis- sages, degrees, and insinuations, whereby it hath sion, but by the law of nature and hereditary descent. pleased the eternal God, to whom all his works are For in conquest it is commonly seen, although from the beginning known and present, to open and the bulk and quantity of territory be increased, yet prepare a way to this excellent work; having first the strength of kingdoms is diminished, as well by ordained that both nations should be knit in one the wasting of the forces of both parts in the con true and reformed religion, which is the perfectest flict, as by the evil coherence of the nation conquer- band of all unity and union; and secondly, that ing and conquered, the one being apt to be insolent, there should precede so long a peace continued beand the other discontent; and so both full of jea- tween the nations for so many years last past, lousies and discord. And where countries are an- whereby all seeds and sparks of ancient discord nexed only by act of estates and submissions, such have been laid asleep, and grown to an obliteration submissions are commonly grounded upon fear, and oblivion; and lastly, that ourselves, in the true which is no good author of continuance, besides the measure of our affections, should have so just cause quarrels and revolts which do ensue upon condi- to embrace both nations with equal and indifferent tional and articulate subjections : but when the lines love and inclination, inasmuch as our birth and the of two kingdoms do meet in the person of one passing of the first part of our age hath been in the monarch, as in a true point or perfect angle; and one nation, and our principal seat and mansion, and that from marriage, which is the first conjunction the passing of the latter part of our days, is like to in human society, there shall proceed one inheritor be in the other. Which our equal and upright in blood to several kingdoms, whereby they are holding of the balance between both nations, being actually united and incorporate under one head ; it the highest point of all others in our distributive is the work of God and nature, whereunto the works justice, we give the world to know, that we are conof force and policy cannot attain; and it is that stantly resolved to preserve inviolate against all which hath not in itself any manner of seeds of dis- emulations and partialities, not making any differcord or disunion, other than such as envy and ma ence at all between the subjects of either nation, in lignity shall sow, and which groundeth an union, I affection, honours, favours, gifts, employments, con

fidences, or the like; but only such as the true dis- | to have the advice and assent of our parliament continctions of the persons, being capable or not capable, cerning other points of the union, we were pleased fit or not fit, acquainted with affairs or not acquainted our said parliament should, amongst the rest, take with affairs, needing our princely bounty or not also the same into their consideration. But finding needing the same, approved to us by our experience by the grave opinion of our judges, who are the inor not approved, meriting or not meriting, and the terpreters of our laws, that, in case that alteration several degrees of these and the like conditions, of style, which seemed to us but verbal, should be shall in right reason tie us unto, without any manner established and enacted by parliament, it might inof regard to the country in itself; to the end that volve, by implication and consequence, not only a they may well perceive, that in our mind and appre more present alteration, but also a farther innovation hension they are all one and the same nation : and than we any ways intended ; or at least might be that our heart is truly placed in the centre of govern- subject to some colourable scruple of such a perilous ment, from whence all lines to the circumference construction : we rested well satisfied to respite the are equal and of one space and distance.

same, as to require it by act of parliament. But But for the further advancing and perfecting of being still resolved and fixed that it may conduce this work, we have taken into our princely care and towards this happy end of the better uniting of the cogitations, what it is that may appertain to our own nations, we have thought good by the advice of our imperial power, right, and authority: and what re council to take the same upon us by our proclamaquireth votes and assents of our parliaments or tion, being a course safe and free from any of the estates; and again, what may presently be done, perils or scruples aforesaid. And therefore we do and what must be left to farther time, that our pro- by these presents publish, proclaim, and assume to ceeding may be void of all inconvenience and in ourselves from henceforth, according to our undoubted formality; wherein by the example of Almighty right, the style and title of King of Great Britany, God, who is accustomed to begin all his great works France, and Ireland, and otherwise as followeth in and designments by alterations or impositions of our style formerly used. And we do hereby straitly names, as the fittest means to imprint in the hearts charge and command our chancellor, and all such as of people a character and expectation of that which have the custody of any of our seals; and all other is to follow; we have thought good to withdraw and our officers and subjects whatsoever, to whom it may discontinue the divided names of England and Scot- in any ways appertain, that from henceforth in all land out of our regal style and title, and to use in commissions, patents, writs, processes, grants, records, place of them the common and contracted name of instruments, impressions, sermons, and all other Great Britany: not upon any vain-glory, whereof, writings and speeches whatsoever, wherein our style we persuade ourselves, our actions do sufficiently is used to be set forth or recited, that our said style, free us in the judgment of all the world ; and if any as is before by these presents declared and prescribed, such humour should reign in us, it were better be only used, and no other. And because we do but satisfied by length of style and enumeration of king- now declare that which in truth was before, our will doms : but only as a fit signification of that which and pleasure is, that in the computation of our reign, is already done, and a significant prefiguration of as to all writings or instruments hereafter to be that which we farther intend. For as in giving made, the same computation be taken and made, names to natural persons, it is used to impose them as if we had taken upon us the style aforesaid imin infancy, and not to stay till fulness of growth; so mediately after the decease of our late dear sister. it seemed to us not unseasonable to bring in farther And we do notify to all our subjects, that if any use this name at the first, and to proceed to the person, of what degree or condition soever he be, more substantial points of the union after, as fast shall impugn our said style, or derogate and detract and as far as the common good of both the realms from the same by any arguments, speeches, words, should permit, especially considering the name of or otherwise ; we shall proceed against him, as Britany was no coined, or new-advised, or affected against an offender against our crown and dignity, name at pleasure, but the true and ancient name and a disturber of the quiet and peace of our kingwhich God and time hath imposed, extant, and re dom, according to the utmost severity of our laws in ceived in histories, in cards, and in ordinary speech that behalf. Nevertheless, our meaning is not, that and writing, where the whole island is meant to be where in any writ, pleading, or other record, writing, denominate; so as it is not accompanied with so instrument of speech, it hath been used for mention much as any strangeness in common speech. And to be made of England or the realm of England, or although we never doubted, neither ever heard that any other word or words derived from the same, any other presumed to doubt, but that the form and and not of our whole and entire style and title ; that tenor of our regal style and title, and the delineation therein any alteration at all be used by pretext of of the same, did only and wholly of mere right ap- this our proclamation, which we intend to take place pertain to our supreme and absolute prerogative to only where our whole style shall be recited, and not express the same in such words or sort, as seemed otherwise; and in the other cases the ancient form good to our royal pleasure : yet because we were to be used and observed.

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